Systematics TaxonomyClassificationIdentification or DeterminationNomenclature- FloristicsExamples: Manual of the
Systematics TaxonomyClassificationIdentification or DeterminationNomenclature- FloristicsExamples: Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas Shinners and Mahlers Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas Flora of North America
NativeIntroduced or exoticNaturalizedLonicera albiflora Torr. & Gray and L. sempervirens L. (red) are only native honeysuckles in our area. Three are perfoliate, whereas introduced species are not.
Primary goals of plant systematics: 1. Identify and describe all plants of world @_____ species of plants known. Many more undiscovered (15,000 new species in South America alone). @_____ vascular plants in USA and Canada @_____ in Texas and 2223 in North Central Texas 2. Develop a uniform, practical, and stable system of naming plants that can be used by both plant taxonomists and others needing to communicate about plants
International codes providesrules for naming and classification that is uniform and stable. Books and websites allow us to communicate (Appendix 5 and 11) 3. Form groups that reflect their evolutionary relationships Taxa are grouped according to two main schools of taxonomists (Read Appendix 6 for details): 1. Traditional taxonomists -look at overall similarity or phenetics which may recognize
paraphyletic groups like Asclepiadaceae and Reptiles (Fig. 39 And 40) -Cronquist System in Appendix 1 is a widely used traditional classification and uses monophyletic and paraphyletic groups Monophyletic group-groups taxonomists try to form -give information that is critical for breeding programs and search for useful products Paraphyletic group-accepted by traditional taxonomist when group is phenetically different and can be identified by its morphology ex. Birds and
Asclepidaceae. Polyphyletic group-taxonomist has made a mistake due to convergent evolution where species are not genetically closely related but have adapted to similar environments Classic example of convergence in plants: Euphorbiaceae & Cactaceae
2. Cladists or phylogenetic classification -does not use binomial nomenclature or ranks -only examines the branching patterns of evolution using phylogenetic trees that reflect monophyletic groups -only recognizes monophyletic groups, so Asclepiadaceae becomes part of Apocynaceae and birds part of Reptilia (Figs. 39 and 40) -cladogram using DNA sequence data indicates that monocots are derived from within dicots making the dicot group
paraphyletic (Fig. 41) Apocynaceae (1900 species) Amsonia ciliata Walter Asclepiadaceae (2900 species with characteristics of Apocynaceae except all
have corona and fused stamens and pistil) Asclepias viridiflora Raf. After grouping is complete, ranks are assigned. Ranks used in the Taxonomic Hierarchy _______________________ -plants have eukaryotic cells and are in Domain Eukaryota Kingdom -members of the Kingdom Plantae, photosynthesize, have tissues,
and undergo alternation of generations. _______________________ -groups of classes -international rules specify that it must end in -phyta Bryophyta, Anthoceratophyta, Marchantiophyta (Hepatophyta), Lycopodiophyta, Psilotophyta, Equisetophyta, Polypodiophyta, Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Pinophyta, Gnetophyta, and Magnoliophyta are the 12 divisions of plants _____________________
-groups of subclasses and orders -international rules specify an -opsida ending -Magnoliopsida (Dicots) and Liliopsida (monocots) are the two classes of Magnoliophtes (Anthophytes or Angiosperms) Subclass -groups of orders that end in -idea -Cronquist system contains 11 subclasses and is widely used and presented in Appendix 1 Order -groups of families that end in -ales
____________________ -groups of subfamilies, tribes, or genera that end in -aceae -387-685 depending on classification system with 149 in North Central Texas Eight families may have endings other than -aceae: Name Modern Name Common Name Palmae
Palm Cruciferae Mustard Umbelliferae Carrot Labiatae Mint Graminae Grass Leguminosae
Pea Compositae Sunflower Guttiferae Clusiaceae St. Johns Wort Subfamily -groups of tribes or genera in large families that ends in -oideae -One example is the Grass family in Appendix 2
Tribe -groups of genera in large families that end in -eae -One example is the Grass family in Appendix 2 and Asteraceae on Page 298 Genus (Genera) -groups of one (monotypic Ex. Ginkgo biloba) to several species (large one is Quercus (oaks) with 400 species worldwide) -first part of binomial scientific name with no set ending -may be divided into sections or subgenera in a large genus
Species -the second part of a binomial scientific name often called the species epithet with no set ending; basic unit of classification -may not be used alone as must accompany a genus name. When the genus name is written once in a document, it may be abbreviated-Q. fusiformis Small (liveoak) Why use scientific names instead of common names? Common names are not____________, scientific names are.
Common names give no information about generic relationships or example cottonwoods and aspens are both close relatives and the same genus, Populus. You may have known these common ames but not realized they were related. Plants often have more than one _____________name. opulus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall subsp. deltoides is alled eastern cottonwood and amo.
4) Several plants may have the same common name. For example 100s of different plants are referred to as sunflowers 5) Many plants do not have a common name. Cyperus setigerus Torr. & Hook 6) Common names may be ______________. For example live oak and poison-oak are in two very different families. Scientific or botanical names were originally polynomials that were a brief description of the plant in Latin. These were eventually all
changed to binomial nomenclature by Linnaeus. For example, one species of buttercup was called Ranunculus calycibus retroflexis, pedunculis falcatis, caule erecto, foliis compositis which means the buttercup with bent-back sepals, curved flower stalks, erect stems, and compound leaves Complete Scientific Name consists of three parts: 1) Generic name-Latin name beginning with a capital letter that is italicized or underlined; if species is unknown can substitute sp. (singular) or spp. (plural). Uninomial- Quercus sp.
2) Specific name or species epithet-Latin name beginning with a lowercase letter that is italicized or underlined that is always used with a genus name. Binomial- Q. fusiformis (liveoak) 3) Authority-indicates the scientist that named a particular taxon. Never italicized or underlined and often abbreviated- Q. fusiformis Small Three intraspecific or infraspecific taxa are trinomials 1) Subspecies-populations within a species that have a regional range with distinctive morphological characteristics
-only intraspecific taxon used by zoologists and favored by modern plant systematists Example: Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall (cottonwood) P. deltoides subsp. deltoides -leaf blade 10-20 teeth on each side, E. 1/2 Texas to Wichita Falls P. deltoides subsp. monilifera (Aiton) Eckenw. -leaf blade with 5-10 teeth on each side, Panhandle S & E to Eastland County in our area Pg. 975-977 SMIFNCT
2) Variety-populations within a species or subspecies with minor morphological variation and a local range -sometimes varieties are treated in the same sense as subspecies Example: Cercis canadensis L. var. canadensis (usually single trunked, etc. (Pg. 640) in stream bottoms and lower slopes in sand or silt) and C. canadensis L. var. texensis (S. Watson) M. Hopkins (usually multi-trunked, etc. on rocky limestone slopes) 3) forma-lowest category in the taxonomic hierarchy that is differentiated by minor variation.
-rarely used today and is not used in SMIFNCT Miscellaneous Names: 1)Cultivars-cultivated form of some native species distinguished by any characteristics and propagated by any means -not a taxonomic category, used in horticulture -not governed by international codes botanical nomenclature but by rules of cultivated plants -written with an initial capital letter and uses a modern language -indicated by cv. or single quotation marks Ex. Citrus limon cv.
Sugardaddy or C. limon Sugardaddy 2) Hybrids-parental names connected by an X or an X in front of a collective name Example Baptisia Xbicolor Greenm. & Larisey [B. australis X B. bracteata] Pg. 80 SMIFNCT B. australis nternational Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is now
C of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNAFP) ames follow rules of international codes, which include six principles: ) Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological omenclature. Names used in classification may overlap. ) Botanical names are represented by types. Types are pecimens designated by botanist that names a new species. hey legally represent the name of the species and provide the
riginal material used in its description. ) Each taxonomic group has only one name. ) Scientific names are treated in Latin. International Code of Botanical omenclature was revised and Latin is no longer required. NAFP principles (cont.): Nomenclature is based on priority of publication. ay to determine acceptance when there are two or more names
the same taxon dest validly published name is correct starting with Species ntarum, a book written by Linnaeus in 1753, and working your y forward through the literature o consequences of principle of priorityDouble Citation-indicates a change in rank and includes the ginal authority name in parentheses, for example Cercis nadensis L. var. texensis (S. Watson) M. Hopkins Synonyms-two or more names apply to the same taxon elone obliqua L. Systema Vegetabili, ed. XII. p. 408. 1767. elone purpurea Mill. Miller's Garden Dictionary, ed XIII, n. 2.
68. ---C. obliqua L. is accepted name based on priority. Rules are retroactive, effecting rules prior to enactment. Naming a newly discovered plant: 1. Gather data to show that populations are different. 2. Name constructed according to international codes and never used before for a plant. 3. Clearly indicate its rank--Today usually new species or intraspecies.
3. Designate a type specimen from the collections that you use to obtain data. 5. Describe the taxon and provide illustrations or photographs. 6. Publish work in a peer-reviewed journal. Changing names as new data becomes available, can also occur. Names are hypotheses based on the data known at the time. Example: Nelson and Elisens article from American Journal of Botany http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/86/10/1487?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=
Appendix 7- Changes in the scientific names of plants
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