Pathways towards clean air in India Pallav Purohit
Pathways towards clean air in India Pallav Purohit IIASA Air Quality and Greenhouse Gases Program EGU 2019 Vienna, April 11, 2019 Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration in Indian cities 200 PM2.5 concentration (annual average, g/m3) 180 160 143 140 131 40 20 144 138 65 101 98 74 60 146 120 105 100
60 149 120 120 80 173 172 84 64 NAAQS WHO guideline 0 Source: WHO (2018) The study tools The GAINS (Greenhouse gas - Air Pollution INteractions and Synergies) and GCAM-IIMA models GCAM/IIMA Buildings Industry Transport Energy activity projections Decision making on air National emission ceilings quality management Emission control options: ~1000 measures, co-control of 10 air
pollutants and 6 GHGs) Emissions Costs Optimization Atmospheric dispersion Health, ecosystems and climate impact indicators Policy targets Air quality management needs to address urban and rural areas Computed ambient levels of PM2.5 Emission densities of PM2.5, 2015 PM2.5 (kt/year) Satellite-derived PM2.5 Source: NASA Source: IIASA/GAINS Source: IIASA/GAINS While current ambient PM2.5 monitoring in India reveals high levels in urban areas, remote sensing, comprehensive air quality modelling and emission inventories suggest large-scale exceedances of the NAAQS also in rural areas. Household fuel combustion, small industries, burning of garbage and agricultural waste, etc., cause high emissions in rural areas too. Pollution from rural areas is transported into the cities (and vice versa), where it constitutes a significant share of pollution. Effective solutions require regional cooperation between cities and States
Origin of (population-weighted) PM2.5 concentrations in ambient air 2015 120 PM2.5 (g/m) 100 A large share of PM2.5 in ambient air originates from sources outside of cities and from other States, which are beyond the immediate jurisdictions of cities. 80 60 NAAQS 40 WHO guideline 20 0 Natural sources Outside India Other India Neighboring States This State Source: IIASA/GAINS (Cost-)effective strategies require regionally coordinated approaches,
and need to address urban and rural emission sources. Effective solutions must address all sources that contribute to PM2.5 formation 80 60 NAAQS 40 WHO guideline 20 Natural sources Secondary PM2.5* Power stations Other high stacks Households Transport Waste Agriculture Other Himachal Pradesh Jammu, Kashmir Tamil Nadu Kerala
Karnataka Assam Goa Andhra Pradesh** North East Uttarakhand Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Chatti sgarh Rajasthan Odisha Gujarat Punjab Bihar Jharkhand Haryana 0 Uttar Pradesh A focus on single sources alone will not deliver effective improvements and is likely to waste economic resources to the detriment of further economic and social development.
100 West Bengal Any effective reduction of PM2.5 levels in ambient air and the resulting health burden needs to balance emission controls across all these source sectors. 120 Delhi A significant share of emissions still originates from sources associated with poverty and underdevelopment (i.e. solid fuel use in households and waste management practices). PM2.5 (g/m) Source: IIASA/GAINS Secondary particles formed in the atmosphere from agricultural NH3 emissions through chemical reactions with SO2 and/or NOx emissions; **Including Telangana * 1000% 120 800% 100
600% 80 EJ/year relative to 2015 Macro-economic development and energy consumption 400% 40 200% 0% 2010 60 20 2020 2030 2040 2050 GDP Primary energy consumption GDP/Capita Population CO2 emissions CO2 emissions/Capita
0 2010 Coal Oil 2020 Gas Biomass 2030 2040 Renewables (excl. biomass) 2050 Nuclear Source: CEEW/IIASA Compliance with current legislations will be essential for stabilizing pollution levels as the economy grows Computed ambient levels of PM2.5 2015 2030 with current legislations Source: IIASA/GAINS Current emission controls are effective, but their impacts are compensated by rapid economic growth. By 2030, effective implementation and enforcement of the 2018 legislation could allow a three-fold increase in GDP without further deteriorating air quality.
Policies and measures are available that could bring air quality more in compliance with the NAAQS -Advanced Emission Control Technology Scenario Computed ambient levels of PM2.5 2015 2030 with current legislations 2030 with advanced controls Source: IIASA/GAINS Advanced technical emission controls can deliver additional air quality improvements, but will not be sufficient to achieve the NAAQS everywhere NAAQS-compliant air quality to 60% of the Indian population Policies and measures are available that could bring air quality more in compliance with the NAAQS -Sustainable Development Scenario Computed ambient levels of PM2.5 2015 2030 with current legislations 2030 with development measures Source: IIASA/GAINS A package of development measures that are usually taken for other policy priorities can deliver significant co-benefits on air quality. NAAQS-compliant air quality to about 85% of the Indian population.
Air pollutant emission control costs 1.8% 1.6% 200 1.4% 1.0% 0.8% 100 0.6% % of GDP 1.2% 150 0.4% 50 0.2% 2030 Power sector Industry Residential Development measures Advanced technology 2018 legislation 2015 measures
Development measures Advanced technology 2018 legislation 0.0% 2015 measures 0 2015 In 2050, with an almost 10-fold increase in GDP, air pollution controls will consume 1.1-1.5% of the GDP. 250 Billion Euro/year Air pollution emission control costs accounted for about 0.7% of the GDP in 2015. This share will increase to 1.4-1.7% of GDP in 2030. More than 80% of total costs emerged for mobile sources. 2050 Mobile sources Others % of GDP Source: IIASA/GAINS Sustainable development measures can deliver a wide range of benefits Even without dedicated measures
focused on methane, CH4 emissions would be 40% lower in 2050 compared to the baseline case. Black carbon emissions would decline by 80% in the development scenario in 2050 compared to 2015. 350% 300% relative to 2015 emissions In the sustainable development scenario, Indias CO2 emissions would be about 60% lower in 2050 than in the baseline case. 250% 200% 150% 100% 50% 0% 2015 2030 2050 CO 2018 legislation 2015 2030 2050 CH Advanced technology 2015 2030 2050 2015 2030 2050 All GHGs BC Development measures Source: IIASA/GAINS
Priority measures Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking (e.g., promotion of LPG/electric stoves) Effective implementation of current policy measures (e.g., FGD in power plants, BS-VI from 2020) Improved waste management and agricultural production practices Substituting coal with natural gas and renewables (solar/wind) in power generation and industry Improvements in energy efficiency (power, industry, transport and residential/commercial) Advanced emission controls (e.g., HED and ESP Stage-II for PM and SCR for NOx control in power plants) Enhanced public transport (e.g., metro) and increased incentives for greater adoption of electric vehicles Emission control on non-industrial sources (e.g., road dust) Coordination of urban, rural and inter-State responses GAINS India: A productive CEEW-IIASA cooperation
Markus Amann Jens Borken-Kleefeld Gregor Kiesewetter Adriana Gomez-Sanabria Zbigniew Klimont Pallav Purohit Peter Rafaj Robert Sander Wolfgang Schpp Vaibhav Chaturvedi Hem H. Dholakia Poonam Nagar Koti The GAINS-South Asia tool is available online to explore cost-effective strategies that maximize multiple benefits Access on the Internet: http://gains.iiasa.ac.at Thank you! [email protected]
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