Plant Structure and Function - Mediapolis Schools

Plant Structure and Function - Mediapolis Schools

Plant Structure and Function Stem Support leaves Transport materials Provide storage

Types of Stems Types of Stems Woody or nonwoody (herbaceous) Stolons Grow along soil surface Produce new plants

Tuber Store energy Cacti

Green fleshy stems Store water and photosynthesis Modified for protection Stem Structures Did you know that a sign nailed 2m (7ft) high

on a tree will remain at that height, even though the tree may grow much taller? Stem Structure Grow in length only at tip Apical meristems Primary tissues

Lateral meristems Secondary growth (diameter) Stem Features Node Leaf attaches to stem

Internode Space between nodes Lateral bud Bud Stem or leaf

Apical meristem enclosed by bud scales Winter Identification of Trees Primary Growth in Stems Apical meristem Dermal, protect plant

Ground, cortex and pith Pith located at center of stem Vascular tissue, occurs in bundles Xylem (inside) and phloem (outside) Monocots v.b. scattered Dicots v.b. rings

Monocot and Dicot Vascular Bundles Secondary Growth in Stems Stems increase in thickness Cell division in vascular cambium Dicot and gymnosperms

Stem forms b/w xylem and phloem in vascular bundle Vascular cambium produces 20 xylem (inside) and phloem (outside) 20 xylem represents the wood of the plant New cambium cells increases stems diameter

Stem Growth pg581 http://academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio111/stems.htm Older xylem stop producing water

Darken wood called heartwood Will increase in diameter Lighter colored wood called sapwood Stays about the same Phloem near outside of stem

Bark Cork, cork cambium, and phloem Protective layer Cork cells die at maturaty Cannot elongate and will rupture as stem increases in diameter

Bark pattern (maples and oaks) Cross Section of Woody Stem Annual Rings Springwood Water plentiful

Vas. Cambium form new xylem cells Wide and thin cell walls Summerwood Water scarce Vas. Cambium forms smaller thicker cells

Difference causes a change in appearance One ring each year used to determine age Stem Functions Transport nutrients and water Store these nutrients Support leaves

Translocation Movement of carbohydrates through a plant Source to sink Source (storage) Sink (usage)

Pressure flow hypothesis Actively transported into sieve tubes Water transported by osmosis Pressure Flow Hypothesis Transport of Water

Water and mineral nutrients occur in xylem Water is constantly evaporating from plant Stomata Transpiration Cohesion tension theory Water is pulled up the stem xylem by the strong

attraction of water molecules to each other and the wall of the xylem Cohesion and adhesion properties Tug n pull, from roots up the xylem Cohesion Tension Theory

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