Plants - Mrs. Riddle

Plants - Mrs. Riddle

Plants: Leaves, Roots, Stems Chapter 13 Kingdom Plantae Botany: the scientific study of plant structures and processes

Horticulture: the cultivation of plants, especially gardening and edible plants Arborist: a tree doctor Properties of Plants Eukaryotic Multicellular Sexually Reproducing (pollination)

Cells, vascular tissues, organs, systems Roots, stems, leaves Cell Walls (cellulose) Photosynthesis/Green (pigments, plastids) Producers (autotrophic) THREE Types of Plants 1. Seeded, Vascular (Tissued) Plants

Most plants Angiosperms (flowering plants/trees) Monocots and dicots Gymnosperms (non-flowering plants) conifers 2. Seedless, Vascular Plants

Ferns 3. Seedless, Non-Vascular Plants Mosses Lichens, algae, fungi are NOT plants Roots

How water and nutrients come into the plant Roots Keep plant anchored, not moving Absorb water, air, chemicals, and nutrients to stem Root Systems Taproot

Fibrous One larger root with many fibers Generally equal sized fibers

Ex. Dandelions Ex. Grass Carrots, Potatoes, Beets Root tips

The tip of the root is the part that grows If it is cut off, the plant will not grow again The very tip is deadened cells which protect the root as it pokes downward Cells just behind the tip undergo mitosis and then elongate (the meristematic region/elongation regions) Root hairs are important because they

penetrate between soil particles and get water that would normally be out of reach for the root Stems How food and water are transported throughout the plant Stems

Organ of Transportation Carries water and nutrients from roots to leaves (where photosynthesis occurs) Support leaves at nodes. The #of nodes and distance between nodes in a given year tells how healthy the plant was that year. Diverse because of the thickness and strength of cells: tree trunks, ivy, lily vines, stalks (celery). Cactus stems

actually conduct photosynthesis. Woody stems (trees) Herbaceous stems (green, flexible plants) Herbaceous v. Woody Stems Woody stems (trees) Herbaceous stems (green, flexible)

Xylem & Phloem Xylem and Phloem are fibrous, vascular tissues that are bundled together inside the stem (vascular bundles) Xylem carries water up from the roots Phloem carries food down throughout the plant--sugar, nutrients Extra sugar can be stored as starch, lipids

These are often stored in fruits, which grow and ripen as more sugar and water collect Cross-Section of a Stem Monocot Stem Tree Trunks

Tree trunks are interesting (woody) stems Xylem fibers form the wood of the trunk center Xylem is harder in leaf-bearing trees and softer in evergreen trees Phloem forms the layers inside of the bark Cork cells make up the outer bark; dead cells harden and prevent water from evaporating out

Vascular Cambium produces phloem; Cork cambium produces cork Small openings, called lenticels, allow gas exchange Woody Stem Leaves Where photosynthesis and respiration occurs,

to feed the plant and help it breathe Veins Venation can be used to help identify leaves Pinnate Palmate Parallel

Leaf Shape The type of leaf blade can also be used in plant identification Simple leaf Compound leaf The blade is different if the plant

is a monocot or a dicot Monocots are single thin blade, parallel veins Dicots are branching veins with larger blades Leaf Edges

Leaf edges can also be used. Smooth Serrated Leaf Arrangement 3 main types of leaf arrangement Alternate Opposite

Whorled (windmill or pinwheel pattern) Dermal tissues Leaf Openings: Respiration Openings in the leaf permit water that has been drawn up through the stem, to exit the leaf through

transpiration Stomata also permit gas exchangeCO2 in and O2 out; guard cells use energy to open and close the stomata The epidermis is waxy; it protects the leafs parts, and prevents the loss of too much water or air Photosynthesis: Making Food

Water + Light + CO2 Sugar + Oxygen Occurs because of chlorophyll in the chloroplasts In the upper layer of the leaf (the palisade layer), there are lots of cells with many chloroplasts; these float and angle towards the sun as it rises and sets In the lower layer of the leaf (the spongy mesophyll), there are more spaces for air exchange

Cross-Section of a Leaf Growth Water Circulation Growth depends on supply of water and oxygen (temperature and light) Roots absorb water from the soil, through osmosis

Root pressure causes water to climb the stem through the xylem vein Capillarity also helps water to rise (adhesion of water molecules inside a thin diameter) as vapor exits the leaf Transpiration-Cohesion Theory currently says that water is pulled upwards as well. Transpiration occurs as leaves open and water evaporates into the atmosphere

Cohesion between water molecules pulls the water column up toward the leaves Turgor Pressure Cell vacuoles swell with water, exerting pressure on cell walls Cell walls made of cellulose packed inside the stem provide stiffness to the whole plant

Watery cells on the inside of the stem are ground tissue Nastic Movements Similar to reflexes Plant movements that can go back and forth Ex. Blooms opening and closing with the sun Venus fly traps Plants that close to the touch

Occur as turgor pressure is lost or gained in certain cells Flow of Food Photosynthesis generates the sugar needed for the plant to grow Must be translocated to new parts of the plant through

the phloem vessels Does this through water circulation, osmosis, and pressure changes Can go upwards to be stored in fruit/flower Can go downwards to root tips, meristematic areas Mineral Supply and Flow

Plants absorb nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and other inorganic substances from the soil They use these in processes and substances they need These minerals are dissolved in water Absorption requires oxygen for active transport minerals have to be pumped across the root membranes Fertilizer, manure/mulch, and crop rotation can replenish

nutrients in the soil that have been used up by plants Auxins Certain stimuli affect the amount of auxin or growth hormone Auxins increase the size and number of cells in certain spots.

Overgrowth in an area makes the stem bend or curve. Auxin collects in root tips and buds; if these are cut off, the plant will stop growing. Cells will not elongate. Tropisms Tropisms are different kinds of growth patterns that occur in response to auxins collecting in certain areas

Positive phototropism: growth towards light Negative phototropism: growth away from light Gravitropism: growth towards the ground Thigmotropism: growth towards touch/stakes . Synthetic Auxins

Auxins are naturally found in plant cells, and vary from plant to plant. Synthetic auxins are used to help ripen fruits, or force bud/flower production. Some encourage more elongation. Some are used to inhibit budding or growth. Some induce dormancy.

Some are used as selective weed/plant killers.

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