PowerPoint - Models of the Atom - A Historical Perspective
Models of the Atom a Historical Perspective Early Greek Theories Democritus 400 B.C. - Democritus thought matter could not be divided indefinitely. This led to the idea of atoms in a void. fire earth Aristotle air
water 350 B.C - Aristotle modified an earlier theory that matter was made of four elements: earth, fire, water, air. Aristotle was wrong. However, his theory persisted for 2000 years. John Dalton 1800 -Dalton proposed a modern atomic model based on experimentation not on pure reason. All matter is made of atoms.
Atoms of an element are identical. Each element has different atoms. Atoms of different elements combine in constant ratios to form compounds. Atoms are rearranged in reactions, but are not created nor destroyed. His ideas account for the law of conservation of mass (atoms are neither created nor destroyed) and the law of constant composition (elements combine in fixed ratios). Adding Electrons to the Model Materials, when rubbed, can develop a charge difference. This electricity is called cathode rays when passed through an evacuated tube. These rays have a small mass and are negative.
Thompson noted that these negative subatomic particles (electrons) were a fundamental part of all atoms. 1) Daltons Billiard ball model (1800-1900) Atoms are solid and indivisible. 2) Thompson Plum pudding model (1900) Negative electrons in a positive framework. 3) The Rutherford model (around 1910) Atoms are mostly empty space. Negative electrons orbit a positive nucleus. Ernest Rutherford Rutherford shot alpha () particles at gold foil. Zinc sulfide screen Lead block Thin gold foil
Radioactive substance path of invisible -particles Most particles passed through. So, atoms are mostly empty. Some positive -particles deflected or bounced back! Thus, a nucleus is positive (protons) & holds most of an atoms mass. Table 1, p. 26 Atomic numbers, Mass numbers Elements are often symbolized with their mass number (A) and atomic number (Z)
16 E.g. Oxygen: 8 O Z = # of protons = # of electrons A - Z = # of neutrons Calculate # of e, n0, p+ for Ca, Ar, and Br Atomic Mass p+ n0
e Ca 20 40 20 20 20 Ar 18
40 18 22 18 Br 35 80 35
45 35 Bohr - Rutherford diagrams Putting all this together, we get B-R diagrams To draw them you must know the # of protons, neutrons, and electrons (2,8,8,2 filling order) Draw protons (p+), (n0) in circle (i.e. nucleus) Draw electrons around in shells He 2p 2 n0 +
Li Li shorthand 3 p+ 4 n0 3 p+ 2e 1e 4 n0 Draw Be, B, Al and shorthand diagrams for O, Na Be B 4 p+ 5 n
O Al 5 p+ 6 n 13 p+ 14 n Na 8 p+ 2e 6e 8 n 11 p+ 2e 8e 1e 12 n
Isotopes and Radioisotopes Isotopes: Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons Due to isotopes, mass #s are not round #s. E.g. Li (6.9) is made up of both 6Li and 7Li. Often, at least one isotope is unstable.It breaks down, releasing radioactivity.These types of isotopes are called radioisotopes Q- Sometimes an isotope is written without its atomic number - e.g. 35S (or S-35). Why? Q- Draw B-R diagrams for the two Li isotopes. A- The atomic # of an element doesnt change Although the number of neutrons can vary, atoms have definite numbers of protons. Li 7Li
6 3 p+ 3 n0 2e 1e 3 p+ 4 n0 2e 1e Half-Life The time it takes 1/2 the nuclei in a radioactive sample to decay Example: The half-life of Cs-137 is 30 yrs. What mass of Cs137 would remain from a 12 g sample after 30
yrs? After 60ys P. 32 #9, 12 Bohrs model Electrons orbit the nucleus in shells 1. An electron can travel indefinitely within an energy level without losing energy 2. The greater the distance between the nucleus and the energy level, the greater the energy level 3. An electron cannot exist between energy levels, but can move to a higher, unfilled shell if it absorbs a specific quantity of energy, or to a lower, unfilled shell if it loses energy When all the electrons in an atom are in the lowest possible energy levels, it is in its ground state.
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