Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes

Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes

Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 DR PARICHEHR VAHABI ANARAKI MD ENDOCRINOLOGIST 12th MARCH 2019 Diabetes technology is the term used to describe the hardware, devices, and software that people with diabetes use to help manage blood glucose levels, stave off diabetes complications, reduce the burden of living with diabetes, and improve quality of

life. More recently, diabetes technology has expanded to include hybrid devices that both monitor glucose and deliver insulin, some automatically, as well as software that serves as a medical device, providing diabetes self-management support Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 INSULIN Insulin

DELIVERY Syringes and Pens Recommendations 7.1 For people with diabetes who require insulin, insulin syringes or insulin pens may be used for insulin delivery with consideration of patient

preference, insulin type and dosing regimen, cost, and self-management capabilities. B Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 INSULIN DELIVERY Insulin Syringes and Pens Insulin pens or insulin injection aids may be considered for patients with dexterity issues or vision

impairment to facilitate the administration of accurate insulin doses. Insulin pens may allow people with vision impairment or dexterity issues to dose insulin accurately, while insulin injection aids are also available to help with these issues Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 This product may help people with vision

impairment more safely dose insulin. Count-a-Dose holds one or two vials of insulin and aligns a syringe with either vial. It clicks with each unit of insulin dosed, so you can hear how much has been drawn up. Raised dots help you feel the difference between vials. Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 The most common syringe sizes are 1 mL, 0.5 mL, and 0.3 mL, allowing doses of up to 100 units, 50 units, and

30 units of U-100 insulin, respectively. And U-500 syringes are available for the use of U-500 insulin. Syringes are generally used once but may be reused by the same individual in resource-limited settings with appropriate storage and cleansing Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Insulin

pens offer added convenience by combining the vial and syringe into a single device. Insulin pens, allowing pushbutton injections, come as disposable pens with prefilled cartridges or reusable insulin pens with replaceable insulin cartridges. Some reusable pens include a memory function, which can recall dose amounts and timing. Smart pens that can be programmed to calculate insulin doses and provide downloadable data reports are also available. Pens also vary with respect to dosing increment and minimal dose Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019

Needle thickness (gauge) and length is another consideration. Needle gauges range from 22 to 33, with higher gauge indicating a thinner needle. A thicker needle can give a dose of insulin more quickly, while a thinner needle may cause less pain. Needle length ranges from 4 to 12.7 mm, with some evidence suggesting shorter needles may lower the risk of intramuscular injection

Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Another insulin delivery option is a disposable patch-like device, which provides a continuous, subcutaneous infusion of rapid-acting insulin (basal), as well as 2-unit increments of bolus insulin

at the press of a button Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Insulin Pumps Recommendations 7.3 Individuals with diabetes who have been successfully using

continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion should have continued access across third-party payers. E 7.4 Most adults, children, and adolescents with type 1 diabetes should be treated with intensive insulin therapy with either multiple daily injections or an insulin pump. A 7.5 Insulin pump therapy may be considered as an option for all children and adolescents, especially in children under 7 years of

age. C Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 These devices deliver rapidacting insulin throughout the day to help manage blood glucose levels. Most insulin pumps use tubing to deliver insulin through a cannula, while a few attach directly to the skin, without tubing.

Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Most studies comparing multiple daily injections (MDI) with CSII have been relatively small and of short duration. However, a recent systematic review and metaanalysis concluded that pump therapy has modest advantages for lowering A1C (0.30%

[95% CI 20.58 to 20.02]) and for reducing severe hypoglycemia rates in children and adults Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Pump therapy can be successfully started at the time of diagnosis . Practical aspects of pump therapy initiation include: assessment of patient and family readiness, (although there is no consensus on which factors to consider in adults (16) or pediatrics), selection of pump type and

initial pump settings, patient/ family education of potential pump complications (e.g., diabetic ketoacidosis [DKA] with infusion set failure), transition from MDI, and introduction of advanced pump settings (e.g., temporary basal rates, extended/square/dual wave bolus). Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Complications of the pump can be caused by issues with infusion sets (dislodgement, occlusion), which place patients at risk for ketosis and DKA and thus must be

recognized and managed early; lipohypertrophy or, less frequently, lipoatrophy; and pump site infection. Discontinuation of pump therapy is relatively uncommon today; the frequency has decreased over the past decades and its causes have changed Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Current reasons for attrition are problems with cost, wearability, disliking the pump, suboptimal glycemic control, or mood disorders (e.g.,

anxiety or depression) Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CSII and MDI with insulin analogs demonstrate a modest improvement in A1C in participants on CSII. Observational studies, registry data, and meta-analysis have also suggested an improvement of glycemic control in participants on CSII. Although hypoglycemia was a major adverse effect of

intensified insulin regimen in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), data suggests that CSII may reduce the rates of severe hypoglycemia compared withMDI Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Therefore, CSII can be used safely and effectively in youth with type 1 diabetes to assist with achieving targeted glycemic control while reducing the risk of hypoglycemia and DKA, improving quality of life and

preventing long-term complications Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Common barriers to pump therapy adoption in children and adolescents are concerns regarding the physical interference of the device, discomfort with idea of having a device on the body therapeutic effectiveness, and financial burden

Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 SELF-MONITORING OF BLOOD GLUCOSE Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Most patients using intensive insulin regimens (multiple daily injections or insulin pump therapy) should assess glucose levels using self-monitoring of blood glucose (or continuous glucose monitoring) prior to meals and snacks, at bedtime, occasionally postprandially, prior to exercise, when they suspect low blood glucose, after

treating low blood glucose until they are normoglycemic, and prior to critical tasks such as driving. B Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 7.7 When prescribed as part of a broad educational program, selfmonitoring of blood glucose may help to guide treatment decisions and/ or self-management for patients taking less frequent insulin injections. B 7.8 When prescribing self-monitoring of blood glucose, ensure that patients receive ongoing instruction and regular evaluation of technique, results, and their ability to use data from self-monitoring of blood glucose to adjust therapy.

Similarly, continuous glucose monitoring use requires robust and ongoing diabetes education,training, and support. E Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 SMBG is an integral component of effective therapy of patients taking insulin. In recent years, continuous glucose monitoring

(CGM) has emerged as a complementary method for the assessment of glucose levels Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Optimal use of SMBG and CGM requires proper review and interpretation of the data, by both the patient and the provider, to ensure that data are used in an effective and timely manner Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019

For Patients on Intensive Insulin Regimens SMBG or CGM is especially important for insulintreated patients to monitor for and prevent hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019

A database study of almost 27,000 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes showed that, after adjustment for multiple confounders, increased daily frequency of SMBG was significantly associated with lower A1C (0.2% per additional test per day) and with fewer acute complications Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019

The evidence is insufficient regarding when to prescribe SMBG and how often testing is needed for insulin-treated patients who do not use intensive insulin regimens, such as those with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin with or without oral agents. However, for patients using basal insulin, assessing fasting glucose with SMBG to inform dose adjustments to achieve blood glucose targets results in lower A1C.

Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 In people with type 2 diabetes not using insulin, routine glucose monitoring may be of limited additional clinical benefit. 1-Insight into the impact of diet, physical activity, and medication management on glucose levels. 2-Glucose monitoring may also be useful in assessing hypoglycemia, glucose levels during intercurrent illness, or 3-Discrepancies between measured A1C and glucose

levels when there is concern an A1C result may not be reliable in specific individuals Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Reductions in A1C were greater (-0.3%) in trials where structured SMBG data were used to adjust medications but not significant without such structured diabetes therapy adjustment. A key consideration is that performing SMBG alone does not lower blood glucose levels. To be useful, the

information must be integrated into clinical and selfmanagement plans Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Glucose Meter Accuracy Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Health care providers should be aware of the medications and other factors that can interfere with

glucose meter accuracy and choose appropriate devices for their patients based on these factors. E Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 There are several current standards for accuracy of blood glucose monitors, but the two most used are those of the International Organization for Standardization(ISO 15197:2013) and the FDA.

In a recent analysis, the program found that only 6 of the top 18 glucose meters met the accuracy standard Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Factors Limiting Accuracy 1-Counterfeit Strips: Only unopened vials of glucose test strips should be used to ensure SMBG accuracy

2-Oxygen: 3-Temperature 4-Interfering substances Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Currently available glucose monitors utilize either glucose oxidase or glucose dehydrogenase.

Glucose oxidase monitors are sensitive to the oxygen available and should only be used with capillary blood in patients with normal oxygen saturation. Higher oxygen tensions (i.e., arterial blood or oxygen therapy) may result in false low glucose readings, and low oxygen tensions (i.e., high altitude, hypoxia, or venous blood readings) may lead to false high glucose readings. Glucose dehydrogenase monitors are not sensitive to oxygen Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Table

7.2Interfering substances Glucose oxidase monitors Uric acid Galactose Xylose Acetaminophen

L-dopa Ascorbic acid Glucose dehydrogenase monitors Icodextrin (used in peritoneal dialysis Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE

MONITORS Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Sensor-augmented pump therapy may be considered for children, adolescents, and adults to improve glycemic control without an increase in hypoglycemia or severe hypoglycemia. Benefits

correlate with adherence to ongoing use of the device. A Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 When prescribing continuous glucose monitoring, robust diabetes education, training, and support are required for optimal continuous glucose monitor implementation and ongoing use. E Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019

People who have been successfully using continuous glucose monitors should have continued access across third-party payers. E Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 There are two types of CGM devices.

Most CGM devices are real-time CGM, which continuously report glucose levels and include alarms for hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic excursions. The other type of device is intermittently scanning CGM (isCGM), which is approved for adult use only Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 For

some CGM systems, SMBG is required to make treatment decisions, although a randomized controlled trial of 226 adults suggested that an enhanced CGM device could be used safely and effectively without regular confirmatory SMBG in patients with wellcontrolled type 1 diabetes at low risk of severe hypoglycemia Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 As recently reported, the metrics

may include: 1) average glucose; 2) percentage of time in hypoglycemic ranges, i.e., ,54 mg/dL (level 2), 5470 mg/dL (level 1) (62); 3) percentage of time in target range, i.e., 70180 mg/dL (3.99.9 mmol/L); 4) percentage of time in hyperglycemic range, i.e.,>180 mg/dL Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019

To make these metrics more actionable, standardized reports with visual cues, such as an ambulatory glucose profile, may help the patient and the provider interpret the data and use it to guide treatment decisions Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Recently, the eA1C was renamed the glucose management indicator (GMI), and a new formula was

generated for converting CGM derived mean glucose to GMI based on recent clinical trials using the most accurate CGM systems available. This provided a new way to use CGM data to estimate A1C Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Real-time Continuous Glucose Monitor Use in Youth Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019

Real-time continuous glucose monitoring should be considered in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes, whether using multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, as an additional tool to help improve glucose control and reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. Benefits of continuous glucose monitoring correlate with adherence to ongoing use of the device.

Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Real-time Continuous Glucose Monitor Use in Adults Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 When used properly, real-time continuous glucose monitoring in conjunction with intensive insulin regimens

is a useful tool to lower A1C in adults with type 1 diabetes who are not meeting glycemic targets . A Real-time continuous glucose monitoring may be a useful tool in those with hypoglycemia unawareness and/or frequent hypoglycemic episodes. B Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Real-time

continuous glucose monitoring should be used as close to daily as possible for maximal benefit. A Real-time continuous glucose monitoring may be used effectively to improve A1C levels and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. B Sensor-augmented pump therapy with automatic low-glucose suspend may be considered for adults with type 1 diabetes at

high risk of hypoglycemia to prevent episodes of hypoglycemia and reduce their severity. B Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Intermittently Scanned Continuous Glucose Monitor Use Intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitor use may be considered as a substitute for self-monitoring of blood glucose in adults with diabetes requiring frequent glucose testing.

isCGM (sometimes referred to as flash CGM) is a CGM that measures glucose in interstitial fluid through a ,0.4 mm thick filament that is inserted under the skin. Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 The personal version of isCGM has a receiver that, after scanning over the sensor by the individual, displays realtime glucose values and glucose trend arrows. The

data can be uploaded and a report created using available software Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 In the professional version, the patient does not carry a receiver; the data are blinded to the patient and the device is downloaded in the diabetes care providers office using the providers receiver and the software.

Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 In the U.S., the FDA now requires a 1-h start-up time after activation of the system, and it can be worn up to 14 days. The isCGM does not require calibration with SMBG because it is factory calibrated. Acetaminophen

The does not cause interference with glucose readings. mean absolute relative difference reported by the manufacturer is 9.4%. It measures glucose every minute, records measurements every 15 min, and displays up to 8 h of data Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019

As opposed to real-time CGM systems, isCGM has no alarms. The direct costs of isCGM are lower than those of realtime CGM systems. In general, both the consumer and professional versions are covered by most commercial insurance carriers and eligible Medicare programs.

Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 isCGM may decrease the risk of hypoglycemia in individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. There are a growing number of studies suggesting similar good performance and potential for benefit in special populations, including pregnant women with diabetes, individuals with type 1 diabetes and

hypoglycemia unawareness ,and children, although accuracy (mean absolute relative difference) could be decreased in younger children Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Contact dermatitis has been reported and linked to the presence of isobornyl acrylate, a structural plastic of the device, which is a skin sensitizer and can cause an additional spreading allergic reaction

Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 AUTOMATED INSULIN DELIVERY Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 Automated insulin delivery systems may be considered in children (>7 years) and adults with type 1 diabetes to improve glycemic control. B

Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 To provide physiologic insulin delivery, insulin doses need to be adjusted based on glucose values, which is now feasible with automated insulin delivery systems consisting of three components: 1-an insulin pump,

2-a continuous glucose sensor, 3-and an algorithm that determines insulin delivery. Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 With these systems, insulin delivery cannot only be suspended but also increased or decreased based on sensor glucose values. Emerging

evidence suggests such systems may lower the risk of exercise related hypoglycemia and may have psychosocial benefits Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 While eventually insulin delivery in closed-loop systems may be truly automated, meals must currently be announced. A

so-called hybrid approach, hybrid closed-loop (HCL), has been adopted in first-generation closed-loop systems and requires users to bolus for meals and snacks. Diabetes Technology: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019

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