Positive - nepbis.org

Positive - nepbis.org

VTPBiS Classroom Behavior Practice Coaching: Intensive Focus on Practices and Systems Brandi Simonsen Objectives As a result of attending this training, you will be able to Present the context in which positive classroom behavioral support (PCBS) practices are implemented. Train critical positive classroom behavior support (PCBS) practices. Implement the key elements of effective professional development and implementation systems to support staff. Describe the VT Classroom Behavior Practice Coaching Model Overview of Materials Supporting and Responding to Student Behavior Classroom Management Practice Checklist PBIS Technical Brief on Systems to Support Teachers

Implementation of Positive Classroom Behavior Support SelfAssessme nt of Systems to Support PCBS Action Plan Where do we start? As a result of attending this training, you will be able to Present the context in which positive classroom behavioral support (PCBS) practices are implemented. Train critical positive classroom behavior support (PCBS) practices. Implement the key elements of effective professional development and implementation systems to support staff. Describe the VT Classroom Behavior Practice Coaching Model Goal of Teaching Student Achievement Good Teaching Classroom

Management Behavior problems disrupt learning Engaging learning prevents behavior problems (Gest & Gest, 2005; Stronge, Ward and Grant, 2011) United States, we have a problem! 12% of public school teachers leave within their first 2 years 50% leave within the first 5 years (Boyd, Grossman, Ing, Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2011; DeAngelis, & Presley, 2011; Feng, 2006; Henke, Zahn, & Carroll, 2001; Ingersoll, 2001; Ingersol, Merril, May, 2012; Johnson & Birkeland, 2003; Ingersoll & Smith, 2003; Kaiser & National Center for Educational Statistics, 2011; Kukla-Acevedo, 2009; Luekens, Lyter, Fox, & Changler, 2004; Smith & Ingersoll, 2004; Torres, 2012; Zabel & Zabel, 2002) Why do teachers leave? Most consistently listed factors: Lack of pedagogical training School environment Poor student behavior and motivation Teachers consistently report: Inadequate pre-service training on classroom management and Lack of support and training for handling student behaviors (Boyd, Grossman, Ing, Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2011; Chesley & Jordan, 2012; Feng, 2006; Halford, 1998; Henke, Zahn, & Carroll, 2001; Ingersoll, 2001; Ingersol, Merril, May, 2012; Johnson & Birkeland, 2003; Kukla-Acevedo, 2009; Lane, Wehby, & Barton-Arwood, 2005; Luekens, Lyter, Fox, & Changler,

2004; Stough, 2006; Torres, 2012; Zabel & Zabel, 2002) Supporting teachers in classroom PBIS is critical for our teachers, schools, and our state! What about the kids? Students benefit when teachers implement evidence-based PCBS practices.1 Unfortunately, were not there yet. Teachers implement PCBS practices at lower rates than desired.2 Students with challenging behavior experience even less praise, fewer opportunities to respond, more reprimands, and more negative or coercive interactions.3 (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008) (Reinke, Herman, & Stormont, 2012; Scott, Alter, & Hirn, 2011) 3 (e.g., Carr, Taylor & Robinson, 1991; Kauffman & Brigham, 2009; Scott et al., 2011; Sutherland & Oswald, 2005) 1 2 We know a bit about whats likely to work: Evidence-based practices in classroom management 1. Maximize structure in your classroom. 2.

Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations. 3. Actively engage students in observable ways. 4. Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior. 5. Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior. So we know what the it is.Myers, & Sugai, 2008) (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, But we dont seem to be doing it Reinke et al. (2012)1 Scott et al. (2011)2

Hirn & Scott (2014)3 Pas et al. (2015)4 Specific Praise General Praise OTR Corrective/ Reprimand 0.13 0.43 1.43 0.67 0.06 (overall positive) 0.57 0.07

0.03 (overall positive) 0.47 Group 0.06 Indiv. 0.08 0.12 (approval) 0.93 0.27 Based on observations of 33 elementary teachers in schools implementing PBIS with fidelity 2 Based on > 1000 observations of elementary and high school teachers in schools not identified as implementing PBIS 3 Based on 827 observations of high school teachers 4 Based on observations of 1262 high school teachers prior to PBIS implementation 1 Why arent we doing it? What do we know from the empirical literature? Teachers typically receive little pre- or in-service training in classroom management

(Begeny & Martens, 2006; Freeman, Simonsen, Briere, & MacSuga, in press; Markow, Moessner, & Horowitz, 2006; Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study, 2001, 2002, 2004; Wei, Darling-Hammond, & Adomson, 2010) Multi-component training packages (didactic training + coaching + performance feedback + etc.) result in desired behavior change, especially when trained skills are effective (Abbott et al., 1998; Hiralall & Martens, 1998; Madsen, Becker, & Thomas, 1968; Freeman et al., in preparation; The Metropolitan Area Child Study Research Group & Gorman-Smith, 2003; Rollins et al., 1974) Strategies Used to Change Teacher Behavior* 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% O 46% 44% 37% 24% 11%

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We need to support teachers implementation of evidence based classroom management practices.. and we can! We know what evidence based classroom management practices look like. We have a science to support implementation. We have tools to describe and illustrate what implementing evidence based classroom management looks like. So, what are we waiting for? Lets get started! As a result of attending this training, you will be able to Present the context in which positive classroom behavioral support (PCBS) practices are implemented. Train critical positive classroom behavior support (PCBS) practices. Implement the key elements of effective professional development and implementation systems to support staff. Describe the VT Classroom Behavior Practice Coaching Model Acknowledgements for this Session (Co-authors of Supporting and Responding to Student Behavior):

Brandi Simonsen Jennifer Freeman Steve Goodman Barbara Mitchell Jessica Swain-Bradway Brigid Flannery George Sugai Heather George Bob Putnam Renee Bradley et al. (OSEP) I nteractive!Map!of!Core!Features! Interactive Map of Core " " Features Classroom"I nterventions"and"Supports

Foundations"(Table"1) 1.1"Settings The!physical!layout!of!the! classroom!is!designed!to!be! effective 1.2"Routines Predictable!classroom! ! routines!are!developed!and! taught 1.3"Expectations Three!to!five!classroom!rules! are!clearly!posted,!defined,! and!explicitly!taught Practices"(Table"2) Prevention 2.1"Supervision Provide!reminders! (prompts),!and!actively! scan,!move,!and!interact! with!students 2.2"Opportunity Provide!high!rates!and! varied!opportunities!for!all! students!to!respond! 2.3"Acknowledgment !

Using!specific!praise!and! other!strategies,!let! students!know!when!they! meet!classroom! expectations 2.4"Prompts"and" Precorrections Provide!reminders,!before! a!behavior!is!expected,! that!clearly!describe!the! expectation Data"Systems"(Table"3) Response 2.5"Error"Corrections Use!brief,!contingent,!and! specific!statements!when! misbehavior!occurs 2.6"Other"Strategies Use!other!strategies!that! preempt!escalation,! minimize!inadvertent! reward!of!the!problem! ! behavior,!create!a! learning!opportunity!for! emphasizing!desired! behavior,!and!maintain! optimal!instructional!time!

2.7"Additional"Tools" More!tips!for!teachers!! 3.1"Counting Record!how!often!or!how! many!times!a!behavior! occurs!(also!called! frequency) 3.2"Timing Record!how!long!a!behavior! lasts!(also!called!duration). 3.3"Sampling Estimate!how!often!a! ! behavior!occurs!during!part! of!an!interval,!the!entire! interval,!or!at!the!end!of!an! interval! 3.4"ABC"Cards,"I ncident" Reports,"or"Office" Discipline"Referrals Record!information!about! the!events!that!occurred! before,!during,!and!after!a! behavior!incident Self-Assessment Decision Making Chart

Tables with Definitions, Examples, Non-Examples, and Resources Additional Tools Scenarios to Illustrate Implementation What needs to be in place? The effects of CPBIS strategies are maximized by implementing within a school-wide multi-tiered behavioral framework (MTBF)like PBIS; directly linking classroom and school-wide expectations and systems; merging CPBIS strategies with effective instructional design, curriculum, and delivery; and using classroom-based data to guide decision making But...you can implement CPBIS even if your school does not yet have a MTBF in place. PCBS Practices Decision-making Guide: 3 Key Questions Are the foundations of effective PCBS in place? Are proactive and positive PCBS practices implemented consistently? Do data indicate that students are still engaging in problem

behavior? Decision-making Guide: 3 Key Questions Are the foundations of effective PCBSdesign in place? Effectively the Develop & teach physical environment of the classroom + predictable classroom routines. + Are proactive and positive PCBS practices implemented Elementary Example: HS Example: consistently? Establish Consider Plan Poster layout ofroutines

Be according Safe, and Plan Student-created layout routines according and Establish Plan Poster layout ofroutines Be according Safe, and Plan Consider Student-created layout routines according and toKind, procedures the type & Ready

offor: activity toposter procedures the type of Citizenship, offor: activity (e.g., (e.g., Arrival Matrix tables and to define for dismissal for Achievement, Turning U or in work circle & Grit for centers, discussion, Transitions each classroom

separate between Engage Accessing students forward materials in Do data indicate that students are still facing desks activities routine. for independent developing Making for up group missed the matrix engaging in problem behavior? work, Accessing Teach circle engaging area help for

instruction) and workteaching each group lesson What instruction) lessons to for do after each work Transitions/ using video, is completed expectation etc. interruptions Post, define, & teach 3-5 positive classroom expectations. Non-Example: Assuming Disorderly, Assumingstudents messy, students unclean, automatically will already

and/or know know visually routines your expectations unappealing & procedures without environment Havinginstruction more thanand 5 feedback expectations Listing only behaviors you do NOT want from students Turn and Talk: Review the critical features and topics we just discussed. Describe each key to your partner as you would to a teacher you are supporting. Identify questions or areas for clarification. Be prepared to discuss. Decision-making Guide: 3 Key Questions Are the foundations of effective PCBS

place? Provide highinrates of varied opportunities to respond. + Use prompts and active supervision. + Are proactive and positive PCBS practices implemented Elementary Example: HS Example: consistently? During The Individual Before While students students educatoror small are Individual

Review While teacher monitoring of or group quietly small Duringstudents Individual Before While students educatoror small are Individual Review While The teacher monitoring of or group quietly small group:seatwork, begin working directed

Student instruction, a group: II activity students, states, participation just really move showed names on provide independently student raises a reminder sticks her in in a you how rubric around appreciate prior the to how area, to dothe

#1, you I Do data students jar. As how about centers hand. questions The scan to educator and access are indicate am going start interact facilitated ofthat group with to your start students work.

group #2. discussion. posed, help move says, and Thank around a materials, student you theengaging forif Second Sign and above row,the Peers help still inobserve problem name isyour needed. classroom, raising drawn.

checking hand. explain homework behaviors had many myof ideas, (HW) steps.and behavior? in you Choral: Poster with students. ofAllexpected students Nonverbal: basket individuals managed withand Clickers checklist it the well. recite letter sounds. behaviors.

to respond for group. handinga, in b, HW. or c. Acknowledge behavior with specific praise & other strategies. Non-Example: Thank A teacher While Sitting teaching or you standing provides for trying a a 20-minute lesson, where to act like you

a student alesson cannot human. without calls see (This, the out atasking entire best, and the is room any / are questions educator space. sarcasm, Such states, not or as genuine with prompting Instead

your praise.) backofto any calling the student out, group I would orresponses. behind like you your to raise your hand. desk. Other Strategies to Acknowledge Behavior Contract Group Contingency Token Economy Elementary Example:

HS Example: Non-example Class Constitution signed by all Integrity Pledge signed by all Zero Tolerance Acknowledgement If all students will hand in homework #2 by the due date, next Friday we will play State Bingo instead of a formal test review. If we generate 5 questions that are examples of Synthesis by 2:15, you may sit where you would like for the last 20 mins of class. Making the goal unattainable or

undeliverable, or singling out a student for failing to meet goal. Group 2, you were all respectful during your discussion, and each of you earned a star buck to use in the school-wide store. Alyiah, you were very respectful when your peer came in and asked for space. Youve earned 10 bonus points toward your behavior goal. Providing points or tokens without (a) specific praise or (b) demonstrated behaviors Turn and Talk: Review the critical features and topics we just discussed. Describe each key to your partner as you would

to a teacher you are supporting. Identify questions or areas for clarification. Be prepared to discuss. Decision-making Guide: 3 Key Questions Are students still engaging in of problem effective behavior? Are the foundations PCBS in place? Yes No Are behaviors minor Well done! Monitor or major expectation outcomes and violations? adjust as needed proactive and positive PCBS Are practices Minorimplemented Major

consistently? How many students Use brief, specific error correction & other strategies are involved (many or few)? Do data indicate Many that students are Few still engaging in problem Review, adjust & Request additional behavior? intensify CWPBIS. (tier 2 & 3) support Ask for help! for students. Elementary Example: HS Example: After a student After student plays callsspecific Use brief, error out in class

thecorrection &with lab equipment other strategies inappropriately, teacher responds, Please raise your teacher responds, hand before calling Please dont play out your answer with lab equipment, keep it on the table. Non-Example: Shouting, No! (This is not calm, neutral, or specific.) A 5-min conversation about what the student was thinking. (This is not brief.) Other Strategies to Respond Elementary Example: HS Example: Non-example Planned Ignoring

During a whole group activity, James shouts the teachers name to get her attention. The teacher ignores the callouts and proceeds with the activity. During a lecture, Jen interrupts the teacher and loudly asks her question. The teacher ignores Jen until she quietly raises her hand. A student is loudly criticizing a peer, resulting in other students laughing at the targeted peer. The teacher does nothing. Differential SR In the same scenario above, the teacher ignores James

callouts, but immediately calls on and praises James when he raises his hand, Thats how we show respect! Nice hand raise. (DRA) If we can make it through this discussion without inappropriate language, you can listen to music during your independent work time at the end of class. (DRO) The teacher reprimands students each time they engage in problem behavior and ignore appropriate behavior. Other Strategies to Respond Elementary Example: HS Example:

Non-example Response Cost When a student talks out, the teacher pulls the student aside, provides a quiet specific error correction, and removes a marble from his/her jar on the teachers desk. When a student engages in disrespectful language, the teacher privately provides feedback and removes a point from the students point card. The teacher publicly flips a card (from green to red) to signal the student has lost

privileges. When asked why, the teacher states, you know what you did. Time Out from SR After throwing a game piece at a peer, the teacher removes the game from the student, asks her to return to her desk, and reviews expectations before allowing her to resume activities. When a student disrupt a preferred art class, the teacher asks the student to take 5 to review the expectations in art. The student re-joins the class after restating expectations.

Sending the student from a difficult, disliked class to inschool suspension, which is facilitated by a preferred adult and often attended by preferred peers for the remainder of the day. Turn and Talk: Review the critical features and topics we just discussed. Describe each key to your partner as you would to a teacher you are supporting. Identify questions or areas for clarification. Be prepared to discuss. PCBS Practices Decision-making Guide: 3 Key Questions Are the foundations of effective PCBS in place? Are proactive and positive PCBS practices implemented consistently? Do data indicate that students are still engaging in problem behavior? So, how are you (or a teacher you know) implementing PCBS?

Complete Classroom Management Practices Checklist Complete checklist for your own classroom or a classroom with which you are familiar. Identify and be ready to discuss areas for support. Now, turning our attention to supporting teachers. As a result of attending this training, you will be able to Present the context in which positive classroom behavioral support (PCBS) practices are implemented. Train critical positive classroom behavior support (PCBS) practices. Implement the key elements of effective professional development and implementation systems to support staff. Describe the VT Classroom Behavior Practice Coaching Model What is implementation? Implementation is specified set of activities designed to put into practice an activity or program of known dimensions (Fixsen, Naoom, Blas, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005, p. 5) Its what we do. Implementation outcomes include changes in adult professional behavior organizational structures and culturesto support the

changes in adult professional behavior relationships to consumers, stakeholders, and systems partners (Fixsen et al., 2005, p. 12) Isnt there science to guide implementation? Translated into our language (based on theirs) Begin with an it (evidence-based practice [EBP] or program; aka source or best example) Identify the who (individuals who work to implement with fidelity; aka purveyors) Identify the where (individuals and organizations that will adopt the EBP; aka destination) Determine how: train, prompt, and use data (performance feedback; aka feedback mechanism or information flow) Consider context (aka influence) (Fixsen, Naoom, Blas, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005, p.12) Isnt there science to guide implementation? New Old Way It: EBP Where: Teacher / Classroom Context

Who: Implementation Supporters How: Train, prompt, use data (Fixsen, Naoom, Blas, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005, p.12) This is one way to start organizing our implementation supports We know what these are! It: EBP Where: Teacher / Classroom But Who:? Implementation Supporters Expert Peer

We know where! How:? Train, prompt, use data Who How needs SelfContext often? On what? what? (Adapted from Fixsen, Naoom, Blas, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005, p.12) We cant afford to do everything, but we cant afford to do nothing... We think theres a lot in between! NOTHING No Training or Support Provided BUT, how do we organize all of this? Sit and Get training

delivered in isolation Didactic training + email reminders Didactic training + email reminders + periodic check-ins PLUS Self-management supports EVERYTHING Every teacher receives coaching and performance feedback Turn and Talk: Review the critical features and topics we just discussed. Describe each key to your partner as you would to a teacher you are supporting. Identify questions or areas for clarification. Be prepared to discuss.

PBIS TECHNICAL BRIEF ON SYSTEMS TO SUPPORT TEACHERS IMPLEMENTATION OF POSITIVE CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR SUPPORT Acknowledgements for this Session (Co-authors of PBIS Technical Brief on Systems to Support Teachers Implementation of Positive Classroom Behavior Support): Jennifer Freeman Brandi Simonsen Steve Goodman Barbara Mitchell Heather George Jessica Swain-Bradway Kathleen Lane Jeff Sprague Bob Putnam

PCBS Systems Action Planning Guide: 3 Key Questions Are the foundational systems in place to support PCBS practice implementation by all staff? Do all staff know what PCBS practices to implement and if theyre doing it accurately? Do data indicate that staff are implementing PCBS practices effectively? PCBS Systems Action Planning Guide: 3 Key Questions Are the foundational systems in place to support PCBS practice School and district PCPS implementation by all staff? implementation resources are is a clear school and district priority + available to support PCBS implementation

School and district teams have considered alignment and integration of PCBS with other district priorities and initiatives + Do all staff know what PCBS practices to implement and if Examples: Non-Examples: theyre doing it accurately? Implementation Data District andtime Dedicated school for of PCBS training administrators No dedicated practices demonstrating

are timeprioritized orneed resources are fornot Implementation District Dedicated andtime school for of PCBS training administrators No dedicated Data practices demonstrating are timeprioritized orneed resources are fornot connected regularly have communicated Dedicated

time to clear for coaching need a clear in building priority implementation, Data not shared identified or not used in Implementation Academic for PCBS implementation. functions of PCBS strategiessolving problem lack strategies evidence taught of in Do data indicate are and/or connected Regular data to review academic

instructionthat staff effectiveness, Staff isolation recognition not available priority or PCBS Celebration strategies or recognition adapted to of ensure staff practices used to celebrate on arepractices not effectively PCBS not implementing PCBS Training practices implementation classroom contextual and cultural disseminated

implementation connected to why among it isall important staff. in effectively? fit the school Turn and Talk: Review the critical features and topics we just discussed. Describe each key to your partner as you would to a teacher you are supporting. Identify questions or areas for clarification. Be prepared to discuss. PCBS Systems Action Planning Guide: 3 Key Questions Are the foundational systems in place to support PCBS practice implementation by all Clear expectations andstaff? Coaching and/or regularly +

explicit training about practices that should be implemented all staff. Do all staffby know what available performance feedback on the use of PCBS practices? PCBS practices to implement and if Examples: Non-Examples: theyre doing it accurately? Prompts Data Clearly stated and reminders outcomes PD focuses delivered only inon

punitive theory and Promptsstated Clearly and reminders outcomes PD focuses Data delivered only inon punitive theory and Supportive Explicit (model, data-based lead, test) feedback assumes educators evaluative fashion will discover Supports Feedback approach may be delivered by practices delayed or not dataDo data indicate that staff areintensive training with no Job-embedded Coach/mentor Full-day

based Peer/peer Linked implementing to school team data PCBS follow-up practices Self Short trainings not connected to Delivered in various contexts effectively? and connected to practice larger need, structure, etc. See Systems Brief Internal or external coach or mentor Peer

Self School or district behavior coach sends regular reminders to staff of the critical features of PCBS strategies, conducts walk through observations of educators, and provides specific and supportive feedback. Mentors assigned to support educators provide reminders of the critical features of PCBS strategies, collect data on the use of each skill, and provide supportive data-based feedback. Professional Learning Communities established within grade level or department teams focus on strategies targeted for improvement; team members review critical features of

targeted practice and provides feedback and implementation support to each other. Pairs of educators work together reminding one another of the critical features of each skill, provide practice opportunities, and observational feedback. Educators commit to being a dedicated coach for at least one strategy and a dedicated learner of a new strategy. Educators are provided with explicit instruction in one or more specific classroom management strategies. Educators set a goal for improvement and are provided with a tool for data collection and evaluation. Educators self-reinforce when they meet their goal. Mentoring or coaching conversations are not focused on specific PCBS strategies or guided by data. Data are not kept confidential but are shared with peers or administrators or used for evaluative purposes.

Em Re Lack of structure for meetings (e.g., not using data to select targeted skills or guide conversations); lack of trust among members; focus becomes student-specific rather than educator skills focused. Em Re Asking educators to self-manage without clearly understanding the

targeted strategy or data collection component. Em Re Turn and Talk: Review the critical features and topics we just discussed. Describe each key to your partner as you would to a teacher you are supporting. Identify questions or areas for clarification. Be prepared to discuss. PCBS Systems Action Planning Guide: Are staff implementing 3 fidelity? Key Questions PCBS with Yes No Are the foundational systems in place support PCBS practice

Well done!to Monitor Determine the number of outcomes and adjust as classrooms needing implementation by all staff? needed support (many or a few) Minor Major Do all staff know what PCBS Determine type and practices to and implement and if severity of Review adjust implementation changes theyre universal doing itsupport

accurately? (minor or major) Many Do data indicate that staff are Provide supplemental support to smallpractices groups implementing PCBS effectively? of staff needing support Few Consider individualized supports and other strategies for staff members needing intensified support. What data do we use to drive decision making? TABLE 3. TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION See Systems Brief

Data Collection Strategy What key strategies can I use to collect data on teacher PCBS implementation? Conditions and Examples Non Examples of Use Tools and Resources for Data Collection Method Under what conditions will this strategy be appropriate? Under what conditions will this strategy be inappropriate? What are some sample tools? Self-Assessment Checklists

Staff have received training on and can identify examples of each measured skill. Staff are unable to recognize or describe PCBS practices. Staff have not been trained in use of the checklist. Observer Checklists Tools for Measuring DiscreteSkills or Strategies

Prepare staff for visit; ensure opportunities for shared reflection and problem solving. Staff have received training on and can identify examples of each measured skill. Staff have set specific goals for improvement of targeted skills. Observations are used for evaluation purposes or data is not shared back with staff. Data needed for decision making requires information

on more than one or two discrete skills. Classroom management selfassessment MO SW-PBS Teacher SelfAssessment of the Effective Classroom Practices (2016) MO SW-PBS Teacher SelfAssessment of Effective Classroom Practices Wisconsin Walk through tools Self-management training scripts and tools Data-collection applications o SCOA Turn and Talk: Review the critical features and topics we just discussed. Describe each key to your partner as you would to a teacher you are supporting. Identify questions or areas for clarification.

Be prepared to discuss. Multi-tiered Framework of Professional Development Support Progress Monitoring Walk-through, Student Data Review, Teacher Collected Data Universal Screening Walk-through & Student Data Review Tier 3 Intensive PD: Data-driven Consultation Tier 2 Targeted PD: Self-Management with Peer or Coaching Supports Tier 1 Universal PD: Training & SelfManagement How can we approach intensifying our supports (adapted from Simonsen, MasSuga, Briere, Freeman, Myers, Scott, & Sugai, 2013) for educators implementing PCBS?

TABLE 4. STRATEGIES TO INTENSIFY SUPPORTS Intensifying supports for educators See Systems Brief Universal Support Focus of supports (precision) Supplemental Support Individualized This category identifies Support This category of broad support is provided universally to all educators to improve PCBS a more strategic approach of support that focuses on core factors that should be in place for effective implementation of PCBS This category of specialized supports

considers the unique needs of educators in implementation of PCBS The school and/or district provides general guidance on PCBS. Small groups of educators express interest in or indicate need for increased support. Individual educators are identified for specialized support. This support is matched to the need of the educator through functional assessment to determine if there is a skills deficit (educator does not have the requisite skills to implement PCBS) or performance deficit (educator has the skillset but does not consistently implement the PCBS).

Ensure that there is administrative support for PCBS through visibility, policy, and priority. Performance expectations Expectations are communicated to all staff to develop a school climate conducive to learning. Learning application opportunity Review of training content that was previously provided. Amount and frequency of the support Provide high quality training with professional learning community to support implementation.

Support is provided by giving additional information or professional development on PCBS and removal of barriers that may interfere (e.g., competing initiatives, access to training/coaching). Expectations are reiterated or re-visited with selected/some staff to further communicate the importunate of school climate for their classrooms (e.g., grade level). Additional opportunities to practice PCBS in a training setting with feedback from the trainer are provided. Increased opportunities for coaching as a followup to training are Removing barriers that may interfere with effective PCBS practices (competing initiatives, access to

training/coaching). Expectations are communicated specifically and clearly to individual teachers about the importance of developing effective classroom environments. Provide additional opportunity to provide practice of PCBS in actual classroom setting with guidance and feedback from a coach. Provide frequent individual coaching through coaching, video review of recorded Complete Classroom Systems Assessment Complete checklist for your own school or a school with which you are familiar. Identify and be ready to discuss areas for support.

Multi-tiered Framework of Professional Development Support EXAMPLES Progress Monitoring Walk-through, Student Data Review, Teacher Collected Data Universal Screening Walk-through & Student Data Review Tier 3 Intensive PD: Data-driven Consultation Tier 2 Targeted PD: SelfManagement with Peer or Coaching Supports Tier 1 Universal PD: Training & SelfManagement Self-management may be ONE way to approach this! (adapted from Simonsen, MasSuga, Briere, Freeman, Myers, Scott, & Sugai, 2013) Self Management: A promising component of effective and efficient PD support Self-management: Individuals manage their own behavior in the same manner as they

manage anyone elsesthrough the manipulation of variables of which behavior is a function (Skiner, 1953, p. 228). Self-manipulation of antecedents Engaging in other (self-management) behaviors to affect probability of target behaviors Self-monitoring and self-evaluation Self-manipulation of consequences (e.g., selfreinforcement) What does our initial research on self-management indicate? Across three studies, weve found that self-management with email coaching prompts resulted in desired initial increases in specific classroom management skills across teachers. We are still working to enhance maintenanceTeachers and generalization of effects. What did (Simonsen, Freeman, Dooley, Maddock, & Kern, 2017) Set a goal (criterion for selfreinforcement) Self-monitored daily Entered data into an Excel Spreadsheet, which automatically graphed daily praise rates relative to goal Self-evaluated and self-reinforced Received weekly email prompts to use specific praise and submit data you say?

Show you the data? OK! Weve now tested the targetedPD approach with: more teachers: 16 Teachers across two schools more skills: specific praise, prompts for social behavior, and academic opportunities to respond (OTRs) a group experimental design: counter-balanced interrupted time series design Randomly assigned to one of two cohorts Collected data before and after each skill-focused training and weve now replicated again with natural implementers Lets walk through what that actually looked like What does our initial research on self-management indicate? Across four studies, weve found that self-management with email coaching prompts resulted in desired initial increases classroom Lets

go intoinaspecific little more detailmanagement skills across teachers. We are still working to enhance maintenance and generalization of effects. (Simonsen, Freeman, Dooley, Maddock, & Kern, in preparation) See classroom tab of nepbis.org for copies of the training scripts, email prompts, and spreadsheets weve developed for tracking praise, prompts, and opportunities to respond. Supporting Teachers with Targeted PD Implementing Targeted Professional Development (PD) Targeted PD may work as tier 1 or 2 PD support for teachers. May be facilitated by a school-based behavior coach, instructional coach, or other school leader with behavioral expertise.

Targeted PD Includes Brief didactic training (1:1 or group setting) Teacher/staff self-management: Daily self-monitoring during brief (15 min) sample of instruction Daily self-evaluation (entering data, determining if goal was met) Self-reinforcement (celebrating on days when goal is met) Weekly email reminders re: skill use and selfmanagement strategies (by behavior coach) Periodic (e.g., bi-weekly) fidelity monitoring of skill use and self-management (by behavior coach) Didactic Training Scripted training that provides: Definition of skill Rational for using the skill Examples/non-examples of the skill Activity to apply the skill in the natural context Definition of self-management Instruction in self-management (i.e., how to self-monitor, enter data, self-evaluate, and self-reinforce) See example for specific praise in your handout and previewed next. Presentation Example: Specific Praise Presentation: Specific Praise

Definition Rationale Examples Critical features Definitions What is specific and contingent praise? Specific, contingent praise is a positive statement, typically provided by the teacher, when a desired behavior occurs (contingent) to inform students specifically what they did well. (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008) Rationale Why provide contingent praise? Delivering contingent praise for academic behavior increased participants (a) correct responses (Sutherland & Wehby, 2001), (b) work productivity and accuracy (Craft, Alber, & Heward, 1998; Wolford, Heward, & Alber, 2001), (c) language and math performance on class work (Roca & Gross, 1996), and (d) academic performance (Good, Eller, Spangler, & Stone, 1981). appropriate social behavior increased participants

(a) on-task behavior (Ferguson, & Houghton, 1992), (b) student attention (Broden, Bruce, Mitchell, Carter, & Hall, 1970), (c) compliance (Wilcox, Newman, & Pitchford, 1988), (d) positive self-referent statements (Phillips, 1984), and (e) cooperative play (Serbin, Tonick, & Sternglanz, 1977). (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008) Rationale Why provide specific praise? Increasing the number of behavior specific praise statements was associated with an increase in ontask behavior (Sutherland, Wehby, & Copeland, 2000). Providing contingent praise in conjunction with either establishing classroom rules in isolation (Becker, Madsen, & Arnold, 1967) or classroom rules paired with ignoring inappropriate behavior (Yawkey, 1971) was associated with increased appropriate classroom behavior. Bottom line, research is aMyers, good idea! (Simonsen,indicates Fairbanks, Briesch, & Sugai, 2008)

Examples & Non-examples Is this specific praise? Quick activity to check our understanding of specific praise. If the scenario on the ppt is an example of specific praise, give us a thumbs up. If the scenario is NOT an example of specific praise, give us a thumbs down. Examples & Non-examples Is this specific praise? During educator-directed instruction, a student raises her hand. The educator says, Thank you for raising your hand. Its a positive verbal statement that occurs immediately after and specifically names the expected behavior. Examples & Non-examples Is this specific praise? During educator-directed instruction, students are talking over the educator. The educator

rolls his eyes and says, Gee, thanks for listening. Why? This is sarcasm, not specific praise. Examples & Non-examples Is this specific praise? A student enters the class during educator-directed instruction; the student quietly walks to his seat. The educator walks over to the student and whispers, Thank you for coming in the room quietly. Its a positive verbal statement that occurs immediately after and specifically names the expected behavior. Examples & Non-examples Is this specific praise? A student enters the class during educator-directed instruction; the student quietly walks to his seat. The educator gives the student a thumbs up to recognize the quiet entry. Why?

This is general and non-verbal. Examples & Non-examples Is this specific praise? During educator-directed instruction, one student is poking and attempting to talk with another student, who responds by showing the class quiet symbol. The educator immediately looks at the second student, gives a thumbs up sign, and mouths (moves lips without sound), Thank you for paying attention. Its a positive verbal statement that occurs immediately after and specifically names the expected behavior. Examples & Non-examples Is this specific praise? During educator-directed instruction, one student is poking and attempting to talk with another student, who responds by showing the class quiet symbol. About 1 min later, the educator looks at a second student, smiles, and says good job.

Why? This is general, and not clearly contingent. Examples & Non-examples Is this specific praise? After an educator points to the consonant blend /th/, which is underlined in the word through, and says, What sound? a student responds by correctly pronouncing / th/. The educator says, Nice pronunciation. Its a positive verbal statement that occurs immediately after and specifically names the expected behavior. Examples & Non-examples Is this specific praise? During a direct instruction lesson, the educator points to the consonant blend /th/, which is underlined in the word though, and says, What sound? Why?

This is an opportunity to respond. Critical Features So, what is specific praise? Verbal statement (i.e., not look or gesture) Deliver immediately after the behavior Specifically state the desired behavior demonstrated If you use other rewards, remember to pair specific praise with other rewards (e.g., delivery of tokens or Activity: Specific Praise How will you use specific praise in your classroom? In your handout, write three (or more) specific praise statements that you will use during educator-directed instruction to recognize appropriate social behavior. Developing Self-Management How will you increase the likelihood that you will deliver specific praise for appropriate social behavior? Definition of self-management Description of self-management for this skill Review/discussion of materials needed to

implement Practice using strategies Definitions What is self-management? According to Skinner (1953), we manage our own behavior in the same manner as we manage anyone elsesthrough the manipulation of variables of which behavior is a function (p. 228). Self-management is engaging in one response (the self-management behavior) that affects the probability of a subsequent behavior (the target or desired behavior). For example, keeping a to do list (selfmanagement behavior) may increase the likelihood that you do the things on your list (target behaviors). Develop Self-management Plan See example for specific praise in your handout. Use Self-management

Self-monitor Use spreadsheet to enter data and self-evaluate Self-reinforce See examples on classrooms tab at nepbis.org. Weekly Email Reminders Brief email reminders about praise and skill use. For example: Remember, specific praise is contingent (delivered immediately after the behavior), specific (names the desired behavior exhibited), and positive. Nice hand raise and Thank you for actively listening are examples of brief specific praise statements. Keep on counting, graphing, reviewing your data, and reinforcing yourself when you meet your goal! Multi-tiered Framework of Professional Development Support EXAMPLES Progress Monitoring Walk-through, Student Data Review, Teacher Collected Data Universal Screening Walk-through & Student Data Review Tier 3 Intensive PD: Data-driven

Consultation Tier 2 Targeted PD: SelfManagement with Peer or Coaching Supports Tier 1 Universal PD: Training & SelfManagement Coaching/Mentoring Self-management may maybe beANOTHER ONE way way approach this! to to approach this! (adapted from Simonsen, MasSuga, Briere, Freeman, Myers, Scott, & Sugai, 2013) What about other approaches? Consultation approaches may provide intensive supports for new or in-service teachers. (Briere, Simonsen, Myers, & Sugai, 2015; MacSuga & Simonsen, 2011) Another Research Example Don Briere explored the effects of within-school

consultation (self-monitoring + structured weekly meetings) on the specific praise rates of 3 new (induction) elementary school teachers Multi-tiered Framework of Professional Development Support EXAMPLES Progress Monitoring Walk-through, Student Data Review, Teacher Collected Data Universal Screening Walk-through & Student Data Review Tier 3 Intensive PD: Data-driven Consultation Tier 2 Targeted PD: SelfManagement with Peer or Coaching Supports Tier 1 Universal PD: Training & SelfManagement Self-management, Peer Supports may and/or becoaching, ANOTHER way to

mentoring approach may this! be ways to approach this! (adapted from Simonsen, MasSuga, Briere, Freeman, Myers, Scott, & Sugai, 2013) Draft Action Plan to Support Classroom Behavior Practice Over the course of this spring, you will work with your school leadership team to develop your schools framework to support PCBS implementation. Begin to draft strategies that you will put in place to support ALL educators (add to your schools action plan or used provided template). Consider ALL elements of the systems framework (see your self assessment of systems) and identify potential self, peer, coach, and/or mentor delivered supports. This should be developed with your team, so youre just identifying potential strategies. Sowhat are we going to do? As a result of attending this training, you will be able to Present the context in which positive classroom behavioral support (PCBS) practices are implemented. Train critical positive classroom behavior support (PCBS) practices. Implement the key elements of effective professional development and implementation systems to support staff. Describe the VT Classroom Behavior Practice Coaching Model

VT Behavior Practice Coaching Overview of Training Overview Webinar (Jan 5) Full Day Training (Jan 20, Today) Practices Systems 2-3 Webinars (TBD) On-going E-Consultation via Discussion Board and Email VT Behavior Practice Coaching Expectations and Timelines Develop Multi-Tiered Framework for Supporting Educators Implementation Work with leadership team to develop detailed action plan Collect pre-implementation (baseline) data Spring 2017 Implement starting Fall 2017 Collect on-going implementation data VT Behavior Practice Coaching Overview of Evaluation Existing Data Classroom Office Discipline Referrals (ODR) Classroom Item on Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI) Checklists During Training Classroom Management Assessment (CMA) Classroom Systems Assessment (CSA)

Possible Additional Sources of Data School Climate Survey Quick Recap As a result of attending this training, you should now be able to: Present the context in which positive classroom behavioral support (PCBS) practices are implemented. Train critical positive classroom behavior support (PCBS) practices. Implement the key elements of effective professional development and implementation systems to support staff. Describe the VT Classroom Behavior Practice Coaching Model PCBS Practices Decision-making Guide: 3 Key ?s Are the foundations of effective PCBS in place? Effectively design the physical environment of the classroom + Develop & teach predictable classroom routines. + Post, define, & teach 3-5 positive classroom

expectations. Are proactive and positive PCBS practices implemented consistently? Provide high rates of varied opportunities to respond. + Use prompts and active supervision. + Acknowledge behavior with specific praise & other strategies. Do data indicate that students are still engaging in problem behavior? Are students still engaging in problem behavior? Yes Are behaviors minor or major expectation violations? Minor

No Well done! Monitor outcomes and adjust as needed Major Use brief, specific How many students error & involved are (many Do correction data indicate thatare students still other strategies or few)? problem behavior? Many Review, adjust & intensify CWPBIS. Ask for help! engaging in

Few Request additional (tier 2 & 3) support for students. PCBS Systems Action Planning Guide: 3 Key Questions Are the foundational systems in place to support PCBS practice implementation by all staff? + School and district PCPS implementation Do all staff know what PCBS resources are is a clear school and available to support practices district priority to implement and if PCBS implementation theyre doing it accurately? School and district teams have considered

alignment and integration of PCBS with other district priorities and initiatives + Clear expectations and Coaching and/or regularly Dotraining data indicate that staff areperformance explicit about available practices that should be PCBS feedback on the use of PCBS implementing practices implemented by all staff practices effectively? + Are staff implementing

PCBS with fidelity? Yes No Well done! Monitor outcomes and adjust as needed Determine the number of classrooms needing support (many or a few) Minor Major Review and adjust universal support Many Determine type and severity of implementation changes (minor or major) Do data indicate that

staff are Provide supplemental support to smallpractices groups implementing PCBS effectively? of staff needing support Few Consider individualized supports and other strategies for staff members needing intensified support. Thank you! [email protected] www.pbis.org www.cber.org

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