Portable Solar Power Supply - UCF Department of EECS

Portable Solar Power Supply - UCF Department of EECS

Portable Solar Power Supply Group V: David Carvajal Amos Nortilien Peter Obeng September 11, 2012 Project Definition

Mobile harnessing of solar energy Store this energy into a battery Supply the stored energy when desired Project Overview Solar Panel Solar Tracking Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Charge Controller DC/DC Converter DC/AC Inverter Goals and Objectives

Harvest solar energy Convenient mobile power Lightweight Provide Power for broad range AC and DC devices Portable Solar Power Supply Block Diagram Power from Solar Panel Microcontroll er (MPPT) LCD Display

Charge Regulator 12 V Lead Acid Battery Solar Panel Mount Microcontroller and Motor (Solar Tracking) Provision of AC and DC Power Specifications and Requirements

Convert 12 V DC to 120 V AC at 60Hz Capable of supplying 5 V DC at 500mA for USB outputs The efficiency (Input power from solar panel to output power from outlet devices) should be at least 90 percent An MPPT algorithm that works very well to keep the solar panel operating at its maximum power point (MPP) Horizontal rotation for solar panel mount (solar tracking) Solar Panel Types Crystalline PV Panels

Thin Film PV Panels Higher Efficiency Low Priced High power per area Suited for large areas Ease of fabrication Better tolerance in the shade High stability Less susceptible to damage Higher liability Flexible and easier to handle

Monocrystalline Solar Panel 24 in. 50 Watt Solar Panel Monocrystalline Photovoltaic Solar Panel Up to 50 Watts (power) Up to 2.92 Amps (current) 21in. Specifications Monocrystalline

Polycrystalline Efficiency 17% 12% Weight 8.8lbs 12.6lbs Dimensions 24.6x1.2x21 in. 30.6x1.9x27.2 in. Price

$169.99 $149.99 Voltage 12V nominal output 12V nominal out put Solar Angle of Incidence Depends on the geographic location and time

of year. The fixed angles are dependent of the seasons. Multiple solar angle calculators can be found online. Photoresistor A sensor whose resistance varies with light intensity Decreases in resistance as the light intensity

increases The resistance must be converted to a voltage Solar Tracker 2 photocells IC comparator Resistors and Diodes 2 limit switches

2 relays Terminal connectors Powered by 12VDC Single axis tracker 12VDC motor

Solar panel mount 2.5 in. 2.75 in. 2 in. DC to DC Converter LM3481

Input Voltage from 3.0 V to 48V Outputs 5V, 1 A Current divider to have output of 500 mA 84% efficiency Switching frequency: between 100kHz and 1 MHz DC/DC Converter Schematic Diagram DC to DC converter LT3502 Input Voltage

from 3.0 V to 40V Outputs 5V, 500 mA 87% efficiency Switching frequency: 2.2MHz Battery Specification Manufacture: Battery Mart Type: Sealed Lead Acid Battery

Voltage Output: 12 Volt Capacity: 35 Ah Size: 7.65 L x 5.25 w x 7.18 h Convenience Deep Cycle Sealed Long Service Life Long Shelf Life Wide Operating Temperature Ranges (40C to +60C )

No Memory Effect Recyclable in. Cost : Donated Weight: 29.00 Pounds Battery Life: 100,000 hours Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

The current and voltage at which a solar module generates the maximum power Location of maximum power point is not known in advance Modifies the electrical operating point of a solar energy system to ensure it generates the maximum amount of power. Finding the current or voltage of the solar panel at which maximum power can be generated

Improves electrical efficiency of a solar energy system Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Algorithms Perturb and Observe: Most commonly used because of its ease of implementation Modifies the operating voltage or current of the photovoltaic panel until maximum power can be obtained Incremental Conductance:

Take advantage of the fact that the slope of the power-voltage curve is zero at the maximum power point - The slope of the power voltage curve is positive at the left of the MPP and negative at the right of the MPP MPP is found by comparing the instantaneous conductance (I/V) to the incremental conductance (I/V)I/I/V)V) When MPP is obtained, the solar module maintains this power unless a change in I/V)I occurs. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Algorithms Hill Climbing Algorithm (Implemented in this

project): Uses an iterative approach to find the constantly changing MPP The power-voltage graph in the figure to the right resembles a hill with the MPP at the summit Microcontroller measures the watts generated by the solar panel Controls the conversion ratio of DC/DC converter to implement the algorithm

Charge Regulator DC/DC Converter (Buck) Built on Arduino Protoshield. Changes the solar panels higher voltage and lower current to the lower voltage and higher current needed to charge the battery. Controlled by PWM signal that switches the MOSFETS at 50kHz Prevents battery from discharging at night Measures battery and solar panels voltage Charge Controller Schematic Diagram Charge Controller Current Sense Resistor and High Side Current Sense Amplifier Charge Controller Switching MOSFETS and Blocking MOSFET, and MOSFET Driver Protoshield

Schematic Microcontroller Arduino Duemilanove Specification: Processor: ATmega168 Operating Voltage: 5 V Digital I/O Pins: 14 (6 provides PWM output)

Analog Input Pins: 6 DC Current per I/O Pin 40mA Flash Memory: 16KB (2KB is used by bootloader) SRAM: 1 KB EEPROM: 512 bytes

Clock Speed: 16MHz Function: Controls Charge Controller to Optimize battery charging Displays status of the portable solar power supply on LCD display Microcontroller Arduino Duemilanove Schematic LCD Display Pin connections

Pin Symbo l 1 VSS 2 VDD 3 V0 4 RS 5 R/W 6 E 7 DB0 8 DB1 9 DB2 10 DB3

11 DB4 12 DB5 13 DB6 14 DB7 15 LEDA 16 LEDB Level Functions ---------H/L H/L H/L H/L H/L H/L H/L H/L H/L H/L

H/L ------- GND (0V) Supply Voltage for Logic (+5V) Power supply for LCD H: Data; L: instruction Code H: Read; L: Write Enable Signal Data Bus Line Backlight Power (+5V) Backlight Power (0V) Pure sine wave Inverter Specifications

95% of Efficiency Output voltage of 120V AC at 60 Hz Power rating of 500 W Inverter Inversion Process Stepping up the low DC voltage to a much higher voltage using boost converter Transforming the high DC voltage into AC signal using Pulse Width Modulation iS u

L + = E - In v e r s o r Inverter Inverter u S + u

M Block Diagram Voltage Regulato r DC Input MCU Signal Generatio n MOSFE Ts Drivers Hbridge

High DC Voltage AC Outpu t Signal High Voltage DC/DC Converter Specification Feed the high side of the H-bridge Efficiency of 90% Isolated voltage feedback Cooling passively

High Voltage DC/DC Converter Schematic Diagram Pulse Width Modulation Method of generating AC Power in Electronic Power Conversion through: 1. Simple Analog Components 2. Digital Microcontroller 3. Specific PWM Integrated Circuits Pulse Width Modulation 2 Level PWM Signal H-Bridge Circuit Circuit that enables a voltage to be across a load Consists of 4 switches, MOSFETS

H-Bridge Circuit Control of the Switches High side left High side right Low side left Low side right Voltage load On Off

Off On Positive Off On On Off Negative On On

Off Off Zero Off Off On On Zero Table 4.4.4-1: Switches Position and Load Sign H-Bridge Circuit Control and Operation

MOSFET Driver To switch a low voltage on the device Bootstrap Capacitor Microcontroller MSP430F449 Specification Frequency: 8 MHz Flash: 60 KB SRAM: 2048 KB Comparator: Yes

Functionality Generate signals for the MOSFET drivers Control the PWM Provides easier feedback to control power Inverter Circuit Diagram V5 V6 R5 Q5

R9 R1 Q1 U1 C1 D1 V1 R6 C4 R2 Q6 Q2 L1

R10 C5 V2 R7 Q7 R11 U2 R3 Q3 C2 D2 V3 R8

R4 V4 Q4 C3 R12 Q8 R13 Progress Progress AC/DC Inverter Arduino Charge Controller MSP430

Progress LCD Screen Solar Tracker DC/DC Solar Mount 0.00% 50.00% 100.00% Problems Microcontroller MSP430

How efficient it will handle and control the pulse width modulation Mechanical portion of the project Solar Panel Mount Budget $200.00 $160.00 $120.00 $80.00 $40.00 $- Budget Actual $ Spent Total Spent

$323.93 Questions??

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