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About OMICS Group OMICS Group International is an amalgamation of Open Access publications and worldwide international science conferences and events. Established in the year 2007 with the sole aim of making the information on Sciences and technology Open Access, OMICS Group publishes 400 online open access scholarly journals in all aspects of Science, Engineering, Management and Technology journals. OMICS Group has been instrumental in taking the knowledge on Science & technology to the doorsteps of ordinary men and women. Research Scholars, Students, Libraries, Educational Institutions, Research centers and the industry are main stakeholders that benefitted greatly from this knowledge dissemination. OMICS Group also organizes 300 International conferences annually across the globe, where knowledge transfer takes place through debates, round table discussions, poster presentations, workshops, symposia and exhibitions . About OMICS Group Conferences OMICS Group International is a pioneer and leading science event organizer, which publishes around 400 open access journals and conducts over 300 Medical, Clinical, Engineering, Life Sciences, Pharma scientific conferences all over the globe annually with the support of more than 1000 scientific associations and 30,000 editorial board members and 3.5 million followers to its credit. OMICS Group has organized 500 conferences, workshops and national symposiums across the major cities including San Francisco, Las Vegas, San Antonio, Omaha, Orlando, Raleigh, Santa Clara, Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore, United Kingdom, Valencia, Dubai, Beijing, Hyderabad, Bengaluru and Mumbai.

MEASURING USER EXPERIENCE DURING A DRIVING SIMULATION WITH MINARGUS Automobile Engineering September 01-02, 2015 Valencia, Spain Maik Auricht1 Rainer Stark2 Technische Universitt Berlin Fraunhofer IPK, Berlin 1 urc So e c ors :P AG he Source: Festo AG DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin

02/03/2020 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Technische Universitt Berlin Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology (IPK) School of Mechanical Engineering and Transportation Systems (IWF) Virtual Product Creation Industrial Information Technology Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Stark Major research fields: Prof. Dr.-Ing. R. Stark Product Product development development methods methods and and processes processes Product Product modelling modelling and

and functional functional validation validation Intuitive Intuitive interaction interaction with with virtual virtual prototypes prototypes Information Information Informationmanagement management managementfor for forproduct product productcreation creation creation Digital Digital manufacturing manufacturing operations operations and and factory factory processes processes Source of Picture: Fraunhofer IPK, Alina Goldberg DQS-zertifiziert nach

DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin 4 / 21 Motivation With its analysis of more than 300 innovations Oliver Wyman shows that, among other hybrid drives, sequential multi-stage turbocharger, LEDs, intelligent driver-machine interface and electromagnetic brake technologies have the potential to success. Electronics continues to be the central 'enabler' and drivers for 60 percent of all innovations, with the focus shifted from individual applications to system applications that combine multiple components. As new features are often created by an intelligent combination of existing components and modules. Almost all the core features of the car will improve: Fuel efficiency (up to 30 percent), emissions, active and passive safety, connectivity and infotainment, vehicle dynamics and performance characteristics, comfort, flexibility and space - while improving cost-benefit ratio for buyers . DANNENBERG, J.; BURGARD, J. (2007): 2015 car innovation - Innovationsmanagement in der Automobilindustrie, Oliver Wyman (Hg.) DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin 5 / 21

Motivation Almost every car is equipped with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) It occurs, that drivers are not satisfied with the system That can have different reasons: A: Usability aspects (such as Effectiveness or Efficiency) B: System does not work correctly (technical aspects) C: System has interdependencies with other assistance systems (similar to B) D: User experience issues (such as subjective feelings, motivational aspects) There are different validation methods for the reason A-C in the early phases of the product development process However, there are no running validation methods for reason D Reason D is more a validation problem rather than a verification problem* DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin *Verification: Are we building the system right? | 6 / 21 Validation: Are we building the Structure of the presentation

Validation methods for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems State of the art Results of the questionnaire Driving Simulators Pilot questionnaire Development of a new tool to perform User Experience tests DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 User Experience Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin MINARGUS: A new tool to measure UX and control the simulation

7 / 21 Structure of the presentation Validation methods for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems State of the art Results of the questionnaire Driving Simulators Pilot questionnaire Development of a new tool to perform User Experience tests DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 User Experience Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin

MINARGUS: A new tool to measure UX and control the simulation 8 / 21 State of the art Validation methods for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) E During development ADAS are tested with different validation methods: A: Model-in-the-Loop (MiL)* D B: Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) C: Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) A C B D: Vehicle-in-the-Loop (ViL) E: Field tests During all tests, driving simulators are used in different maturity levels

* Model in the Loop (MiL) is the simulation of an embedded system in an early development phase. DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin 9 / 21 Structure of the presentation Validation methods for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems State of the art Results of the questionnaire Driving Simulators Pilot questionnaire Development of a new tool to perform User Experience tests DQS-zertifiziert

nach DIN EN ISO 9001 User Experience Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin MINARGUS: A new tool to measure UX and control the simulation 10 / 21 State of the art User Experience By experience we mean all the aspects of how people use an interactive product: the way it feels in their hands, how well they understand how it works, how they feel about it while theyre using it, how well it serves their purposes, and how well it fits into the entire context in which they are it. [1] using User Experience is more than Usability It consideres emotions, subjective

feelings, aesthetic aspects, etc. Questionnaires to measure the UX: AttrakDiff Affect Grid mDES VisAwi Etc. DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin

Source: [2] 11 / 21 Structure of the presentation Validation methods for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems State of the art Results of the questionnaire Driving Simulators Pilot questionnaire Development of a new tool to perform User Experience tests DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 User Experience

Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin MINARGUS: A new tool to measure UX and control the simulation 12 / 21 State of the art Driving simulators Separation in static and dynamic simulators Static simulators are often use in early phases (MiL) Source: Daimler Dynamic simulators provide G-forces and thus enhance the user feeling There are different price ranges depending on the maturity: Small driving seats (e.g. Festo Airmotion Ride 50k) Source: DLR Hydraulic hexapod-systems (e.g. DLR driving simulator 2M) Full range simulators (e.g. Daimler 40M) The visualisation reaches from simple monitors up to 360 projection Source: Festo

DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin 13 / 21 Structure of the presentation Validation methods for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems State of the art Results of the questionnaire Driving Simulators Pilot questionnaire Development of a new tool to perform User Experience tests DQS-zertifiziert nach

DIN EN ISO 9001 User Experience Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin MINARGUS: A new tool to measure UX and control the simulation 14 / 21 Pilot study Setup First pilot study Exploratory questionnaire 5 closed questions 15 open questions Participants: 36 experts (Virtual Product Creation) Average age: 31 8 weeks duration DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin 15 / 21

Pilot study Results DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin 16 / 21 What is the big aim? Why do I need a new tool? The aim is to change parameter during a driving simulation Dependent variables are the components of UX Configuration is complete if you have best UX-values Driving simulation with Modelin-the-Loop of the ADAS Capturing the User Experience Optimal parameter set Parameter changing of the ADAS model DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001

Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin 13 17 / 21 Structure of the presentation Validation methods for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems State of the art Results of the questionnaire Driving Simulators Pilot questionnaire Development of a new tool to perform User Experience tests DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 User

Experience Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin MINARGUS: A new tool to measure UX and control the simulation 18 / 21 MINARGUS What is MINARGUS? A tool which brings together the Engineering part and the Physiological measurement Why is it called MINARGUS? MINARGUS = Minerva (Roman goddes of wisdom) + Argus Panoptes (Greek mythology: 100-eyed giant) What is MINARGUS capable of? It allows the visualization of all measured data and allows the direct parameter sweep within the simulation model DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin

19 / 21 MINARGUS 1: Direct connection to Matlab 2: Connection the User Tracking Environment 3: Physiological measurement system (PAR-PORT) 4: Visualization of the channels (e.g. EEG, EKG) 5,6: Standard functionalities (save, jump to times etc) 7: Parameter changes of the simulation model DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 20 / 21 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin 3 Change of validation process

Current development model of the ADAS n iterations Start Start Model import & implementation of parameters Model import & implementation of parameters Experiment Evaluation Current development model of the ADAS Experiment n iterations MINARGUS

1 iteration cycle = ~ 0.5 h 1 iteration cycle = ~ 2 h Model optimization Model optimization End End The current process DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin The improved process with MINARGUS 21 / 21 MINARGUS: An example (1/2) The developer defines the test and the parameters, which need to be optimized Using the example of the Traffic Jam Assist, defined parameters can be the starting acceleration or the

starting delay Both parameters are highly important for the UX: A high starting acceleration and a short delay indicate an aggressive driving behavior of the system and could cause discomfort Traffic Jam Assist, Source: Bosch, 2014 Whereas a small starting acceleration and a long delay could cause discomfort in terms of being forced to interact because of the behind driving cars These parameters are defined together with the experimental designer The experimental designer now builds up the UX test with all its constraints (test procedure, test design, questionnaires, etc.) DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin Emotions, Source: KIT, 2014 22 / 21 MINARGUS: An example (2/2)

After defining the parameters, they are then integrated in the simulation model The model and the simulation environment must allow real-time simulation because of adjustments to the parameters In most cases there is a complete model of the car and the environment (streets, other cars, etc.) Motion Desk, Source: dSpace, 2014 In this stage testing can be conducted The test subject drives a virtual car in a simulator, which ideally covers all important sense areas Once the test has been performed, the results can be evaluated. The model optimization is the final step DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin Automotive Simulation Model, Source: dSpace, 2014 23 / 21 Outlook

The presented tool shows a possible integration of psychological measurement methods into existing engineering validation methods Digital Cube Test Center The usage of the tool can reduce the validation cycle time by ~1,5h Developers, validation engineers and human factor experts work now more closer Nevertheless the tool needs to be evaluated Digital Cube Test Center In 2015 there will be a study to prove the functionalities of the tool The new tool will be evaluated within the Digital Cube Test Center (DCTC) at the Technische Universitt Berlin Festo Airmotion Ride DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin 24 / 21 Thanks.

DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin 25 / 21 Sources [1] Alben L. Quality of experience: defining the criteria for effective interaction design. interactions 1996;3:115 [2] Mahlke S. User Experience of Interaction with Technical Systems: Theories, Methods, Empirical Results, and their Application to the Development of Interactive Systems. Dissertation. Berlin; 2008. [3] Auricht M, Dittrich E, Brandenburg S, Stark R. Engineering meet UX: Ingenieurstechnische Absicherungsmethoden treffen auf User Experience Forschung. In: Dittrich E, Doria L, Gross A, Gnzler T, Smieszek H, editors. Proceedings of the 10. Berliner Werkstatt Mensch-Maschine-Systeme: Grundlagen und Anwendungen der Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion. 10. Berliner Werkstatt Mensch-Maschine-Systeme, 10th ed. Berlin: TU Berlin; 2013. DQS-zertifiziert nach DIN EN ISO 9001 Fraunhofer, Technische Universitt Berlin 26 / 21

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