Marle y was dead, to begin with. Scrooge

Marle y was dead, to begin with. Scrooge

Marle
y was
dead,
to
begin
with.

Scrooge
Scrooge turns
turns down
down
Freds
Freds invitation,
invitation,
scorns the
the charity
charity
scorns
collectors
collectors and
and
reluctantly gives
gives Bob
Bob
reluctantly
Christmas
Christmas Day
Day off.
off.

Scrooge
and Bob
are both
working
late on
Christma
s Eve.
solitary as an
oyster

Marley
Later
Marley warns
warns Scrooge
Scrooge
that
that
that he
he must
must change
change
evening
his
ways
to
avoid
the
his
ways
to
avoid
the
,
same
same fate.
fate. He
He explains
explains
Marley
that
that hell
hell be
be visited
visited by
by
s ghost
three
appears
three spirits.
spirits.
.
Mankind was
I wear the
decrease the
Darkness is cheap,
my business
chain I Dickens
forgedfrequently
surplus population and Scrooge liked it.
Dickens
frequently uses
uses
symbols
in life.
symbols to
to represent
represent
larger
ideas
within
the
larger ideas within the
novella.
novella. A
A longer
longer list
list can
can
be
Similes
be found
found in
in the
the black
black
Similes are
are frequently
frequently used
used to
to lighten
lighten the
the
box,
mood.
box, but
but one
one of
of the
the
mood. Whereas,
Whereas, metaphors
metaphors are
are often
often
most
used
most famous
famous is
is the
the use
use
used to
to darken
darken it.
it.
of
of fire
fire to
to symbolise
symbolise the
the
Dickens
often
darkens
the
mood
to
Christmas
spirit.
Dickens often darkens the mood to
Christmas spirit.
highlight
Scrooges
highlight his
his message
message about
about social
social
Scrooges small
small fire
fire in
in
responsibility:
S1
responsibility: Marley,
Marley, I&W,
I&W, Joes
Joes shop.
shop.
S1 represents
represents his
his lack
lack of
of
Christmas
Christmas spirit.
spirit. By
By S5
S5
Much
Scrooge
Much like
like aa piece
piece of
of drama,
drama, pay
pay attention
attention
Scrooge is
is telling
telling Bob
Bob to
to
to
buy
to the
the dialogue.
dialogue. Descriptions
Descriptions of
of the
the
buy another
another coal
coal
speakers
scuttle,
speakers manner
manner and
and body
body language
language
scuttle, representing
representing his
his
Dickens
makes
contrasts
indicate
to
share
Dickens regularly
regularly willingness
makes use
use of
of
indicate their
their thoughts
thoughts and
and feelings,
feelings, as
as
willingness
tocontrasts
share his
his
to
of
values.
well
Christmas
spirit
with
to emphasise
emphasise aa set
set
of ideas
ideas or
or
values.
well as
as their
their choice
choice of
of words.
words. Compare
Compare
Christmas
spirit
with
Scrooges
in
the
Scrooges selfish
selfish nature,
nature,others.
in Stave
Stave 1,
1, is
is
the Cratchits
Cratchits before
before and
and after
after TTs
TTs death.
death.
others.
exacerbated
exacerbated by
by its
its juxtaposition
juxtaposition with
with the
the
Questions
selfless
Questions are
are also
also cleverly
cleverly employed
employed by
by
selfless attitudes
attitudes of
of Fred,
Fred, Bob
Bob and
and the
the
Dickens.
charity
Dickens. The
The narrator
narrator asks
asks questions
questions to
to
charity collectors,
collectors, for
for example.
example.
engage
engage the
the reader
reader or
or leaves
leaves them
them
unanswered
unanswered to
to force
force them
them to
to reflect.
reflect. Past
Past
uses
questions
to
make
Scrooge
uses questions to make Scrooge consider
consider
his
his emotions.
emotions. Present
Present uses
uses them
them to
to force
force
Scrooge
Scrooge to
to consider
consider his
his attitude.
attitude. Scrooges
Scrooges
questions
questions in
in S4
S4 indicate
indicate his
his determination
determination
to
change.
Although
theyre
to change. Although theyre aimed
aimed at
at
Scrooge,
Scrooge, the
the spirits
spirits questions
questions indirectly
indirectly
make
make the
the reader
reader consider
consider their
their own
own
attitude.
attitude.
Scrooge
Scrooge slowly
slowly makes
makes
his way
his
way home
home and
and sees
sees
Marleys
Marleys face
face in
in his
his
door knocker.
knocker.
door

AO2:
AO2: Technical
Technical analysis
analysis

Although
Although the
the basic
basic narrative
narrative is
is in
in
chronological order,
chronological
order, the
the spirits
spirits are
are able
able to
to
manipulate
time
to
suggest
their
manipulate time to suggest their power.
power.
The continual
continual references
references to
to time
time (running
(running
The
out)
out) drives
drives the
the plot
plot and
and builds
builds tension.
tension.
Is
Is the
the happy
happy ending
ending foreshadowed
foreshadowed by
by the
the
fact
fact that
that Scrooges
Scrooges mean
mean father
father had
had aa
change
of
heart?
Anything
is
possible.
change of heart? Anything is possible.
The
The reader
reader inherently
inherently trusts
trusts the
the
omniscient
omniscient narrator,
narrator, due
due to
to their
their lightlighthearted, conversational,
hearted,
conversational, and
and occasionally
occasionally
sarcastic,
sarcastic, tone.
tone. They
They encourage
encourage us
us to
to
dislike Scrooge,
Scrooge, initially,
initially, before
before making
making us
us
dislike
sympathise
sympathise with
with him
him by
by the
the end.
end.
Repetition
Repetition and
and hyperbolic
hyperbolic lists
lists help
help to
to
exaggerate
exaggerate the
the atmosphere
atmosphere (often
(often
celebration). It
It can
can also
also act
act as
as to
to quicken
quicken
celebration).
the
the pace
pace and
and add
add excitement.
excitement.
Sensory
Sensory language
language is
is used
used to
to bring
bring aa scene
scene
to
to life.
life. Likewise
Likewise personification
personification brings
brings life
life
to abstract
abstract concepts
concepts (I&W)
(I&W) or
or settings.
settings.
to
The
The novella
novella is
is allegorical,
allegorical, meaning
meaning it
it has
has aa
moral
moral message
message hidden
hidden within
within it.
it.

The
Ghost
of
Christm
as Past
appears
.
sprung a
bright clear jet
of light

Society
Society was
was very
very
religious,
religious, and
and many
many
Victorians feared
feared Gods
Gods
Victorians
punishment,
punishment, for
for not
not
abiding to
to the
the strict
strict
abiding
moral
moral code:
code: Marleys
Marleys
penance would
would have
have
penance
frightened
frightened the
the upper
upper
class. In
In contrast,
contrast,
class.
Dickens
Dickens believed
believed good
good
Christians should
should be
be
Christians
humble,
humble, charitable,
charitable,
faithful and
and selfless,
selfless,
faithful
rather
rather than
than merely
merely
appearing religious.
religious.
appearing
Christmas
Christmas was
was
becoming more
more secular
secular
becoming
and
and Dickens
Dickens wanted
wanted to
to
spread the
the message
message
spread
that
that charity,
charity, forgiveness
forgiveness
and generosity
generosity should
should
and
be
be all
all year
year round.
round.

S1 = character flaws
S2/3/4 = lessons
S5 = completes the circular
structure where mirrored events
emphasise the change in Scrooge

Poverty:
Poverty:

John
John Malthus
Malthus argued
argued
that
that poverty
poverty was
was
inevitable and
and there
there
inevitable
wasnt
wasnt enough
enough to
to go
go
around. Dickens,
Dickens, in
in
around.
contrast
believed
contrast believed that
that
the rich
rich just
just needed
needed to
to
the
be
be more
more generous.
generous.
Initially, Scrooge
Scrooge
Initially,
represents
represents the
the uncaring
uncaring
attitudes of
of Malthus
Malthus et
et
attitudes
al.,
who
wrongly
al., who wrongly (or
(or so
so
Dickens said)
said) thought
thought
Dickens
that
that charity
charity encouraged
encouraged
poverty and
and advocated
advocated
poverty
workhouses.
workhouses. Dickens
Dickens
knew about
about the
the plight
plight
knew
of
of the
the poor,
poor, having
having
grown up
up in
in poverty,
poverty,
grown
and
and wanted
wanted to
to raise
raise
awareness; hence
hence the
the
awareness;
sympathetic
Cratchits.
sympathetic Cratchits.

And so, as Tiny
Tim observed, God
bless us, every

Charity
Charity // Education:
Education:

Industrial
Industrial Revolution
Revolution
created
created aa huge
huge gap
gap
between rich
rich and
and poor;
poor;
between
however,
it
encouraged
however, it encouraged
selfishness from
from the
the
selfishness
rich.
rich. Dickens
Dickens believed
believed in
in
collective responsibility
responsibility
collective
and
and Scrooges
Scrooges change
change
echoes this.
this. He
He also
also
echoes
thought
thought education
education
could prevent
prevent crime,
crime,
could
poverty
poverty and
and disease;
disease;
Ignorance is
is aa
Ignorance
personified
personified
representation of
of this
this
representation
problem.
problem. Dickens
Dickens hoped
hoped
that the
the ever-positive
ever-positive
that
Tiny
Tiny Tim
Tim would
would draw
draw
sympathy from
from upper
upper
sympathy
class
readers
class readers for
for
children and
and the
the issues
issues
children
they
they faced.
faced.
and to Tiny Tim
he was a second
father
Were
Were told
told that
that Tiny
Tiny
Tim
Tim will
will survive,
survive, and
and
that
Scrooge
that Scrooge
celebrates
celebrates Christmas
Christmas
for
for the
the rest
rest of
of his
his life.
life.

Society:
Society:

Industrial
Industrial Revolution
Revolution
created
created jobs
jobs and
and drew
drew
large numbers
numbers of
of people
people
large
together,
which
together, which resulted
resulted
in poor
poor living
living conditions
conditions
in
amongst
amongst the
the poor.
poor. The
The
population grew
grew (too?)
(too?)
population
rapidly
and
conditions
rapidly and conditions
worsened.
worsened.
Overcrowding,
Overcrowding, like
like the
the
slums in
in S4,
S4, led
led to
to
slums
hunger,
disease
hunger, disease and
and
crime. The
The slums
slums were
were
crime.
scary
scary places
places for
for the
the rich,
rich,
like Scrooge.
Scrooge. Children
Children
like
suffered
suffered the
the worst
worst (Tiny
(Tiny
Tim // I&W)
I&W) and
and it
it was
was
Tim
very
very difficult
difficult to
to escape
escape
poverty. Dickens
Dickens aimed
aimed
poverty.
to
to raise
raise awareness
awareness for
for
the poor:
poor: discouraging
discouraging
the
the
richs
the richs ignorance.
ignorance.

A solitary child,
neglected by his
friends

Character
Character
sentence
sentence stems:
stems:

-- Scrooge,
Scrooge, an
an obviously
obviously
caricatural
caricatural but
but unnervingly
unnervingly
accurate depiction
depiction of
accurate
of the
the
Victorian
Victorian upper
upper class,
class, is
is
Scrooge, who
who initially
initially
-- Scrooge,
represented
represented the
the notoriously
notoriously
selfish Victorian
Victorian business
business
selfish
owners,
owners, is
is
The Cratchit
Cratchit family,
family, aa
-- The
deliberately
deliberately sympathetic
sympathetic
portrayal of
of the
the Victorian
Victorian
portrayal
poor,
poor, are
are
Tiny Tim,
Tim, whose
whose frailty
frailty was
was
-- Tiny
indicative
indicative of
of the
the plight
plight of
of the
the
poorest children
children in
in Victorian
Victorian
poorest
cities,
cities, is
is
Fred, whose
whose positivity
positivity
-- Fred,
formed
formed an
an ideal
ideal which
which
Dickens wanted
wanted the
the wealthy
wealthy
Dickens
to
to emulate,
emulate, is
is

Scrooge
Scrooge then
then sees
sees
happier
happier Christmases:
Christmases:
his sister
sister Fan
Fan coming
coming
his
to
to take
take him
him home
home and
and
party organised
organised by
by
aa party
his
old
boss,
his old boss, Fezziwig.
Fezziwig.

Scrooge
Scrooge is
is then
then shown
shown
his
his split
split from
from Belle,
Belle,
before being
being shown
shown
before
Belles
Belles family,
family, who
who
remind Scrooge
Scrooge of
of
remind
missed
opportunities.
missed opportunities.

No more work
tonight. Christmas
Eve, Dick

Scrooge:
Scrooge:

-- Motivated
Motivated by
by
money
money
-- He
is
cold
hearted
He is cold hearted
-- His
His past
past shaped
shaped
him
him
-- Has
Has to
to see
see himself
himself
as
as others
others see
see him
him
-- Tiny
Tim
Tiny Tim is
is his
his
catalyst
for
change
catalyst for change
-- Scrooges
Scrooges values
values
change
change
-- His
actions
His actions in
in S5
S5
mirror
mirror those
those in
in S1
S1
-- His
change
is
the
His change is the
story
story

-- Represents
Represents what
what
Scrooge would
Scrooge
would be
be
Punished by
by God
God
-- Punished
His appearance
appearance is
is
-- His
disturbing
disturbing
-- He
is
full
of
regret
He is full of regret
He is
is now
now selfless
selfless
-- He

The
The Cratchits:
Cratchits:

-- Poor
Poor but
but loving
loving
-- B
B polite
polite to
to Scrooge
Scrooge
B == devoted
devoted father
father
-- B
-Mrs C
C good
good natured
natured
-Mrs
but
busy
but busy
-- Tiny
Tiny Tim
Tim is
is frail
frail but
but
doesnt moan
moan
doesnt

Past:
Past:

Fred:
Fred:

-- He
He is
is Scrooges
Scrooges foil,
foil,
due
due to
to their
their contrast
contrast
-- Hes
very
cheerful
Hes very cheerful
-- Shows
Shows true
true
Christmas
Christmas Spirit
Spirit
-Warm
-Warm and
and friendly
friendly

The
Ghost
of
Christm
as
Present
arrives.

an antique
scabbard; but no
If these
sword was in it
shadows
remain
unaltered
by the
Present:
future,
Present:
the child
-- Generously
helps
Generously helps
will die
others

-- Memory
Memory and
and truth
truth
Quiet
Quiet but
but strong
strong
-Fan
=
Sorrow
-Fan = Sorrow
-- Fezziwig
Fezziwig ==
antithesis
antithesis
-Belle
-Belle == regret
regret
-- SS is
is reluctant
reluctant

others
-- Compassionate,
Compassionate,
jolly
jolly and
and peaceful
peaceful
-- Shows
Shows Xmas
Xmas
despite
isolation
despite isolation
-- Sad
Sad about
about poverty
poverty

Yet
Yet to
to Come:
Come:

-Mysterious,
-Mysterious, silent
silent
and
and intimidating
intimidating
-- Scares
Scrooge
Scares Scrooge
with
with the
the future
future
-- Pities
Pities Scrooge
Scrooge
-- Moment
Moment of
of change
change
-Symbol
-Symbol of
of death?
death?

Symbolism
Symbolism
Marleys chains symbolise his
obsession with material wealth and
money.

Presents scabbard symbolises
peace on earth

Music and dance symbolise
happiness

Yet to Comes shroud symbolises
uncertainty

The bed is a recurrent motif, which
suggests the ghosts want to access
Scrooges most private thoughts.

Fire and light represent emotional
warmth

Pasts light represents truth from
memories

Weather reflects Scrooges
character and emotions. Pathetic
fallacy is often used by Dickens to
set the tone.

AO1:
AO1: Themes
Themes
Family:
Family:

-Source
-Source of
of comfort
comfort
-- Full
Full of
of happiness
happiness
-- Scrooge
didnt
Scrooge didnt see
see
the
the point,
point, at
at first
first
-Scrooge
-Scrooge is
is isolated
isolated
and
and alone
alone to
to
contrast
contrast the
the warmth
warmth
of
families
of families
-- Scrooge
Scrooge finally
finally
embraces
embraces his
his
chance
chance for
for aa family
family

and therefore I am He was at home in five
My dear Mr
about to raise your minutes. Nothing could Scrooge, are you
be heartier.
salary
serious?
Scrooge
Scrooge has
has
He buys
He
buys the
the Cratchits
Cratchits aa
completely
completely changed.
changed.
The
next
day
Scrooge
huge
turkey
then
joins
The next day Scrooge
huge turkey then joins
He
He laughs,
laughs, dances
dances and
and
gives Bob
Bob aa pay
pay rise.
rise.
Fred and
and his
his friends
friends for
for
gives
Fred
wishes
wishes passers-by
passers-by aa
Christmas
Christmas dinner.
dinner.
Merry
Merry Christmas.
Christmas.

Poverty:
Poverty:

-Dickens
-Dickens exposes
exposes
unfair treatment
unfair
treatment of
of
poor
poor
-- Wealthy
must
take
Wealthy must take
responsibility
responsibility
-- Cratchits
Cratchits ==
Victorian
Victorian poor
poor
-- Poverty
Poverty can
can be
be
seedy
seedy
-- Not
Not as
as simple
simple as
as
rich
rich and
and poor
poor

I am as merry
as a schoolboy
Scrooge
Scrooge finds
finds himself
himself
back
back in
in his
his own
own bed
bed on
on
Christmas Day.
Christmas
Day.

Scrooge
Scrooge and
and the
the Ghost
Ghost
stop at
at the
stop
the Cratchits
Cratchits
house
house on
on Christmas
Christmas
Day. Scrooge
Scrooge learns
learns
Day.
Tiny
Tiny Tim
Tim will
will die.
die.

Another idol has
displaced meA
golden one

AO1: Characters
Marley:
Marley:

Ignorance and Want are the
personification of societys
problems.

AO3 : Context
Religion:
Religion:

Scrooge
Scrooge is
is taken
taken to
to the
the
village where
where he
village
he grew
grew
up
up and
and sees
sees his
his
younger self
self in
in school:
school:
younger
alone
alone at
at Christmas.
Christmas.

Redemption:
Redemption:

-The
-The reality
reality of
of the
the
visions
visions changes
changes SS
-- There
are
hints
There are hints SS
will
will be
be redeemed
redeemed
-- Scrooges
Scrooges changed
changed
behaviour
behaviour leads
leads to
to
redemption
redemption
-- Scrooge
isnt
Scrooge isnt
forced
forced to
to change
change
-- Transformed
Transformed by
by
learning
learning empathy
empathy

Christmas:
Christmas:

-- Brings
Brings out
out the
the best
best
in
in people
people
-- Involves
generosity
Involves generosity
and
and kindness
kindness
-- Religious
Religious and
and
secular
secular side
side
-- Powerful
Powerful enough
enough
to
to transform
transform
Scrooge
Scrooge
-Message
-Message == all
all year
year

A
Merry
Christm
as and
a
Happy
New
Year to
the old
man,
whatev
They
er he
are
is.
Mans
And
they
cling to
me,
appeali
ng
from
their
You
are
fathers.
about
to
show me
shadows of
the things
that have
not
happened,
but will
happen in
the time
before us
Old
Scratc
h got
his
own
at
last,
hey?

Scrooge
Scrooge and
and
the Ghost
the
Ghost see
see
people
people all
all
over the
the
over
world
world
enjoying
enjoying
Christmas,
Christmas, in
in
spite of
of their
their
spite
isolation.
isolation.
They
They then
then
visit
visit Freds
Freds
house.
house. The
The
guests at
at his
his
guests
party
party make
make
fun of
of
fun
Scrooge
Scrooge and
and
his attitude
attitude
his
towards
towards
Christmas.
Christmas.
The
The Ghost
Ghost
reveals
reveals two
two
starving
starving
children:
children:
Ignorance and
and
Ignorance
Want.
Want. The
The
ghost warns
warns
ghost
Scrooge
Scrooge to
to
beware of
of
beware
them.
them.
The
The Ghost
Ghost of
of
Christmas Yet
Christmas
Yet
to
to Come
Come
collects
collects
Scrooge.
Scrooge.

The
The Ghost
Ghost
silently shows
silently
shows
Scrooge the
the
Scrooge
uncaring
uncaring
reaction of
of
reaction
some people
people
some
to an
an
to
unknown
unknown
mans death.
death.
mans

Scrooge
Every
Scrooge sees
sees
aa group
person has
group of
of
thieves
a right to
thieves trying
trying
to
take care
to sell
sell the
the
dead
of
dead mans
mans
belongings,
themselves
belongings,
including
. He always
including the
the
shirt
I will live in the read upon the stone I am sure we shall
did
shirt from
from his
his
corpse.
Past, the Present, of the neglected grave none of us forget
corpse.
his own name
and the Future
poor Tiny Tim.
Scrooge
The
Scrooge
Scrooge
Scrooge promises
promises the
the
The Ghost
Ghost takes
takes
Scrooge and
and the
the Ghost
Ghost
Scrooge is
is shown
shown aa
Ghost
Scrooge
visit the
the Cratchits
Cratchits
corpse under
under aa bed
bed
Ghost that
that he
he will
will
Scrooge to
to aa graveyard
graveyard
visit
corpse
honour
Christmas
and
and
points
to
a
grave
again.
Hes
upset
to
sheet
and
a
honour Christmas and
and points to a grave
again. Hes upset to
sheet and a woman
woman
change
with
find out
out that
that Tiny
Tiny Tim
Tim
rejoicing that
that her
her debt
debt
change the
the course
course of
of
with Scrooges
Scrooges name
name
find
rejoicing
his
on
has
collector
his life.
life.
on it.
it.
has died.
died.
collector is
is dead
dead

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