PLANTS - deercreekhs.org

PLANTS - deercreekhs.org

PLANTS 1/30/07 L 1 Hyphae basic structural unit Mycelium mass of tangled hyphae

Objectives Know the difference between mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms Know the difference between the 3 types of plant cells Know the 2 types of vascular tissue Know the 2 types of meristems in plants 1/30/07 L

3 PLANTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 1/30/07 L Multicellular (many celled) Eukaryotic (nucleus)

Autotrophic (make their own food) contain chlorophyll in chloroplast Cell walls contain cellulose Sexual and Asexual reproduction 4 REVIEW 1/30/07 L C6 H 12O6

Glucose 5 NON-VASCULAR Plants Seedless 1. Example Moss have No tubes or vessels to carry water etc.

1/30/07 L 6 2. Must live in wet places water passes through cells by osmosis. 1/30/07 L

7 3. No true roots have rhizoids anchor plant 4. Antheridium sperm producing organ 5. Archegonium egg producing organ 1/30/07 L

8 VASCULAR PLANTS 1.Examples are Ferns, Pines, Flowering plants 1/30/07 L

9 2. Have vascular tissue similar to veins 3. Xylem moves water and minerals up (dead cells) 4. Phloem moves food (sugars)

up/down (live cells) March 2014 MS 10 Vascular Tissue 1/30/07 L 11

VASCULAR PLANTS WITH SEEDS 1. 1/30/07 L Produce seeds in cones or flowers 12 2. Have true roots, stems, leaves

3. Fertilization pollen enters ovary and combines with ovule (egg) 1/30/07 L 13 4. Oldest Plant Alive Ginkgo biloba (Have seeds) 1/30/07 L

14 VASCULAR PLANTS WITHOUT SEEDS Ferns 2. No seeds 1. 1/30/07 L 15

FERNS a. Frond leaf b. Rhizomes underground stem 1/30/07 L 16 c. Sorus produces spores

1/30/07 L 17 d. Fiddleheads unfurling fern fronds 1/30/07 L 18 GYMNOSPERMS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pine trees, firs, evergreens Have cones (no flowers) Male cone produces pollen Female cone produces seed after pollination Literally means

male naked seed Female 1/30/07 L 19 GYMNOSPERMS 1/30/07 L

20 ANGIOSPERMS 1. 2. 3. 4. 1/30/07 L Flowering plants,

fruit trees Most abundant type of plants Seeds are contained in and protected by fruit Monocot or Dicot 21 MONOCOT 1. 1 cotelydon or

food packet for seed 2. Parallel leaf veins 3. Fibrous root system (grass) 4. Xylem and Phloem bundles scattered in stems 5. Flower parts in multiple of 3 1/30/07 L

22 DICOT 1. 2 cotelydons or food packets 2. Branching leaf veins 3. Tap roots (carrot) 1/30/07 L 4. Xylem and Phloem bundles arranged in

circle in stems 5. Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5 23 MONOCOT/DICOT 1/30/07 L 24

1/30/07 L 25 IV. Plant Hormones Chemical messengers that affect a plant's ability to respond to its environment. Auxins - hormones that promote plant-cell elongation, apical dominance, and rooting.

Response to Stimuli - Tropism 1. Phototropism response of a plant to light 1/30/07 L 27 IV. Plant Hormones Chemical messengers that affect a plant's ability to respond

to its environment. Gibberellins - a group of hormones that primarily stimulate elongation growth. IV. Plant Hormones Chemical messengers that affect a plant's ability to respond to its environment. Ethylene - the hormone responsible

for the ripening of fruit. IV. Plant Hormones Chemical messengers that affect a plant's ability to respond to its environment. Cytokinins - a group of hormones that promote cell division. Abscisic acid - a hormone that generally inhibits other hormones.

V. Plant Response 1) Tropisms: plant movement toward or away from an environmental stimulus. Phototropism - a growth response to light. Solar tracking is the phototropism of leaves or flowers as they follow the sun's movement across the sky. Phototropism

V. Plant Response 1) Tropisms: plant movement toward or away from an environmental stimulus. Thigmotropism -a growth response to contact with a solid object. Thigmotropism allows vines to climb. It is thought that an auxin or

ethylene are involved in this response. V. Plant Response 1) Tropisms: plant movement toward or away from an environmental stimulus. Gravitropism - a growth response to gravity. Roots are positively gravitropic, usually growing downward and stems are negatively gravitropic, usually growing upward. Auxins are probably responsible

for this growth. V. Plant Response 1) Tropisms: plant movement toward or away from an environmental stimulus. Chemotropism - a response to chemicals. The growth of a pollen tube is in response to chemicals produced produced by the plant ovary. Hydrotropism - a response to water. Most plants have a positive response

to water. 2) Photoperiodism: plant response to changes in the length of days and nights. Critical length is the length of daylight above or below which a species of plant will flower. Long-day plants flower only when exposed to day lengths longer than their critical length. These are usually late spring and early summer flowers. Short-day plants flower only when exposed to day lengths shorter than their critical length.

These are usually early spring and fall flowers. Day-neutral plants are not affected by the length of days and nights. 2. Photoperiodism plant response to daylight length (time) 1/30/07 L 39

Gravitropism plant response to gravity 1/30/07 L 40 4. Thigmotropism plant response to touch 1/30/07 L

41 Positive toward the stimulus Negative away from the stimulus Roots grow toward the earth, positive gravitropism. Roots grow away from light, negative phototropism

1/30/07 L 42 Patterns of Growth 1. Annuals grow, mature, and die in 1 year Phlox Petunia

1/30/07 L Geranium 43 2. Biennials A plant that produces roots, stems, and leaves the first year and flowers the second year. Money Plant

1/30/07 L Canterbury Bells 44 3. Perennials live for more than 2 years 1/30/07 L

Gloriosa Daisy 45 ROOTS, STEMS, LEAVES, AND FLOWERS 1/30/07 L 46

MOSSES DO NOT have true, roots, stems and leaves 1/30/07 L Review 47 FERNS Have true, roots, stems and leaves 1/30/07 L

Review 48 GYMNOSPERMS Have true roots, stems and leaves 1/30/07 L Review 49

ANGIOSPERMS Have true roots, stems and leaves 1/30/07 L Review 50 Vascular Tissue 1/30/07 L Review

51 MONOCOT/DICOT 1/30/07 L Review 52 Roots 1. Root Hairs

increase surface area for more absorption 1/30/07 L 53 Fibrous/Taproot GRASS 1/30/07 L

Fibrous root Carrot TAPROOT 54 Water Transport 2. Transpiration evaporation of water from leaves

3. Capillarity adhesion + cohesion 4. Adhesion waters ability to stick to other things 5. Cohesion waters ability to stick to itself 1/30/07 L 55 Capillarity

1/30/07 L 56 Seeds (Epicotyl) 1/30/07 L 1. Epicotyl stem found above the

cotyledons 2. Radicle forms the primary root 57 Seeds Seed dispersal distributing seeds away from the Parent plant 4. Seeds with hooks attach to animal fur 5. Seeds can pass through your or an animals digestive tract unharmed.

3. 1/30/07 L 58 I. Bark 1. Cambium any tissue that increases width in plants 2. Cork Dead cells on outside of tree, protects and waterproofs (Waxy) 3. Cork cambium produces cork

4. Phloem transports sugar 1/30/07 L 59 Stem (Wood) SAPWOOD HEARTWOOD

1/30/07 L 60 II. Wood 1. Vascular cambium produces vascular tissue (xylem/phloem) cambium increases width 2. Sapwood active xylem transporting water 3. Heartwood dead xylem cells, help supports tree

1/30/07 L 61 Annual Rings Narrow rings do not only signify a lack of sun or water. A forest fire may have damaged the tree's crown and slowed its growth. Defoliation by insects or fungi can have the same effect.

1/30/07 L 62 Leaf BLADE Actual name of leaf PETIOLE Attaches leaf to

stem VEIN 1/30/07 L 63 Functions 1. Cuticle waxy covering that prevents water loss 2. Epidermis skin that covers top and bottom of the leaf

3. Mesophyll Middle layer of leaf that contains chloroplasts, photosynthesis occurs here 1/30/07 L 64 4. Stoma Holes in the bottom of the leaf that allow CO2 to enter and H2O and O2 to leave 5. Guard cells Swell or shrink to open and close stoma (found only

in lower epidermis) except in plants that float, they are on the top. 1/30/07 L 65 Leaf Parts CUTICLE UPPER EPIDERMIS CHLOROPLAST Palisad

e layer MESOPHYLL XYLEM Spongy Layer PHLOEM LOWER EPIDERMIS GUARD CELLS

1/30/07 L STOMA 66 Male Flower Parts 1. Stamen male reproductive organ 2. Filament Holds up the anther 3. Anther forms

pollen (male gamete) 1/30/07 L 67 Female Flower Parts 1. Pistil (aka carpal) female reproductive organ 2. Stigma Sticky top that will catch pollen

3. Style Curved neck that connects stigma and ovary 4. Ovary Base of organ that contains ovules (eggs), ovary will develop into fruit, eggs will become seeds 1/30/07 L 68 Flower Parts STIGMA

STAMEN ANTHER FILAMENT STYLE PISTIL PETALS (COROLLA) EGG Ovule

OVARY SEPALS (CALYX) 1/30/07 L 69 1. Petals brightly colored structures found inside sepals 2. Corolla all the petals together

3. Sepal Outer most flower part; encloses the bud and protects the flower 4. Calyx All the sepals together 1/30/07 L 70 Pollination/Fertilization Pollination when pollen

(sperm) is transferred from an anther to a stigma (can be from the same plant self-pollination) Fertilization when pollen on the stigma enters the ovary and combines with the ovule (egg) 1/30/07 L 71 Pollinators 3. Flies like rotting meat smell

Honeybees need a landing platform 1. 2. Night-flying moths need white, very fragrant flowers 1/30/07 L 72 Pollinators

4. Hummingbirds like bright colored (red or orange), tube-shaped flowers 5. Bats like sour, musty odors (Banana tree) 6. Wind Light weight flowers, No particular color or scent. 1/30/07 L

73 Plant Adaptations Aquatic plants have to be able to tolerate mud. To take in enough oxygen, they have tissues with large air space and stomata on the

upper side of the leaves. Salt tolerant plants can withstand salt concentrations in the soil far greater than normal plants. Epiphytes are plants that do not root in the soil, their roots get water from the air. Many plants defend themselves against insect attack by making compounds that ward off

animals. 1/30/07 L 74 Leaf Modifications

Cactus spines are modified leaves that help reduce water loss from the plant and provide protection from predators. Carnivorous plants, like the pitcher plant have leaves with adaptations that can trap insects or other small animals.

Leaves often function as water or food storage sites. This adaptation ensures the long-term survival of the plant when water resources are scarce. 1/30/07 L 75

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