The Russian Revolution Timeline of Russian Czars 1696-1725:
The Russian Revolution Timeline of Russian Czars 1696-1725: Czar Peter I the Great, Emperor of Russia (from 1721 onwards, the Russian Czar was proclaimed Emperor of All Russia). 1725-1727: Catherine I, Empress of All Russia 1727-1730: Peter II, Emperor of All Russia 1730-1740: Anna Ivanova, Empress of All Russia
1740-1741: Ivan VI, Emperor of All Russia 1741-1761: Elizabeth, Empress of All Russia 1761-1762: Peter III, Emperor of All Russia 1762-1796: Catherine II the Great, Empress of All Russia 1796-1801: Paul I, Emperor of All Russia 1801-1825: Alexander I, Emperor of All Russia 1825-1855: Nicholas I, Emperor of All Russia 1855-1881: Alexander II, Emperor of All Russia 1881-1894: Alexander III, Emperor of All Russia
1894-1917: Nicholas II, Emperor of All Russia Setting the Stage: Ripe for Revolution The cruel and oppressive rule of 19th century czars caused social unrest. In 1881, reformist
Czar Alexander II was assassinated by upset revolutionaries. Czars Resist Change Alexander III halted all reforms and clung to autocracy. Anyone who questioned the czar, worshipped outside of the Russian Orthodox Church, or
spoke another language, was labeled as dangerous. Alexander censored published materials, teachers, and students. He forbade minority languages, and targeted the Jews. Czar Nicholas II
Russia Industrializes The number of factories doubled between 1863-1900, yet they were still behind Europe. Industrialization brought new problems such as: high taxes, bad working conditions, low wages, and child labor. Trade unions were outlawed and unhappy workers organized strikes. Marxist (those who followed the ideas of Karl Marx)
revolutionaries believed: The industrial class would overthrow the czar and form a dictatorship of the proletariat. Proletariat: the workers The proletariat would rule the country. Marxists split into two groups: Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. Three Crises show the Czars Weaknesses
The Russo-Japanese War Cost a lot of lives and was very expensive. Bloody Sunday The Revolution of 1905 (Failed Revolution) World War I Cost a lot of lives and was very expensive. The March Revolution
The March Revolution Prices were wildly inflated. Food and supplies were dwindling. March of 1917, female textile workers in Petrograd led a city-wide strike. In the next 5 days, bread and fuel shortages led to riots. 200,000 workers swarmed the streets shouting Down with the Autocracy!
Rasputin was a holy man who gained political power, was poisoned and shot. This uprising led Czar Nicholas II to abdicate The March Revolution, contd. Nicholas and his family were executed by revolutionaries a year later.
The March Revolution, contd. A provisional government was set up. Socialist revolutionaries formed soviets. Soviets: local councils consisting of workers, peasants, and soldiers. Rasputin
Vladimir Lenin The Bolshevik Revolution Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia from exile (Germany) The provisional government toppled after Bolshevik Red
Guards stormed the Winter Palace in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) The Bolshevik Revolution, contd. The Bolsheviks are in power within days behind Lenin.
Lenin gave control of the factories to the workers (communal ownership). Lenin distributed all farmland to the peasants (communal ownership). A Civil War erupted in Russia. Bolsheviks vs. those loyal to the Czars regime. The Bolshevik Revolution,
contd. Lenin restored order and in 1922, Russia is renamed as the Soviet Union. Bolsheviks then rename themselves as the Communists. Communism A political and economic system of organization. In theory, property was owned by the community and
all citizens shared in the common wealth, according to their need. It is difficult to achieve; ideally a classless society. Karl Marx wrote the Communist Manifest. Marx felt the proletariat (workers) would revolt due to the population and poor conditions. The Revolution would end with communal ownership of wealth. Lenin disagreed with Marx: He felt the state needed to
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