Evidence-based prevention of bullying: introducing the KiVa antibullying programme to Wales #BehFest16 1 Professor Judy Hutchings Centre for Evidence Based Early Intervention, Bangor University #BehFest16

2 My work since 1976 - NHS and University Initially with clinically referred children with behavioural difficulties and their families started to address childrens school experience through teacher classroom management research in 2000 Research on programmes to enhance childrens and problem solving skills for KS1

Heard Christina Salmivalli talk about KiVa in 2012 in Cambridge University 3 Bullying the accepted international definition Systematic aggressive behaviour against a person who finds it difficult to defend him/herself against the perpetrator(s) Repeated attacks and power differential are central features

4 What is Bullying? The same child is repeatedly caused harm or distress The child finds it hard to defend him/herself against the ones who are hurting him /her Because they are weaker, younger, shier Because they are new in the class and dont know other pupils yet Because it is a group against one person Because of some other reason

5 Consequences of bullying and victimisation Victimisation anxiety, depression, loneliness risk for depression, low self-esteem & difficulty to trust other people in adulthood Bullying others learning to use aggression as a means to get

what one wants risk for criminal offending in adulthood Both bullying and victimisation, bully-victims the most maladjusted Risk factors for victims

Physical size/strength (especially boys) Obesity (especially girls) Physical characteristics (eg red/ginger hair) Anxiety Low self-esteem Religion

Race/ethnicity Sexual orientation Poor social skills/social isolation/low popularity Disability/chronic conditions 7 Is it really true that bullying has moved from the schoolyard to Internet chat rooms and other electronic media? Online disinhibition effect (Suler, 2004)

Empirical studies have failed to confirm this because the victims of bullying tend to be bullied in numerous ways 8 Pupils targeted by different forms of bullying A child who is bullied is typically targeted in multiple ways

9 Finland, 2009 Pupils NOT feeling safe at school, % 10 15 year olds 10 KiVa in Finland In Finland having an anti-bullying policy was a requirement on schools but monitored over 10 years it produced no change

in 2006 The Ministry of Education and Culture funded the development of a bullying prevention programme to be implemented widely in Finnish schools KiVa 11 Research background of KiVa Christina Salmivalli had already done

20 years of research on bullying Participant roles in bullying (Salmivalli et al., 1996) assistants of the bully 7% 8% 24% bully

12% reinforcers of the bully outsiders 17% defenders of the victim 20% 12

The responses of peer bystanders matter short term effects defended victims are better adjusted than undefended ones long term effects the most negative memory related to bullying is often no-one cared In classrooms where pupils tend to reinforce the bully, bullying occurs more frequently and vulnerable children (e.g., socially anxious ones) are more likely to end up as the targets of bullying

13 In order to reduce bullying... We do not necessarily need to change the victims, making them less vulnerable Influencing the behaviour of bystanders can reduce the rewards gained by the bullies and consequently, their motivation to bully in the first place UNIVERSAL However, the victims need to feel that they are heard and

helped by the adults at school The bullies need to be confronted for their unacceptable behaviour 14 In order to reduce bullying... We do not necessarily need to change the victims, making them less vulnerable Influencing the behaviour of bystanders can reduce the rewards gained by the bullies and consequently, their motivation to bully in the first place

INDICATED However, victims need to feel that they are heard and helped by the adults at school The bullies need to be confronted for their unacceptable behaviour 15 KiVa programme Components: Both universal and indicated actions

A large amount of materials & concrete tools (not merely a philosophy) Utilises virtual learning environments Influences the whole group KiVa is more systematic than most existing antibullying programmes Strong evidence of effectiveness 16 KiVa universal and indicated actions Parent materials

Online antibullying games Pupil lessons and materials involved (teacher manuals, short films) Visible vests for persons supervising recess time Online surveys with

feedback of progress Monitoring implementation and long-term effects KiVa team Clear guidelines for tackling bullying 17 Activities included in class lessons

Creating awareness of how the group might maintain and fuel bullying Providing safe strategies to support victimised peers 18 Learning by doing 19 KiVa online games: closely connected to

the lessons 20 Online games I CAN / Unit 2 21 Parents involvement

22 The annual on-line pupil survey monitoring tool: provides schools with annual feedback on the situation in their school and the situation for the country as a whole

23 Indicated actions- the role of the KiVa team Individual discussions with the victim and with the bullying child/children KIVA TEAM + utilising prosocial, high-status peers your help is needed CLASS TEACHER setting standards for others making the victim feel better protecting the victimised child from further attacks

24 Evidence of effectiveness In Finland Randomised controlled trial 2007-2009 117 intervention and 117 control schools >30,000 pupils (grades 19, 715 year old) First year of nationwide implementation (2009-2010) 880 Finnish schools (cohort longitudinal design) ~150,000 pupils (grades 19) Monitoring based on annual survey (2009ongoing

25 Changes in being bullied by different forms during one school year relative to control children: RCT, grades 4 to 6 KiVa Indicated actions are effective The proportion of cases handled by the school team in which bullying

Stopped completely Decreased Remained the same Increased 78.2% 19.5% 2.0% 0.3%

Garandeau et al. (2014). Tackling acute cases of bullying: Comparison of two methods in the context of the KiVa antibullying program Long-term effects from broad roll out: Proportion of pupils who have been bullied / who are bullying others repeatedly in KiVa schools, 2009-2015 28 NOT feeling safe at school, %

29 Countries now implementing and in several cases researching KiVa Finland, Netherlands, USA, Wales. England, Estonia, Sweden, Luxembourg, Italy, Japan, Belgium, New Zealand, The European School Network, Chile, Hungary 30 The current situation in Wales

Schools must have an anti-bullying policy There is no specific advice or guidance on recommended evidence based strategies that could make the policies work 31 KiVa in Wales: first steps Prof. Salmivalli spoke in Cambridge in 2011 Invited to Wales in Autumn 2011 I spoke at a Welsh Government meeting of school improvement officers

Welsh Government grant allocated to evidence based programmes for School Improvement and KiVa was included on the list of eligible programmes in 2012/3 32 32 KiVa in Wales 2012 2012 only unit 2 available for years 5 and 6 Now since 2013 unit 1 for 7 -9 year olds Unit 3 for 13 15 year olds available later this year

The KiVA curriculum covers at least 50% of the PSE curriculum 33 Welsh Pilot study A small-scale pilot study involving 17 schools 14 in Wales and 3 in Cheshire (2012/2013) Welsh schools used a Welsh Government school improvement grant Unit 2 curriculum for 9-11 year olds Training by KiVa team from Finland

Termly support meetings Data collected - Pre-post online pupil self-report survey - Teacher mid- and end-point survey 34 Pilot pupil self-report results Victimisation: t(12) =2.15, p =.027 Bullying: t(12) =2.79, p =.008 Final: Pupil sample n=472 School sample n=13

35 Pilot Teacher Feedback Teachers: enthusiastic and positive about the lesson content and structure Teachers: reported that 75-100% of pupils were engaged and enthusiastic about the lessons The majority of teachers reported that KiVa had a positive impact on: child well-being, behaviour, pro-social behaviour, and class and playground atmosphere

36 Second year follow-up of Pilot School pupils 2013/4 Mean percentage of self-reported victims and bullies from pupils in year five that received the intervention in 2012/3 and the same groups of children at the end of year 6 in schools where the programme has been continued. Data collected in year 5 in September 2012 and July 2013, and in year 6 in July 2014. The error bars represent the standard error. 37

The current situation in Wales/UK 70 schools now delivering KiVa in KS2 Baseline data has been collated from 66 Welsh Schools First year follow-up data collated for 40 Welsh schools, the others are still in their first year of delivery so first F/U for them will be June 16 Second year follow-up collated for eight schools 38

All Wales Data baseline Feb 15 66 Welsh schools (n=6240 pupils) 815 took survey in Welsh All Wales pre-post data after one year 40 Welsh schools - baseline (n=3710 pupils), follow up 1 year after implementation (n=3576 pupils) KiVa data for eight RCT trial schools with two years of outcome data

8 schools: Baseline n=1138; Year 1 n=1087; Year 2 n=1078 41 BIG Lottery funded Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) The Welsh BIG Lottery Innovation fund for an RCT in 20 schools from across Wales The RCT is being conducted by a partnership between the Social Research Unit Dartington and Bangor University All parent and child material translated into

Welsh The RCT uses Units 1 and 2, delivered to all KS2 pupils aged 7 to 11 years Pupil matched data now being analysed 42 An example Ysgol Penmorfa an RCT intervention school Every school gets its own data annually and can decide whether or not to share it with staff parents, etc...

Head teacher Dave Edwards, Ysgol Penmorfa, was one of our most enthusiastic research school heads His school data has been shared with his staff, governors, and parents 43 Ysgol Penmorfa School results 44 KiVa Anti- Bullying Programme in

Powys A strategic decision to provide support for KiVa to be rolled out county wide as a key strand in emotional health and well being strategy: link with depression, anxiety, motivation for school and learning Training delivered through Powys HB with local trainer

Funding for training, materials and start up via CYPP Delivered by schools Parental involvement key (an important issue for parents) Development of local supportive infrastructure 45 Current Situation in Powys

31 Schools trained 13 are in second year of implementation 18 in first year of implementation Capacity to train a further 15- 20 schools by Summer 2016 On-going audit and evaluation involving clinical psychology and educational psychology service Survey involving all, KiVa trained schools 46

KiVa Wales - present situation We have funded an administrative assistant to support the development of KiVa We have started to develop a network of UK trainers co-ordinated through our Centre in Wales We have six trainers in Wales, one in Cheshire and one for Staffordshire Over 70 schools are now trained and currently delivering We will have the RCT trial results later this year 47

47 ITV News Presentation on KiVa Priory School Brecon http://www.itv.com/news/wales/2015-05-12/antibullying-scheme-encourages-classmates-to-spe ak-out/ 48 Priory School Brecon baseline and first year outcomes

49 UK training strategy in 2016 To maintain fidelity KiVa need local leads and we are licensed as the UK centre to train local trainers across the UK Trainers must have a structure that enables them to both train and support local schools They can be funded by a school collective (group of schools) or a local authority, an NGO or by grants 50

New grant application We are seeking funds to explore the effect of adding specific homework activities linked to every KiVa lesson The aim is: - to help children to discuss the KiVa learning at home - to help parents to learn more about KiVa and what being a KiVa school means - to help parents to learn how to talk with their children about bullying 51

Conclusion Bullying is widespread in the UK Schools are an environment in which it can occur Children need evidence-based education KiVa has good evidence and covers more than 50% of the PSE curriculum Teachers in UK primary schools like it and report positive responses from children We are working with schools to support the development of KiVa in the UK

52 52 Important current research area - how to support broad roll out: It is clear that some schools embrace KiVa more than others The quality of implementation is associated with the outcomes obtained (Haataja et al., 2014). Head teacher support is crucial for sustainable implementation (Ahtola et al., 2012)

KiVa is a tool to be used and when used it works 53 References

Axford, N., Hutchings, J., Bjornstad, G., Clarkson, S. & Hunt, A. (2014). KiVa: Helping schools and parents beat bullying. Better: Evidence-based Education, 6(2), 14-15. . Hutchings, J. (2014). New ways to tackle bullying. Society Central. http://societycentral.ac.uk/2014/04/08/new-ways-to-tackle-bullying/ Clarkson, S. (2015) Together against bullying. The Psychologist 28 (2), 550-551 Hutchings, J. & Clarkson, S. (2015) Introducing and piloting the KiVa bullying prevention programme in the UK. Educational and Child Psychology 32 (1), 49-61 Axford, N., Farrington, D.P., Clarkson, S., Bjornstad, G., Wrigley, Z & Hutchings, J.

(2015) Involving parents in school-based programmes to prevent and reduce bullying: does it work? Journal of Childrens Services, 10 (3). Hutchings, J. & Clarkson, S. (2015) Rolling out evidence-based programmes in schools. Better: Evidence-based Education 7 (2) 20-21 . Clarkson et al., (2015) Effectiveness and micro-costing of the KiVa-bullying-prevention programme in Wales: Study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial. BMC Health. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-2746-1. 54 Diolch am wrando Thank you

Judy Hutchings Centre for Evidence Based Early Intervention, School of Psychology, Bangor University,Wales https://www.bangor.ac.uk/psychology/cebei [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] 55 55

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