Mental Math Strategies Grade 1 to 4 Virginia Birch MFNERC Numeracy Specialist Overview Mental Math what is it? Grade 1 to 3 Strategies

Indicators from the Provincial Report Card Mental Math what is it Conceptual strategies that enhance flexible thinking and number sense and number skills (critical numeracy) calculating mentally without the use of external memory aids.

provides a cornerstone for all estimation processes offering a variety of alternate algorithms and nonstandard techniques for finding answers K K -- Gr Gr 88 Manitoba Manitoba Curriculum Curriculum Framework Framework of

of Outcomes Outcomes 2013 2013 Mental Math what is it developing mental math skills and recalling math facts automatically Facts become automatic for students through repeated

exposure and practice. When facts are automatic, students are no longer using strategies to retrieve them from memory. K - Gr 8 Manitoba Curriculum Framework of Outcomes 2013 Mental Math what is it

One of the Math Competencies for the Grade 3 and Grade 7 Math Assessment (see report templates) Mental Math: Should not be timed. Students differ on the amount of time they need to process concepts. Can be done daily approximately five

minutes for a daily math routine. Can be practiced with math games or learning centers where students can practice the strategies. Create a Mental Math Bulletin Board Create an Estimation Bulletin Board The development of mental math strategies is greatly enhanced by

sharing and discussion. Students should be given the freedom to adapt, combine, and invent their own strategies. Math Tools you can use

Ten Frames Base 10 Blocks 100 Chart Number Line

Array Cards Dominoes Finger Patterns Linking cubes Going from concrete to pictorial to abstract Counting On Grade 1

Concept: Addition Meaning: Students begin with a number and count on to get the sum. Students should begin to recognize that beginning with the larger of the two addends is generally most efficient. Example: for 3 + 5 think 5 + 1 + 1 + 1 is 8; think 5, 6, 7, 8

Practising the strategy 2+7= 9+3= 3+12= Counting Back Grade 1

Concept: Subtraction Meaning: Students begin with the minuend and count back to find the difference. Example: for 6 2 think 6 1 1 is 4; think 6, 5, 4 Practising the Strategy

9-2= 10-3= 7-1= Using One More Gr 1, 2 Concept: Addition Meaning: Starting from a known fact and adding one more. Example: for 8 + 5 if you know

8 + 4 is 12 and one more is 13 Practising the Strategy 5+6= 6+7= 8+9= Using One Less - Gr 1,

2 Concept: Addition Meaning: Starting from a known fact and taking one away. Example: for 8 + 6 if you know 8 + 7 is 15 and one less is 14 Practising the strategy

7+6= 9+8= 6+5= Making 10 Gr 1, 2 Concept: Addition, Subtraction Meaning: Students use combinations that add up to ten and can extend this to multiples of ten in later grades. Example:

4 + ____ is 10 7 + ____ is 10; so 23 + ____ is 30 Practising the strategy 28 +___ = 30 15 +___=20 16 + ___= 40

Starting from Known Doubles Gr 1 Concept: Addition, Subtraction Meaning: Students need to work to know their doubles facts. Example: 2 + 2 is 4 and 4 2 is 2

Practising the strategy 3+3=__ , so ___-3=___ 9+9=__ , so ___-9=___ 8+8=__ , so ___-8=___ Using Addition to Subtract Gr 1, 2, 3 Concept: Subtraction Meaning:

This is a form of part-part-whole representation. Thinking of addition as: part + part = whole Thinking of subtraction as: whole part = part Example: for 12 5 think 5 + ____ = 12 so 12 5 is 7 Practising the Strategy

13-7= ? , think 7 +___= 13 11-6= ? , think 6 +___=11 15-7= ? , think 7+___= 15 The Zero Property of Addition Gr 2 Concept: Addition, Subtraction

Meaning: Knowing that adding 0 to an addend does not change its value, and taking 0 from a minuend does not change the value. Example: 0 + 5 = 5; 11 0 = 11 Using Doubles Gr 2, 3 Concept: Addition, Subtraction

Meaning: Students learn doubles, and use this to extend facts: using doubles doubles plus one (or two) doubles minus one (or two) Example: for 5 + 7 think 6 + 6 is 12; for 5 + 7 think 5 + 5 + 2 is 12

for 5 + 7 think 7 + 7 2 is 12 Practising the strategy for 6+ 8,think doubles for 6 + 8, think double 6 plus two for 6 + 8, think double 8 minus two Building on Known

Doubles Gr 2, 3 Concept: Addition, Subtraction Meaning: Students learn doubles, and use this to extend facts. Example: for 7 + 8 think 7 + 7 is 14 so 7 + 8 is 14 + 1 is 15 Practising the Strategy

3+4= 7+6= 8+9= Adding from Left to Right Gr 3 Concept: Addition Meaning: Using place value understanding to add 2-digit numerals.

Example: for 25 + 33 think 20 + 30 and 5 + 3 is 50 + 8 or 58 Practising the Strategy 17+22= 26+21= 45+34=

Making 10 Gr 3 Concept: Addition, Subtraction Meaning: Students use combinations that add up to ten to calculate other math facts and can extend this to multiples of ten in later grades. Example: for 8 + 5 think 8 + 2 + 3 is 10 + 3 or 13

Practising the strategy 8+7= 7+9= 5+7= Compensation Gr 3 Concept: Addition, Subtraction Meaning: Using other known math facts and compensating. For example, adding 2

to an addend and taking 2 away from the sum. Example: for 25 + 33 think 25 + 35 2 is 60 2 or 58 Practising the strategy 47+22= 18+15=

39+17= Commutative Property Gr 3 Concept: Addition Meaning: Switching the order of the two numbers being added will not affect the sum. Example: 4 + 3 is the same as

3+4 Compatible Numbers Gr 3, 4 Concept: Addition, Subtraction Meaning: Compatible numbers are friendly numbers (often associated with compatible numbers to 5 or 10). Example: for 4 + 3 students may think 4 + 1 is 5 and 2 more makes 7

Practising the Strategy 4+7= 9+8= 7+8= Array Gr 3 Concept: Multiplication, Division Meaning: Using an ordered arrangement

to show multiplication or division (similar to area). Example: for 3 x 4 think for 12 3 think

Practising the strategy 5x5= 3x4= 4x2= Commutative Property Gr 3 Concept: Multiplication

Meaning: Switching the order or the two numbers being multiplied will not affect the product. Example: 4 x 5 is the same as 5x4 Skip Counting Gr 3 Concept: Multiplication Meaning: Using the concept of multiplication as a series of equal

grouping to determine a product. Example: for 4 x 2 think 2, 4, 6, 8 so 4 x 2 is 8 Practising the Strategy 2x5= 3x4=

5x4= Zero Property of Multiplication Gr 4 Concept: Multiplication Meaning: Multiplying a factor by zero will always result in zero. Example: 30 x 0 is 0 0 x 15 is 0

Multiplicative Identity Gr 4 Concept: Multiplication Meaning: Multiplying a factor by one will not change its value. Dividing a dividend by one will not change its value. Example: 1 x 12 is 12 21 1 is 21

Skip-Counting from a Known Fact Gr 4, 5 Concept: Multiplication, Division Meaning: Similar to the counting on strategy for addition. Using a known fact and skip counting forward or backward to determine the answer. Example: for 3 x 8 think 3 x 5 is 15 and skip count by

threes 15, 18, 21, 24 Practising the Strategy 4x7= 6 x 8= 8 x 7= 9 x 8= Doubling or Halving Gr 4, 5

Concept: Multiplication, Division Meaning: Using known facts and doubling or halving them to determine the answer. Example: for 7 x 4, think the double of 7 x 2 is 28 for 48 6, think the double of 24 6 is 8 Practising the Strategy 8x 4=

think double 8 x 2 = ___ 32 4 = think double 16 4 = ____ Using the Pattern for 9s- Gr 4 Concept: Multiplication, Division Meaning: Knowing the first digit of the answer is one less than the non-nine factor and the sum of the products digits

is nine. Example: for 7 x 9 think one less than 7 is 6 and 6 plus 3 is nine, Practising the Strategy 4 5 6

7 8 x x x x x 9

9 9 9 9 = = = = =

36 45 54 63 72 Repeated Doubling Gr 4, 5 Concept: Multiplication

Meaning: Continually doubling to get to an answer. Example: for 3 x 8, think 3 x 2 is 6, 6 x 2 is 12, 12 x 2 is 24 Practising the Strategy To find 8 X 8, first find 2 X 8, then double, then double again.

2 X 8 = 16 4 X 8 is double 2 X 8 16 + 16 = 32 so, 4 X 8 = 32 8 X 8 is double 4 X 8 32 + 32 = 64 so, 8 X 8 = 64 Using multiplication to divide - Gr 4

Concept: Division Meaning: This is a form of part-part-whole representation. Thinking of addition as: part x part = whole Thinking of subtraction as: whole part = part Example: for 35 7 think 7 x ____ = 35 so

35 7 is 5 Practising the Strategy 36 6 = Think 6 x ___ = 36 42 7 = Think 7 x ___ = 42 Distributive property Gr 4, 5

Concept: Multiplication Meaning: In arithmetic or algebra, when you distribute a factor across the brackets: a x (b + c) = a x b + a x c (a + b) x (c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd Example: for 2 x 154 think 2 x 100 plus 2 x 50 plus 2 x 4 is 200 + 100 + 8 or 308

Place a straw between two columns. What does it now show? a x (b + c) = a x b + a x c Record it as 3 x 7 = 3 x 2 + 3 x 5 13 x 12

+ b) x (c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd = (10 + 3) x (10 + 2) = (10 x 10) + (10 x 2) + (3 x 10) + (3 x 2) How do you assess for mental math

strategies? Use checklists Observe strategies students are using through games Make anecdotal notes while conversing with a student Collect student sample work Indicators

from the Provincial Report Card (Gr 1 to 8) Determines an answer using multiple mental math strategies Applies mental math strategies that are efficient, accurate, and flexible Makes a reasonable estimate of value or quantity using benchmarks and referents.

Uses estimation to make mathematical judgments in daily Provincial Report Card Document Pg. life. 43