US PORK PRODUCTION CONCENTRATION Concentrated in the Midwest Area of major corn and soybean production

Major feed ingredientscomplementary of each other Why not expand? Environmental Issues/Concerns Why Midwest? Large open land

mass Sparse population Receptive to agriculture Precedent: PRODUCTION TYPES OF SWINE ENTERPRISES

Farrow-to-finish Farrow-to-nursery Farrow-to-wean Wean-to-finish Finishing TYPES OF SWINE ENTERPRISES Farrow-to-finish farms manage all stages of pig growth and development, from breeding

through finishing, to market weight of about 275 pounds. Farrow-to-nursery farms specialize in the breeding of sows and raising of 40- to 50pound feeder pigs, which are then sold to farms that specialize in feeding pigs until they reach market weight. TYPES OF SWINE ENTERPRISES Farrow-to-wean farms oversee breeding

herds and raise pigs until they are weaned at approximately 10 to 15 pounds, at which time they are sold to wean-to-finish farms. Wean-to-finish farms purchase weaned pigs from farrow-to-wean farms and grow them until they reach market weights. Finishing farms buy 40 to 50-pound feeder pigs from farrow-to-nursery farms and raise them until they reach market weight.

SWINE LIFE CYCLE Farrow Nursery Grower/ Finish Market

0 3 Weeks In Farrowing crate with mom; nurse Shots Dock Tail Clip Needle Teeth ID Castrate 3 9 Weeks (60 lbs) Wean from mom Live in Pen with other litter mates

60 275 lbs Time to grow and build muscle Fed diets high in protein Change diets to increase meat quality 275 lbs (5-6 Months) Sold for meat and by products GILTS VS BARROWS Whos leaner? Gilts or Barrows Who eats more feed? Gilts or Barrows

Who grows faster? Gilts or Barrows Who is more efficient? Gilts or Barrows MANAGEMENT PRACTICES METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION Identify Individuals Ear notching Ear tags Ear tattooing

Ear Notches Method of permanent identification Pigs are ear notched using a special type of

pliers that leave a V shape in their ear. Ear Notching Depicts both a litter and individual number. Litter number is

placed in the right ear Pig number placed in the left ear Ear tags Easily read identification Usually used once

you have selected which pigs you will keep. Available in different shapes Ear tattooing Another form of

permanent identification The thinner part of the lower ear is most suitable for tattooing. FARROWING Sows give birth Sows moved into farrowing crates or pens one

week before farrowing date. Guardrails about 6 from pen wall and 8 up from floor to prevent crushing Crates to restrict the sow - typically 5 wide and 7 long Once farrowing begins, piglets should be delivered in 15-20 minute intervals Piglets average 2.5 - 4 lbs.

PROCESSING PIGLETS Recommended 1-4 days post weaning. The steps of processing are: Clip needle teeth Cut navel cord Iron injection Dock tails Castrate males Ear notch

CLIP NEEDLE TEETH Piglets have 8 needle teeth located on the sides of upper and low jaws Clipped to prevent biting of littermates or the sows udder CUT NAVEL CORD Cut to approximately 1 to 1 inches in length

and dipped in iodine solution. IRON INJECTIONS Given to prevent anemia which can result due to the low iron content of milk.

DOCK TAILS Cut to about 1 inch with side cutters Prevents tail biting and cannibalism by pen mates and possible infection of tail or spinal cord CASTRATION

Performed on male market hogs to prevent undesirable boar odor or taint associated with cooked pork from intact males EAR NOTCHING Identifies which litter pigs came from and so determine reproductive ability of sows. Identifies individual pigs

FEEDING FEEDING PROGRAM Must balance cost and nutrient requirements Feed according to the requirements of the animals stage of development Some factors affecting nutrient requirements: Quality of the diet: energy, by-products, molds,

etc Breed, sex, and genetics of pigs Stage of development of pig Amount of time to finish pig FEEDING PRACTICES Self feeders allows young pigs to feed at will Environmental temperature can affect appetite Ideal temperature is 60 to 70 F. Wetting pigs down on hot days will cool them off

and improve appetite Goal: Average Daily Gain: 2 lbs Feed Conversion: 3 lbs feed to 1 lb gain WATER Water is the most essential nutrient required by

a pig Always provide fresh, clean water If pigs are kept outdoors, haul warm water to them during cold weather ANIMAL BEHAVIOR INTELLIGENCE Pigs are intelligent and curious They learn quickly and respond well to positive

reinforcement. It is important to make new experiences positive BEHAVIOR Pigs frighten easily to unfamiliar sights, smells, and sounds Sensitive to sharp contrast

A pig may balk if it sees shadows, puddles, bright spots, change in flooring type or texture, or drains SOCIAL HIERARCHY The social organization established when unacquainted pigs are initially mixed together They fight by mouth-to-neck attacks with strong thrusts sideways and upwards, to

establish a dominance hierarchy Hierarchy typically established within 24 hours Aggression drops dramatically after about one hour ROOTING Rooting is when the pig tucks its head and uses its snout to push up whatever it comes in contact with.

Natural as opposed to learned behavior TEMPERATURE REGULATION Mature pigs are susceptible to hot conditions Seek shade and wallow in

mud or water more active at night Build nests to provide shelter from environmental extremes. Young pigs are sensitive to cold huddle with littermates

Use heat lamps BREEDS Berkshire Originated in England Black color, white points and nose Short faced with

erect ears Early-maturing Juicy, flavorful, tender meat Chester White Developed in the United States White with

drooping ears Large litters and excellent mothering ability Duroc Developed in the

United States Reddish brown in color Drooping ears Quick muscle growth Aggressive

Hampshire Developed in the United States Black with a white

belt and erect ears Well-muscled, rapid growers Excellent mothers Good tempered Good carcass quality Landrace Originated in

Denmark White in color with huge drooping ears Longer than other breeds because of extra vertebrae More confinement adaptable POLAND CHINA

Developed in the United States Black with white patches, drooping ears,

and large size Maximum weight at any given age Excellent feeders gain readily Quiet nature and hardy constitution Spotted Swine Developed in the

United States Black and white spotted with drooping ears Able to transmit their fast-gaining, feed efficient, meat qualities to their offspring

Yorkshire Originated in England White with erect ears Mother breedlarge litters and excellent milking, and mothering

ability Muscular with high proportion of lean meat Back to Objectives

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