Fluency is when things flow with smoothness and ease. Sentence Fluency is when sentences flow together smoothly. 03/01/2020 2

TRAIT #5 SENTENCE FLUENCY One way to make writing smooth and interesting is to write sentences that sound different from each other. Sentence fluency is achieved by: Beginning

sentences in a variety of methods Making some sentences long and others short. 03/01/2020 3 TRAIT #5 SENTENCE FLUENCY

We went to the beach. It was sunny. It was warm. We had fun. We flew kites. We ate snacks. We spent a warm, sunny day at the beach. When we got hungry we had a snack. Later on, we flew kites high in the sky. It was a great day! 03/01/2020

4 TRAIT #5 SENTENCE FLUENCY We went to the beach. It was sunny. It was warm. We had fun. We flew kites. We ate snacks. Do these sentences flow smoothly

together? Explain. What would you suggest to the writer to improve his/her writing? Count the number of words in each sentence? What did you find? 03/01/2020 5

TRAIT #5 SENTENCE FLUENCY We spent a warm, sunny day at the beach. When we got hungry we had a snack. Later on, we flew kites high in the sky. It was a great day! Do these sentence flow smoothly together? Explain. What would you suggest to the writer to

improve his/her writing? Count the number of words in each sentence? What did you find? 03/01/2020 6 TRAIT #6 CONVENTIONS

Conventions in writing are the agreed upon rules we operate by when we communicate with others. Conventions are all around us. TRAIT #6 - CONVENTIONS The spelling is accurate.

The punctuation is correct. Proper use of capitalization. The paragraphs are accurate and flow well.

The grammar and usage are handled well. Where appropriate, the author 03/01/2020 9 Trait #6 - Conventions Woman without her man has no reason for living.

Woman: Without her, man has no reason for living. Trait #6 - Conventions CONVENTIONS PRACTICE She are downstairs.__________________________

The cars is reb. ______________________________ Where it be? ________________________________ The picture are pretty. _______________________ Cows is blac and wite. ____________________

My Mom loves me. ____________________________ 03/01/2020 12 Student Notes STORY ELEMENTS: CHARACTERS AND CHARACTERIZATION CHARACTER

A character is a person, animal, or object that speaks or takes part in the action of a literary work. PROTAGONIST The Protagonist is the main character in a literary work Can you name some famous Protagonists that are found in literature?

ANTAGONIST The Antagonist is a character or force in conflict with a main character, or protagonist. Characterization the way an author reveals the special qualities and

personalities of a character in a story, making the character Analyzing Character Traits We try to figure out what a character in a book is like by paying attention to the clues the author gives us. This is called making inferences. Example: What can you infer?

No, Honey, I dont want you to spend a lot of money on my birthday present. Just having you for a husband is the only gift I need. In fact, Ill just drive my old rusty bucket of bolts down to the mall and buy myself a little present. And if the poor old car doesn't break down, Ill be back soon. Indirect Characterization writer shows you what character is like by revealing:

Speech Thoughts Effect on Other characters Actions Looks Speech We often get to know characters because of what they say to each other. Anita threw her arms around Tony and gave him a big hug. Thank

you so much for being there for me, she said. I dont think I could have faced my parents without you. thoughtful compassionate Thoughts When an author lets us get inside the mind of a character, we can often learn a great deal about him or her. Butch looked around the

neighborhood. This would be a safe place to play catch with Bobby, he thought. Why doesnt Bobby throw the ball? He must be in a bad mood or something. loyal concerned playful Effect on other Characters

sometimes other characters will tell us something useful about the character were reading about. You wouldnt believe what Lisa did yesterday, Sara said to her sister. When we went into the bridal shop, she pushed all the women aside and demanded that the sales lady help us immediately. It was really something! Demanding pushy assertive

Actions Much of what we learn about characters is revealed to us through what they do. Denise picked up the slimy bull frog. She could hardly stand to hold it even for a moment. She held it out at arms length from her body and quickly carried it

to her brother. squeamish sensitive nervous Looks Can infer a lot about characters from the clothes they wear, their facial features, their body language, and their mannerisms. Tex was the head rancher on the farm. When he rounds up the horses, he can be easily spotted with his beige hat and vest. Texs smile is a mile wild, even

with his bushy mustache. jovial proud dedicated Direct Characterization The writer tells you exactly (directly) Mr. McCarthy has an Betsy was awhat determined

the character is like. obnoxiously loud voice three year old, who knew what she wanted and often got her way, if she cried loud enough. which he uses to intimidate his students. Did you eat your stupid chips for

lunch today? VOICES IN THE STORY Narrator: tells the story to the reader. Narration: when the narrator speaks. Character: people in the story. Dialogue: when characters speak. CHARACTERIZATION

Characterization is the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character. Types: direct characterization indirect characterization. CHARACTERIZATION Direct Characterization tells the audience what the personality of the

character is. Example: The patient boy and quiet girl were both well mannered and did not disobey their mother. Explanation: The author is directly telling the audience the personality of these two children. The boy is patient and the girl is quiet. CHARACTERIZATION

Indirect Characterization shows things that reveal the personality of a character. Speech Thoughts Effect on others What does the character say? How does the character speak? What is revealed through the characters private thoughts and feelings? What is revealed through the

characters effect on other people? How do other characters feel or behave in reaction to the character? Actions What does the character do? How does the character behave? Looks What does the character look like? How does the character dress?

PROTAGONIST/ANTAGONIST It is easiest to think of the protagonist and antagonist characters as the "good guy" and the "bad guy" respectively. In order to understand protagonist and antagonist, you can think of the

protagonist as the hero and the antagonist as the villain. To remember which is which, remember that: The prefix PRO- means good, or positive, The prefix ANT- means bad, or negative. PROTAGONIST

The protagonist is the central character of a story. The protagonist can be male or female, and is written as being "good" most of the time, but in some instances can be "bad." The plot of the story is often written in the protagonist's point of view. Consider the story The Three Little Pigs. In the original story, the three pigs are the protagonists and the wolf is the antagonist.

A new book titled The Real Story of The Three Little Pigs is written in the wolf's point of view and he becomes the protagonist and the pigs are the antagonists. ANTAGONIST The character that causes or leads the conflict against the protagonist is called the antagonist. The antagonist is not always human, but can

be a group or force as well. The antagonist is the mirror of the protagonist. Whatever the protagonist does that is good, the antagonist will work to counteract. Usually the antagonist attempts to disguise him/her/itself. This usually creates the suspense in a story. PROTAGONIST/ANTAGONIST When trying to identify the protagonist and antagonist in a story, think about which character is central to the story

and which character (or what force) is acting against that central character. Usually you can consider which character is good and which is bad. In most instances, the good character is the protagonist and the bad, or opposing character, is the antagonist. ROUND/FLAT

Let's begin by thinking about round and flat characterization like a painting. If you're an artist, you must decide how much detail to put into a painting. Do you want many lines and many colors, or just an outline and only black and white? As an author, you must decide how much detail to include about each character. Which characters are most important; how will giving detail, or not giving detail, affect

the story? ROUND Characters that are described in depth, with many details, are well-rounded characters. They are called round characters. If you're reading a story and you feel like you know a character extremely well, then most likely the character is round.

The main character in a story is almost always round, but there are exceptions. FLAT Characters that are not described well, that you're not given much information about, are flat characters. Consider a drawing: a three dimensional drawing gives more detail than a one dimensional drawing.

If you draw a flat picture of a house, for example, you can only see one side of it. You cannot see three of the four sides. This is how a flat character is; you can only see a few characteristics of the character. There are many things you cannot "see", or many details you are not given by the author. ROUND/FLAT HOW DO YOU KNOW?

As a reader, judge whether or not the character is round or flat by trying to write down characteristics of the character. Answer the question: What do you know about the character? If your list is long, with many characteristics, then the character is round. If your list is short, or there's not many characteristics at all, then the character is flat.

STATIC/DYNAMIC The key word when dealing with the difference between static and dynamic characters is "change." We are only concerned with internal changes; changes which occur within the character. These would include a major change in their personality, or a change in their outlook on life.

Do not focus on changes that happen TO a character, but rather, changes that happen WITHIN a character. Think about it this way: Does the event affect the character by changing the character internally? STATIC In order for a character to be considered a static character, the character must remain basically the same throughout the entire story. The

character does not undergo any internal changes. Think of static characterization like plastic surgery. The character may change in looks, but unless their personality is affected, the character is static. DYNAMIC

A dynamic character is a character that undergoes an internal change sometime between the beginning and end of the story. The change in the character is usually crucial to the story itself. Say a main character goes through a lifealtering experience, such as a race car driver getting into an accident. If the driver's personality changes and he is no longer willing to take on the risk of driving a race car, the character would be dynamic.

STATIC/DYNAMIC In order to distinguish static characters from dynamic characters, write down a description of the inner character at the beginning of the story, in other words, what do you initially learn about the character's personality? Answer these three questions: How

does the character feel about his/her/itself? How does the character act towards others? What is the characters goal? STATIC/DYNAMIC Do the same thing and answer the same questions at the end of the story. Usually, if you're dealing with a dynamic

character, you will be able to notice a difference between your personality descriptions as well as between the answers to the three questions. If there is no major difference, the character is static. IDENTIFYING THE ELEMENTS OF CONFLICT Student Notes CONFLICT Conflict is the dramatic struggle

between two forces in a story. Without conflict, there is no plot. TWO TYPES OF CONFLICT Internal conflict: A struggle that occurs within a character's own mind (trouble making a decision, dealing with mixed feelings or emotions) External conflict: A struggle that

occurs between a character and an outside force (another character, a community, forces of nature, etc.) TYPES OF CONFLICT Man v. Self Man v. Self is when the main character in the story has a problem within him or herself. Journey to the River Sea is an example of this kind of conflict because the protagonist has problems with himself. TYPES OF CONFLICT

Man v. Man A Man vs. Man conflict can be described as a conflict arising between two or more characters of the same kind. An example of this might be a fist fight between two people. Such as the Protagonist (main character) vs. the Antagonist (villain or someone who's against the protagonist) TYPES OF CONFLICT Man v. Society Man vs. Society conflict is when a main

character thinks or acts differently from society. An example is that society says it's wrong to steal so, you must not steal, but in some man or people stealing is what they do everyday but that is not what society believes is right. TYPES OF CONFLICT Man v. Nature Man v. Nature conflict is when the main character is struggling against the forces of nature.

Many disaster films focus on this theme, which is predominant within many survival stories. It is also strong in stories about struggling for survival in remote locales. TYPES OF CONFLICT Man v. Supernatural Man v. Supernatural conflict is when the main character is in conflict with supernatural elements (forces outside of the natural world). These include encounters with ghosts,

extraterrestrials, external spiritual experiences, and other unexplained occurrences. The films The Exorcist and The Blair Witch Projecthave elements of this form of conflict TYPES OF CONFLICT Man v. Machine/Technology Man v. Machine/Technology places a character against man-made entities which may possess intelligence. The films Metropolis, Blade Runner and Terminator are good examples of this conflict.

TYPES OF CONFLICT Man v. Destiny Man v. Destiny (or Fate) is a theme in which one attempts to break free of a predetermined path before him chosen without his knowledge. It can also be referred to as a conflict between fate and freewill. A common example is Shakespeare's Macbeth. MAN VS. MAN CONFLICT The new one is the most beautiful of all; he is so young and pretty. And the old

swans bowed their heads before him. Then he felt quite ashamed, and hid his head under his wing; for he did not know what to do, he was so happy, and yet not at all proud. He had been persecuted and despised for his ugliness, and now he heard them say he was the most beautiful of all the birds. The Ugly Duckling by Hans Christian Anderson MAN VS. NATURE CONFLICT Its a Truffula Seed. Its the last one of all!

Youre in charge of the last of the Truffula Seeds. And Truffula Trees are what everyone needs. Plant a new Truffula. Treat it with care. Give it clean water. And feed it fresh air. Grow a forest. Protect it from axes that hack. Then the Lorax and all of his friends may come back. The Lorax by Dr. Seuss MAN VS. SOCIETY CONFLICT Im tired of living in a hole, said Jenny.

Lets fight for freedom! cried Bouncer. Well be soldiers! Roughriding Rowdies! Ill be the general and commander-in-chief! The Island of the Skog by Steven Kellogg MAN VS. SELF CONFLICT Finally, Sams father said, Go to bed now. But before you go to sleep, Sam, tell yourself the difference between REAL and MOONSHINE. Sam, Bangs & Moonshine by Evaline Ness PRACTICE

1. 2. 3. Read the passage. Write what indirect character trait is shown. Explain your answer. EXAMPLE Mr. Morton was teaching the students about characterizations. Kyle let out a big yawn.

Indirect Characterizations are implied, not explicitly stated, said Mr. Morton. 1. Kyle is bored or tired. Ex: He yawned, which shows hes tired. 1 After class, Deija asked Dana a question, Im sorry, Dana, but my little brother was sick and my parents made me stay home and watch him yesterday. Can I see your reading notes? Deija huffed and rolled her eyes. She replied to Dana, Uh, I dont

know where they are right now. 2 While playing football with his friends, Evan overthrew the ball and accidently broke his moms picture window. Nobody was home, but all of the other boys soon found excuses to leave. When Evans mom came home, she asked what had happened. Evan looked her in the face and said, A bird smashed into the window, Mom.

3 Tevin was in excruciating pain from football practice. He had been getting terrible sleep ever since training started. He could hardly sleep ten minutes before the pain caused him to roll around. His body was telling him to quit the team, but Tevin refused to hear it. He had one goal in mind: to make the team. Tevin wouldnt stop until his body stopped him. 4

Tim was walking around the store when he bumped into a display of soup cans, knocking them all over. Tim bought two cartons of eggs then got hit by the automatic door on the way out. It almost broke the eggs. Tim let out a sigh of relief. While walking through the parking lot, Tim tripped over the curb and landed on the eggs, getting them all over his shirt. 5 Kim had a bunch of outfits

and accessories. It took her forever to decide which combination might impress Kevin. She called her sister several times for advice. Still, Kim could not decide on the right outfit to wear.

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