TEMPERATURE SCALES FAHRENHEIT 0 = FREEZING POINT OF BRINE 32 = FREEZING POINT OF PURE WATER 212 = BOILING POINT OF WATER 180 = NUMBER OF DEGREES BETWEEN FREEZING AND BOILING OF PURE WATER CELSIUS 0 = FREEEZING POINT OF PURE WATER (NOT FOUND NATURALLY ON EARTH -17.78 = FREEZING POINT OF BRINE

100 = BOILING POINT OF WATER 100 = NUMBER OF DEGREES BETWEEN FREEZING AND BOILING POINT OF PURE WATER KELVIN 0 = ABSOLUTE ZERO 273.15 = FREEZING POINT OF BRINE 100 = NUMBER OF DEGREES BETWEEN FREEZING AND BOILING POINT OF PURE WATER (USES SAME SIZE DEGREE AS CELSIUS) RANKINE 0 = ABSOLUTE ZERO

491.67 = FREEZING POINT OF BRINE 180 = NUMBER OF DEGREES BETWEEN FREEZING AND BOILING POINT OF PURE WATER (USES SAME SIZE DEGREE AS FAHRENHEIT) Kelvin Absolute zero(by definition)

0 K Freezing 255.37 K point of brine (by definition (on Fahrenheit scale only)

Freezing point of water 273.15 K Triple point 273.16 K of water (by definition)

Celsius -273.15C 17.78C Fahrenheit 459.67F 0F

0C 32F 0.01C 32.018F Rankine

0 R 459.67 R 491.67 R 491.688 R Triple point of water: The single combination of pressure and temperature at which liquid water, solid ice, and water vapor can coexist in a stable equilibrium

THE MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY (HEAT ETC.) Temperature can be measured with at least four different scales: Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin Rankine How is heat measured? There are ways of measuring heat one of which is the calorie. The calorie is the amount of

heat it takes to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. This is not recognized by the International System of Units. As a form of energy (heat) has the unit joule (J) However, in many applied fields in engineering the British thermal unit (BTU) and the calorie are often used. The standard unit for the rate of heat transferred is the watt (W), defined as one joule per second. SO WHAT IS A JOULE????? WHATS A JOULE?

A joule is defined as a unit of energy equal to the work done when a force of one newton acts through a distance of one meter. It take 4.184 to equal 1 calorie. 1 Btu =1055 joules. 1 joule =0.239005736 calories 1 KJ= 1000 joule. A newton? Whats a newton Is it related to a fig newton? Nope Newton, the absolute unit of force in the International System of Units (SI units). It is defined as

that force necessary to provide a mass of one kilogram with an acceleration of one meter per second per second. One newton is equal to a force of 100,000 dynes in the centimeter-gram-second (CGS) system, or a force of about 0.2248 pound in the foot-poundsecond (English, or customary) system. SENSIBLE AND LATENT HEAT Sensible heat: Can be felt and measured with a thermometer Latent heat: Heat that can not be measured, but is stored. The heat goes not into increasing the

speed of molecules of water, but rather into breaking the bonds between the water molecules. Kinetic energy involves movement. It is expressed in the mathematical formula: KE= mv2 m= mass v=speed Kinetic energy = of the mass times its speed squared If the mass and/or the speed increases the energy increases as well.

POTENTIAL ENERGY Potential Energy is the second kind of energy. Potential energy in effect is energy waiting to happen. A simple example is one in which an object is about to fall on another object. The object poised to fall contains potential energy Potential energy is expressed mathematically as PE=mgh m=mass

g= acceleration of gravity h = height Potential energy has many forms: water behind a dam, high pressure (e.g. fire extinguishes), batteries, gasoline, explosives, firewood, and even food all have potential energy. Kinetic energy exists in light and other forms of radiation; in heat; in moving water, in electrical power and so on.

WHAT IS ENERGY? Energy is defined as the ability or capacity to do work on some form of matter. Generally there are two kinds of energy: kinetic energy and potential energy. I ACCELERATION AND SPEED Speed has to do with how fast something is moving. Acceleration is a measurement of how rapidly the speed is increasing.

Speed is generally expressed as miles per hour or kilometers per hour Acceleration is generally expressed as miles per hour per hour or kilometers per hour per hour. NAUTICAL MILES AND KNOTS Nautical mile: A nautical mile is about 1.15078 statute miles or 1,852 meters. It is based on is 1/60th of a minute of arc on a meridian a line

encircling the globe and passing through both poles a longitude line. Knots: A knot is a nautical mile per hour. So 10 knots is 10 nautical miles per hour. Speed is measured in knots. Acceleration is knots per hour A ship travel at 10 knots is traveling at 1.15 nautical miles per hour A ship travelling at 10 knots per hour is going 10 knots faster every hour. ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY As an object falls to Earth (or any other body) its rate of speed (acceleration)

increases as it falls. On Earth this averages about 9.807 m/s (meters per second squared) Time (s) Velocity (m/s) 0

0 1 - 9.8 2

- 19.6 3 - 29.4 4 - 39.2

5 - 49.0 WHAT ABOUT PRESSURE? What measurement is used for pressure: Pressure = force per area = P=F/A P=pressure

F=force A=area It is measured in many ways: Pounds per square inch Atmospheres (ATM) Inches or millimeters of mercury (Hg) 29.92 inches of Hg Bars or millibars 1 bar= 14.50377 psi; 29.92 inches of mercury = 1013.203477792 millibars 10 meters of sea water = 1 bar To convert inches of mercury to millibars, multiply the inches value by 33.8637526

To convert millibars to inches of mercury, multiply the millibar value by 0.0295301. Pascals (Pa) Pascals = N/m2 Where N=newtons and m2=square meters 1 hectopascal (hPa)=100pascals = 1 millibar. So hPas and millibars are the same. REVIEW OF MEASUREMENTS Temperature: Degrees (Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin or Rankine Energy (heat is one kind): Joules, Calories, British thermal units Pressure: atmospheres (1); pounds per square inch (14.50377); millibars (1013.203477792 ) ; inches of mercury (29.92 ); meters of sea

water (10); 101325 Pa 1 hectopascal=100pascals = 1 millibar 1 kilopascal=1000Pa = one centibar. Force: Newtons. the force needed to accelerate one kilogram of mass at the rate of one meter per second squared in the direction of the applied force THREE METHODS IN WHICH HEAT TRANSFERS OCCUR CONDUCTION:

Heat is transferred from one area having more heat to one adjacent having less heat. Transfer is through physical contact. CONVECTION: Heat is carried by more active molecules in rising currents. As they rise in one place they cool and sink RADIATION: Electromagnetic energy emitted or absorbed by atoms CONDUCTION

The transfer of heat by direct contact between two materials of different temperatures or two parts of the same materials with different temperatures Consider the exterior wall of a warm house in winter, which contacts the air outside the house. Some of the air will start to warm as a result of the contact and the house will get cooler. This is conduction. CONVECTION As gases heat up they expand and rise. When they reach a certain height in cooler temperatures

They start to cool and become more dense and sink -----------wind------------------------wind------------ | /|\ /|\ | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

| Convection | | Convection | | | | |

| | | | \|/ | | \|/ --------------wind----------

---------wind------------------HOT GROUND------ WAVELENGTHS ARE MEASURED FROM ONE CREST TO THE NEXT RADIATION Radiation is he emanation of any part of the electromagnetic spectrum plus the release of particles Where does the sun appear in the sky in summer and winter?

WHY WE HAVE SEASONS