POPULATIONS & HUMANS IN THE BIOSPHERE CHAPTER 5 & 6 HOW POPULATIONS GROW How do ecologists study populations? geographic range - is the area in which a population lives density and distribution- Population density is the number of individuals per unit area growth rate- how quickly a population increases or decreases in size age structure- the number of males and females of each age a population contains FOUR FACTORS AFFECT POPULATION SIZE 1. Birth rate how many new individuals are born; Pop 2. Death rate how many individuals die; pop 3. Immigration the movement of individuals into an area; pop 4. Emigration the movement of individuals out of an area; pop Growth rate = birth death + immig - emig
FACTORS THAT AFFECT POPULATION SIZE What two factors add individuals to the fish population? Births and immigration What two factors remove individuals from the fish population? Deaths and emigration PRACTICE PROBLEMS Data on the immigration and emigration of a fish species would be most helpful in determining which of the following? A. biological magnification B. interspecies competition C. population of the species D. predator-prey relationships
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH What happens during Exponential Growth? Occurs when members of a population reproduce at a constant rate This growth pattern is shown by a J-shaped curve. As the population grows, the number of reproducing members keeps rising The population grows faster and faster EXPONENTIAL GROWTH Under ideal conditions with unlimited resources, a population will grow exponentially In nature, exponential growth does not go on for long Resources are used up in over time and growth slows or stops Predators and disease may also slow growth
LOGISTIC GROWTH What is Logistic Growth? when limited resources slow or stop population growth Growth pattern is shown by an Sshaped curve Usually follows a period of exponential growth When growth stops, the population size has reached its carrying capacity The number of individuals of a specific species an environment can support The growth rate is zero PRACTICE PROBLEMS A population of rodents becomes stranded on a remote island. Eventually, the population reaches the islands carrying capacity. At the point, the birth and
death rates are A. relatively equal B. crashing C. density dependent D. density independent When an environment has reached its carrying capacity for a certain population, which of the following is true? A. Growth and immigration rate is equal to death and emigration rate. B. Growth and immigration rate is greater than death and emigration rate. C. Growth and immigration rate is less than death and emigration rate. D. Growth rate is exponential. LIMITS TO GROWTH
A limiting factor is any resource in short supply that slows population growth Density-dependent relies on population size; only work when pop density reaches a certain level Includes: competion predation herbivory parasitism Disease stress from overcrowding PRACTICE PROBLEMS Which of the following is a limiting factor in a population of organisms. A. reproductive replacement B. life spans of the members C. fluctuations in atmospheric temperature
D. availability of food Which of the following is NOT an example of a density-dependent limiting factor? A. B. C. D. Natural disaster Predator Competition disease PRACTICE PROBLEMS How does the predator-prey relationship affect a population?
A. The predators and prey are in competition with each other. B. Usually either the predator or the prey will become extinct. C. The predator species usually has exponential growth. D. The relationship controls the population size of both species. The common brushtail possum is a marsupial native to Australia. This possum was introduced to New Zealand where it had no natural predators and had an abundant food supply. Which of these likely occurred a few years after the introduction of this possum to New Zealand? A. The possums became extinct. B. The possums developed shorter life spans.
C. The possum population grew to a larger size. D. The possum population evolved into a different species. LIMITS TO GROWTH Density independent does not rely on Population size Natural disasters Human activities; damming rivers; clearing forests Results in rapid drop in population size A CHANGING LANDSCAPE How do our daily activities affect the environment? Humans affect regional and global environments through agriculture, development, and industry in ways that have an impact on the quality of Earths natural resources, including soil, water and the atmosphere Some of the human activities that affect the biosphere are: Agriculture farming increased the amount of food produced. This allowed cities to develop. People in cities produced wastes. Pesticides were developed which pollute the ecosystem
Farms used monoculture planting fields with the same crop year after year Industry After the Industrial Revolution, human impact on the biosphere grew Industry used more resources and produced more pollution than ever before Urban development the spread of cities uses up ecological resources like habitat space, food, & water and creates more waste & pollution PRACTICE PROBLEMS DDT and other pesticides used over 50 years ago are still affecting the environment today. Scientists have found these substances in recent glacier runoff. Glacier runoff occurs during the summer, when precipitation that has fallen on glaciers during the winter is released. Ice layers from existing glaciers have been analyzed. The results of this analysis show that the concentrations of DDT and other pesticides were highest about 10 years after the use of these substances was banned. This information shows that A. DDT and other pesticides cause glacier runoff during the summer.
B. it takes humans over 50 years to analyze a glacier. C. precipitation helps to break down pesticides. D. the decision of one human generation may have an impact on future generations. A community is concerned about the water quality of a nearby lake. Increased sedimentation in the lake is endangering the native habitat. The increased sedimentation is most likely caused by which of the following? A. trees planted along the shore of the lake B. construction of homes along the lake C. the amount of sunlight on the lake D. the amount of fish in the lake SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
What is the relationship between resource use and sustainable development? Sustainable development provides for human needs while preserving the ecosystem that produce natural resources What is the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources? Renewable: can be produced or replaced by a healthy ecosystem Nonrenewable: natural processes cannot replenish them within a reasonable amount of time. Ex. Fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas PRACTICE PROBLEMS The choices that humans make every day affect the environment. Sometimes, our lifestyles can harm the environment rather than protect it. Which of the following would be most helpful in protecting the environment and achieving sustainability? The activities that take place to meet
human needs can often be harmful to ecosystems. By developing sustainable practices, however, we can help protect our environment. Which one of the following changes would be most helpful in reaching sustainability? A. buying paper products made from harvested trees B. buying fewer mass produced products C. using natural gas as a fuel source instead of petroleum D. using solar power to generate electricity A. Building more water treatment facilities B. planting trees to replace those that are cut down by logging C. tiling soil to improve soil fertility and increase crop production
D. using natural gas for fuel instead of burring petroleum USING RESOURCES WISELY SOIL RESOURCES Why is soil important and how do we protect it? Healthy soil supports both agriculture and forestry It is possible to minimize soil erosion through careful management of both agriculture and forestry Soil is a renewable resource, but it must be managed properly Soil erosion is the wearing away of surface soil by water and wind In dry climates, farming and overgrazing change farmland into deserts, a process called desertification Deforestation is the loss of forests.
REVIEW What factors put a region at risk for desertification? A dry climate combined with farming, overgrazing, seasonal drought, or climate change. Why isnt the eastern United States at risk for desertification? That region of the United States doesnt have a dry climate USING RESOURCES WISELY FRESHWATER RESOURCE What are the primary sources of water pollution? Industrial and agricultural chemicals Residential sewage Nonpoint resources
The amount of fresh water is limited, and some sources cannot be replaced A pollutant is a harmful material that can enter the biosphere. Many chemical pollutants become concentrated in organisms at higher trophic levels of the food chain through biological magnification PRACTICE PROBLEMS When fertilizers run off farmland into streams and ponds, the nitrogen content of the water increases. This can lead to rapid growth of algae in a process called eutrophication. How can this process affect other organisms in the water? A. Oxygen is used up as algae is decomposed, reducing the amount available to other organisms. B. The water becomes better able to support aerobic organisms. C. The algae provide food for fishes
and other organisms, leading to decreased algae populations. D. The extra nitrogen provides additional food for the other organisms, increasing their population. A community is concerned about the water quality of a nearby lake. Increased sedimentation in the lake is endangering the native habitat. The increased sedimentation is most likely caused by which of the following? A. trees planted along the shore of the lake B. construction of homes along the lake C. the amount of sunlight on the lake D. the amount of fish in the lake REVIEW What human activities produce the nitrogen and
sulfur compounds that result in acid rain? The burning of fossil fuels What do most Americans use in their homes that ultimately is derived from the burning of fossil fuels? They use electricity, which is often produced in coal-fired or oil-fired power plants. Home heating is also usually generated by either oil or natural gas. USING RESOURCES WISELY ATMOSPHERIC RESOURCES What are the major forms of air pollution? smog is a mixture of chemicals formed from emissions from cars and industry Acid rain- Burning of fossil fuels releases compounds that join with water in air Greenhouse gases such
as carbon dioxide and methane, can cause global warming particulates are microscopic particles that Carbon Dioxide is important in our atmosphere because it is required for photosynthesis and traps some heat, keeping the Earth warm. However, human produced carbon dioxide is a problem because it A. leads to higher global temperatures B. disrupts the natural cycling of other greenhouse gases C. add too much carbon dioxide to the oceans Causes uncontrolled photosynthesis BIODIVERSITY
What is biodiversity? The total of all the genetically based variation in all organisms in the biosphere Why is biodiversity important? Benefits to society include contribution to medicine and agriculture, and the provision of ecosystem goods and services Types of biodiversity: Ecosystem diversity all the habitats, communities, and ecological processes in ecosystems Species diversity the number of different species in the biosphere Genetic diversity the genetic information carried in all living things on Earth THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY What are the most significant threats to biodiversity?
Altering habitats Hunting Introducing invasive species Releasing pollution into food webs Contributing to climate change Plants and animals brought into an area from other places can become invasive species Can multiply quickly if their new habitats lacks predators or parasites to control their numbers THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY As humans destroy habitats, the species living in those habitats may die out Human development can split habitats habitat fragmentation The smaller pieces of habitat, the less likely its species can survive Extinction is the disappearance of a species from all or part of its range Endangered species one whose population size is declining in a way that places it in danger of extinction
CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY How do we preserve biodiversity? We must protect individual species Preserve habitats and ecosystems Participate in conservation efforts Protecting an ecosystem will ensure that the natural habitats and the interactions of many different species are preserved at the same time PRACTICE PROBLEMS Mullet are local estuarine fish that move in schools and feed on plankton and plant matter. Natural predators of the mullet include spotted sea trout, sharks, pelicans and dolphins. The graph below shows how the number of mullet in an area has changed over time. Based on the data, one student concludes that a new predator was introduced into the area during this time period. Which of the following is a likely alternate explanation for the change in the mullet population?
A. mullet prey increased in the area B. mullet parasites decreased in the area C. the temperature of the area increased D. the amount of aquatic plants in the area decreased PRACTICE PROBLEMS The pH of the water in several lakes in Norway and Sweden had decreased to below 5.0 due to an increase in acid rain. Which of the following is most likely to happen in these lakes? The number of pythons found throughout Everglades National Park has increased in recent years. These huge snakes are not native to Florida and are believed to have been released into the wild by pet owners. Wildlife biologists have initiated attempts to capture and remove these pythons. Which statement
best explains the biologists' reasons for removing these pythons from the Everglades? A. the decline of several fish populations B. an increase in numbers of fish C. an increase in the amount of primary producers D. increased predator-prey relationships A. The pythons could upset the territorial boundaries of native organisms. B. The pythons could adapt to overcome diseases common to native snakes. C. The pythons could prey on native organisms and cause native population to decline. D. The pythons could begin to interbreed with native snakes and produce a more successful species. PRACTICE PROBLEMS
The presence of wastes, such as plastic bags and motor oil, in lakes and streams miles away from developed areas suggests that A. ecosystems are interconnected and human action can alter ecosystem equilibrium. B. recycling programs have failed to conserve biotic resources. C. natural processes can alter ecosystem stability. D. direct harvesting practices have led to irreversible destruction of ecosystems. The northern elephant seal was almost hunted to extinction in the 1800s. By the late 1890s,
approximately one hundred seals were left, reducing the gene pool of the population. What will be the consequence of this reduction? A. Competition within the population will increase. B. The surviving elephant seals will be better able to adapt. C. Inbreeding will be less frequent among the remaining population. D. The elephant seals will be more vulnerable to environmental change. PRACTICE PROBLEMS Salt water is an abundant resource but unusable for irrigation and drinking. As demands on freshwater sources increase, the use of desalination processes to remove salt from ocean water is increasing. A concern of desalinating water is the large amounts of recovered salts that are returned to the ocean. Which of the following describes the most likely impact of desalination on
the surrounding ocean environment? A. Methane gas would pollute the ocean environment as shoreline organisms begin to die and decay. B. Alteration in ocean salt levels would cause loss of species and unbalanced populations in marine food webs. C. Nonrenewable resources in the ocean environment would become depleted and upset the ecosystem's balance. D. Increased levels of salts and minerals in the ocean would result in overpopulation of marine bivalves due to strengthened shells. Many insects, such as mosquitoes and dragonflies, spend their juvenile stage as aquatic larvae before becoming winged and airborne adults. Most years, these insects are extremely abundant in the Arctic tundra in summer. What might account for this? A. adult insects spend the long Arctic winter laying thousands of eggs under the ice of
frozen ponds. B. Many insects migrate long distances to take advantage of good breeding areas in the tundra C. pools of water which make good breeding areas are plentiful in summer as the permafrost melts D. summer rains in the Arctic tundra replenish breeding ponds that dried up during the winter PRACTICE PROBLEMS Which of the following describes how an abiotic factor can impact the population dynamics in an ecosystem? A. a parasite that invades a host can reproduce and cause a decline in the host species population B. organisms that compete for the same resources will keep each other from overpopulating C. predators will prevent herbivores
from depleting the plants and other resources in an ecosystem D. Seasonal variations in temperature can cause some of the individuals in a population to die If a snake species were introduced to an ecosystem where it had no natural predators, what long-term effect do you predict the snakes would have on the population dynamics of the ecosystem? A. they would breed with native snake species, resulting in an increase in biodiversity in the ecosystem. B. they would compete with native snake species for resources, causing a decline in native snake populations and possible extinction. C. they would form mutalistic relationships with native snakes, since they would occupy the same niche in the ecosystem. D. they would serve as a food source for
predators of native snakes, causing an increase in native snake populations. PRACTICE PROBLEMS Rainbow trout need at least 6.0mg/L of dissolved oxygen to survive. Biologists are trying to reestablish rainbow trout in a mountain stream but the stream only has 5.5 mg/L of dissolved oxygen. Which of the following would be the most useful to encourage the development of the rainbow trout population? A. create more bends in the stream to allow the water to slow down B. cut down trees along the stream to allow more sunlight to warm the water C. pull out aquatic plants growing in the stream to allow oxygen to accumulate D. remove dams along the stream to allow the water to flow faster PRACTICE PROBLEMS Researchers have found that a local squirrel population fluctuates from year to year, increasing one year and
decreasing the next. Which of the following factors would cause the squirrel population to grow? A. the birth rate is equal to the death rate B. emigration is greater than immigration C. the death rate is higher than the birth rate D. the birth rate is greater than the death rate All populations fluctuate in size. Which of the following is a nonenvironmental factor that might cause a population to be reduced in size? F. decreased predation G. increased competition H. emergence of disease resistance I. increased availability of
a food source PRACTICE PROBLEMS The population size that an environment can sustain is called the carrying capacity. Which of the following factors would not decrease the carrying capacity of a pond environment? F. drought G. flooding H. food shortages I. unusually low temperatures Imagine that a city located in a desert
environment has grown significantly over the last few decades. Which statement best describes how the growth of the metropolitan city would impact the desert environment in the area? A. Biodiversity would decrease in the area but increase in the desert beyond the city. B. By destroying habitat to build homes and highways, the growth of the city would decrease the biodiversity in the desert. C. The growth of the city would have little impact on the environment, because few animals likely lived there before growth happened. D. By bringing in water, the growth of the city would improve the entire desert environment and increase the biodiversity. PRACTICE PROBLEMS Imagine that a nonnative bird species
appears in an ecosystem. Which of the following will not be a likely change in the ecosystem? F. Native bird species will immediately migrate to another area. G. Bird predator species will temporarily have more available prey. H. Each food chain in the ecosystem will adjust over time to include the new species of bird. I. Birds that share the same niche of the new species will have more competition for food resources. When the supplies of a product decrease, the price of the product tends to increase. How might continuing increases in the price of fossil fuels affect research on the development of renewable resources, such as wind power and solar energy? A. Research on the development of
renewable resources would likely decline. B. Research on the development of renewable resources would likely increase. C. There would be less research on alternative energies and more on fossil fuels. D. Increased fossil fuel prices would have little effect on research and development. PRACTICE PROBLEMS Sustainable agriculture is farming that remains productive and profitable while still conserving natural resources. Which of the following is an example of a sustainable agriculture practice? A. preventing cattle from over grazing on pastures B. removing all manure from pastures where cattle graze C. allowing cattle to graze over an
entire pasture year round D. rotating parts of a pasture on which cattle get to graze throughout the year The worlds population exceeded 6 billion in October 1999, and the annual increase is now about 94 million people. About 260,000 people are added to the world population each day, or about 180 every minute. Which of the following is not a result of the increasing human population? A. fewer old-growth forests B. more stress on natural resources such as water C. increased carrying capacity of many ecosystems D. less undeveloped land available for animal habitats PRACTICE PROBLEMS
New fuels are being produced by converting corn and grasses into compounds containing alcohols that can be broken down for energy in various engines. The purpose of this research is to A. reduce the use of nonrenewable resources. B. increase the rate of air pollution. C. reduce the rate of homeostasis in organisms. D. cause a loss of biodiversity in the rain forests.
PES Statements. Inadequate energy intake, related to excessive weight loss, related to 75% usual body weight. GERD, related to increased acid secretions, as evidence by duodenal ulcer. Sources. Abbott Nutrition. (2011). Vital hn.
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