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PowerPoint 演示文稿 - OFCM

Storm Surge Issues of Hurricane Katrina
P. Fitzpatrick , Y. Lau , S. Bhate , Yongzuo Li , Elizabeth Valenti , Bob Jacobsen , and Joel Lawhead
1. GeoResources Institute, Mississippi State University;
2. WorldWinds Inc.; 3. URS; 4 NVision Solutions Inc.
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1

1

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2

4

Timing of Wind and Surge

Overview
Category 3 Katrina generated a U.S.-record storm surge which impacted a wide r
egion from Grand Isle, LA, to Mobile Bay, AL, and killed about 1350 people wit
h hundreds still missing. Sensitivity experiments by WorldWinds using the ADv
anced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) storm surge model show a large hurricane produc
es water elevations 20-40% higher than a small hurricane with the same intensity
and with considerably more widespread inundation. The previous U.S.-record su
rge was Hurricane Camille (1969) which impacted the same region, an intense b
ut smaller Category 5 hurricane. Camilles hurricane-force winds extended 60 mi
les from the storm center, while Katrinas extended 120 miles. Camilles tropical
storm-force winds reached 180 miles outward, while Katrina was 230 miles. It is
likely Katrinas wide eye of 37 miles also played a role (Camilles eye was appro
ximately 11 miles wide).

Table 1. Hurricane Katrina high water marks, compiled by Haag Engineering, National Weather Service
(NWS), the USGS, and Fitzpatrick along the immediate coast. Available Hurricane Camille values from
the Army Corps of Engineers is also shown for comparison.
Location

Katrina high
water mark
(feet)

Source

Camille surge
(feet)

Buras, LA

20-25
(estimated)

Storm surge models, eyewitness
accounts

15

Slidell, LA (inland)

15

Haag, Rt. 433 and HWY 90

Slidell, LA (Lake Pontchartrain) 18

Fitzpatrick

Grand Isle, LA

12

NWS

Lake Pontchartrain Causeway

6.8

NWS

Lake Maurepas, LA

3

NWS

Hopedale, LA

The inland penetration of Katrinas storm surge was truly remarkable. The Missi
ssippi River levee system held and confined most of the surge east of the river ex
cept for the landfall region of Buras, LA. Regions west of the Mississippi River
experienced little surge, suggesting that the river levee system may have augmen
ted Katrinas surge on the east side. Most of Plaquemines, St. Bernard, and easte
rn Orleans Parishes were inundated with surge which overflowed levees and dest
royed them with scouring action. Buildings outside the levee system became ce
ment slabs. Tide gauges also show the surge traveled up the Mississippi River, w
ith elevation spikes reaching 14 feet at the Bonnet Carre Spillway 10 miles west
of New Orleans. Levees along some canals south of Lake Pontchartrain were no
t overtopped but experienced failures that are still under investigation, causing w
ell-publicized flooding of New Orleans. The surge also penetrated through inope
rative flood pumps which, when combined with the inability to remove rainwater
, caused moderate flooding in the suburban region west of New Orleans. The eas
tern end of St. Tammany Parish suffered an extreme surge which came from Lak
e Borgne as well as up the Pearl and Bonfouca river systems, traveling miles inla
nd in Slidell. St. Tammany experienced a second surge when the wind shifted, sl
oshing piled-up water in Lake Pontchartrain northeastward. A video is shown of
the surge along northern Lake Pontchartrain.

The entire Mississippi coast experienced the
storm surge. The western region from Pearl
River to Bay St. Louis suffered the worst, as
the surge traveled past Interstate 10 (Figure
1). The official peak surge occurred in this
region, estimated at 28 feet. However, high
water marks indicate even higher elevations,
although some may be impacted by wave
action (Table 1). Comparisons to Hurricane
Camilles surge are shown in Table 1. The
surge also traveled far up the Jordan River
and Biloxi River, decimating towns such as
Kiln, MS. An ADCIRC simulation of
Katrinas surge evolution is shown in Fig. 2.
The surge occurred at high tide, adding
another foot of water.

3

Stennis Space Center

Jordan River

20

85
65

Fitzpatrick

45

USGS Tide Gauge

Waveland, MS

31

Haag, Waveland School

20

Bay St. Louis, MS

27

Haag, Post Office on rt. 190

21

Pass Christian, MS

28

USGS, 1320 Scenic Drive

23.4 (previous
record)

Gulfport, MS

22

Haag, First Baptist Church on Rt. 90 21

Biloxi, MS

20

Haag, Grand Casino

17

Biloxi, MS

24

USGS Isle of Capri Casino

15.6

Ocean Springs, MS

19

Haag, House on Beach BLVD

16

Pascagoula, MS

17

Haag, House on Beach BLVD

12

Bayou La Batre, AL

14

NWS

8

Mobile State Docks, AL

11.5

NWS

6

Dauphin Island, AL

6.2

USGS Tide Gauge

Perdido Pass, FL

5.8

NWS

4
Katrina storm surge at 7AM

Katrina storm surge at 11AM

I-10

Pearl River

Waveland

Fig. 1. The maximum storm surge i
n Hancock County according to F
EMA. Some high water marks also
shown. The shaded region represe
nts the inland penetration. Note th
e surge traveled past Interstate 10
and up the Jourdan River and Pea
rl River. (Figure courtesy of Nvisio
n Solutions Inc.)

125
105

4

Katrina storm surge at 9AM

145

8

Lafitte, LA

Katrina storm surge at 5AM

An important insurance issue involves the timing of wind versus surge. All
tide gauges failed at the peak of the storm in the severely impacted regions.
However, 17 USGS gauges in the impact region functioned during tropical
storm-force conditions. Figure 3 shows a typical gauge measurement at Bay
Gardene, LA. All gauges show winds of 50-60 mph with storm surge values
of 5-8 feet, typically less than would flood most homes. Printouts of all tide
gauges are available for examination at this poster station.

Fig. 2. ADCIRC simulation of Katrina storm surge. Graphics extend from the Northshore of Lake Pontchartr
ain, LA, across the Mississippi coast to Pascagoula, MS. At 5AM the surge moves up the Pearl, Jordan, and
Biloxi River estuaries. Marsh regions near Pearlington and Pascagoula begin to experience inundation. The
surge is below 5 feet in most regions. By 7AM, this pattern continues, but with surge values above 10 feet in s
ome regions. Waveland begins to experience inundation. By 9AM, significant storm surge is occurring along
the Mississippi coast and Mobile Bay, with 15-25 feet water elevations penetrating miles inland west of Bay S
t. Louis. Because the wind direction is shifting over Louisiana, piled-up water in Lake Pontchartrain pushes e
astward, causing a second wave of inundation in that region. Indeed, damage to the twin spans bridge syst
em which connects Slidell and New Orleans, indicates an outward surge, with much of the damage on the eas
t of the bridge system. The peak surge occurs around 11AM period, with extreme inland penetration and reco
rd surge values on the order of 25-35 feet. Even though Katrina was less intense than Camille, the record sur
ge can generally be explained by the huge size of the storm.

25

Fig. 3. USGS tide gauge of water elevation
(feet) and wind (mph) for Bay Gardene, located
in the marsh 20 miles east of Chalmette, LA.
This gauge failed after midnight on 8/29/05.

Fig. 4. ADCIRC simulation of the surge (feet)
and the wind forcing (mph) for an inland point
near Bay St. Louis, MS during landfall.

To examine the possible timing of surge in the storm center, time series plots
of individual locations were produced from the ADCIRC simulation. They
generally show the peak winds preceding the peak surge between 30 minutes
and two hours. An example is shown for Bay St. Louis (Fig. 4).

The Impact of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet and the
Hypothesized Funneling Effect
The Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO) is a 70-mile, deep-draft, man-made
channel, completed in 1963. 40 miles was dredged through marshland in St.
Bernard Parish. Originally 750 feet wide, MRGO has eroded to 2000 feet wide
in many places, destroyed more than 36,000 acres of wetlands, and disrupted a
brackish environment with high salinity. Its role in hurricane storm surges is
also controversial, with speculation MRGO acts as a conduit. Its intersection
with the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway has also been hypothesized to provide a
funneling effect for the storm surge.
These issues were studied with an ADCIRC simulation of Katrina for a filledin MRGO. Little difference was observed (Fig. 5), because the surge is a
widespread event in which one channel will make little impact. Another
simulation used a wider levee system at the intersection, and the surge actually
increased (Fig. 6), because without restricting the flow, the conveyance
increased in this region. The URS report is available at this poster station.

Fig. 5. Comparison of ADCIRC simulations with
MRGO open and closed, showing little impact of
the MRGO on the storm surge at Bayou Dupre s
outh of Lake Borgne near Violet, LA.

Fig. 6. Comparison of ADCIRC simulations with MRGO
closed and a wider levee system at the Gulf Intracoastal
Waterway. A wider levee system actually yields higher
surge elevations, because the conveyance increases.

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