Meeting the Needs of All Learners: Responsive Teaching

Meeting the Needs of All Learners: Responsive Teaching

Meeting the Needs of All Learners: Responsive Teaching AISG 2015 For further conversation about any of these topics: Rick Wormeli [email protected] 703-620-2447 Herndon, Virginia, USA

(Eastern Standard Time Zone) @rickwormeli (Twitter) www.rickwormeli.net Anyone out there know me? It is counter-cultural, subversive, to differentiate instruction . Being good at taking standardized tests doesnt qualify students for creative

contribution to society or successful citizenship. We are hired for how we are similar to a company, but we advance based on how we are different. Equal Fair [Artist Unknown

Be clear: We mark and grade against standards/outcomes, not the routes students take or techniques teachers use to achieve those standards/outcomes. Given this premise, marks/grades for these activities can no longer be used in the academic report of what students know and can do regarding learner standards: maintaining a neat notebook, group discussion, class participation, homework, class work, reading log minutes, band practice minutes, dressing out in p.e., showing up to perform in an evening concert, covering textbooks, service to the school, group projects, signed permission slips, canned foods for canned food drive Fair Isnt Always Equal

I dont have time to differentiate instruction or assessment or be creative. Really? They dont differentiate instruction and assessment at the high school level, in college, or on the standardized tests, so we shouldnt differentiate at the middle level.

Let me get this straight Theres no way to teach all these learner outcomes and differentiate instruction and assessment. Differentiation is. Tomlinson: If I laid out on my kitchen counter raw hamburger meat still in its Styrofoam

container, cans of tomatoes and beans, jars of spices, an onion, and a bulb of garlic [and told guests to eat heartily].My error would be that I confused ingredients for dinner with dinner itself. Tomlinson: One can make many different dishes with the same ingredients, by changing proportions, adding new ingredients, using the same ingredients in different ways, and so on.

Time is a variable, not an absolute. Nobody knows ahead of time how long it takes anyone to learn anything. Dr. Yung Tae Kim, Dr. Tae, Physics Professor, Skateboarding Champion Are we responsive teachers? 1. Are we willing to teach in whatever way is necessary for students to learn best, even if that approach doesnt match

our own preferences? 2. Do we have the courage to do what works, not just whats easiest? 3. Do we actively seek to understand our students knowledge, skills, and talents so we can provide an appropriate match for their learning needs? And once we discover their strengths and weaknesses, do we actually adapt our instruction to respond to their needs? 4. Do we continually build a large and diverse repertoire of instructional strategies so we have more than one way to teach? 5. Do we organize our classrooms for students learning or for our teaching?

Are we responsive teachers? 6. Do we keep up to date on the latest research about learning, students developmental growth, and our content specialty areas? 7. Do we ceaselessly self-analyze and reflect on our lessons including our assessments searching for ways to improve? 8. Are we open to critique? 9. Do we push students to become their own education advocates and give them the tools to do so? 10. Do we regularly close the gap between knowing what to do and really doing it?

Definition Responsive teaching, i.e. differentiating instruction, is doing whats fair for students. Its a collection of best practices strategically employed to maximize students learning at every turn, including giving them the tools to handle anything that is undifferentiated. It requires us to do different things for different students some, or a lot, of the time. Its whatever works to advance the student if the regular classroom approach doesnt meet students needs. Its highly effective teaching. As highly accomplished professional educators at

advanced levels of responsive teaching, we also have a responsibility to be courageous advocates of differentiated instruction, even in politically tough times, and we help others do the same. As highly accomplished professional educators at

advanced levels of responsive teaching, we are capable of candid, insightful analysis of differentiated lessons. (Lets try some of that analysis right now with some video clips) As highly accomplished professional educators at

advanced levels of responsive teaching, we see responsive teaching as a mindset, not a list of recipes. What does it mean to do advanced responsive teaching? It means we become mini-experts in increasingly diverse student populations: Learning disabilities 504 and Otherwise Health Impaired Hearing challenges Visual challenges Athletic/unathletic

Gifted/advanced Emotionally challenged Military Gang-affiliated Under resourced Impoverished students Lesbian-Gay-Bisexual-Transgender (LGBT) Gamers Working full time or part time Artistic Speech and Language issues Abused Extrovert/Introvert

Autistic English Language Learners ADHD Transient Tech-savvy/tech-illerate Poor readers Single parent homes Depression/Suicidal Pregnant Religious affiliation What does it mean to do advanced responsive teaching? It means we become mini-experts in cognitive science principles specifically for the students we teach:

The mind craves structures, relationships, connections. Emphasize sense-making, meaning-making, and the growth mindset. Prime the brain. Create prior knowledge where there was none. The brain is a survival organ. Getting enough sleep is critical, not optional. Build in more movement and shifting from one activity to another. The mind retains information/skills through reiteration, recursive experiences. The brain needs a lot more water and protein than we think. Stress limits cognition. When assimilating too much, a childs default response is anger, frustration. There is no such thing as laziness. While there may be varied experiences and frames of reference as well as learning preferences depending on the situation or topic, most of the time

students can learn most content in more than one way we dont pigeon-hole students. Motivation, resilience, stick-to-it-ness are specific fields of expertise. What does it mean to do advanced responsive teaching? It means we become mini-experts in assessment and grading practices that support responsive teaching principles: Evidenced-based assessment Formative feedback, including getting training on descriptive feedback Gradebooks cumulative for the year Subject-like teachers collaborate on evidence descriptors Allow/Require re-dos for full credit Time becomes a variable Revising instruction based on assessment

Distinguish between formative and summative Increase the role of pre-assessment in our lesson design Develop a constructive response to late work Report work habits, efforts, character elements separately from academic progress and performance Welcome alternative assessments (This is different than most interpretations of Credit Recovery) Disaggregate scores/topic evaluations to see strong and weak areas Accept grades as what students know and can do at the end of learning, not during the learning. What does it mean to do advanced responsive teaching? It means we become mini-experts in building a personal repertoire of differentiated responses, cultivating pedagogical dexterity:

Read professionally. Subscribe to at least one professional journal. Think reflectively. Keep up to date in our expertise regarding the disciplines we teach. Attend at least one national or regional conference/seminar each year. Exchange lesson plans for collegial review. Participate in PLCs, Teacher Action Research, Critical Friends Networks, or as a Lab School for a local university Actively pursue new ways to do differentiation elements like flexible grouping, scaffolding, tiering, adjusting instruction to readiness levels, etc. Participate in the national and local conversations of our discipline. Participate in a professional on-line community and/or course.

What does it mean to do advanced responsive teaching? It means we become mini-experts in building a personal repertoire of differentiated responses, cultivating pedagogical dexterity: (part 2) Analyze practices/decisions regularly, and revise/change/drop those that arent working. Invite professional critique from colleagues, students, parents. Coach others. Participate/Conduct discussions of hypotheticals/scenarios. Cultivate personal creativity and innovation. Ask students for how to teach something best. Co-teach. Blog or write for publication.

Clarify Thinking through Realistic Hypotheticals Some students [get] more work to do, and others less. For example, a teacher might assign two book reports to advanced readers and only one to struggling readers. Or a struggling math student might have to do only the computation problems while advanced math students do the word problems as well. (Tomlinson, p. 7)

Teachers have more control in the classroom. Teacher uses many different group structures over time. A science and math teacher, Mr. Blackstone, teaches a large concept (Inertia) to the whole class. Based on exit cards in which students summarize what they learned after the whole class instruction, and observation of students over time, he assigns students to one of two labs: one more open-ended and one more

structured. Those that demonstrate mastery of content in a post-lab assessment, move to an independent project (rocketry), while those that do not demonstrate mastery, move to an alternative rocketry project, guided by the teacher, that revisits the important content. (Tomlinson, p. 24) Students watch an instructional video. Every 10 to 15 minutes, the teacher stops the video and asks student to summarize what theyve learned. The teacher does several math problems on the front board, then assigns students five practice problems to see if they understand the algorithm.

Students are working in small groups on an assigned task. One student isnt cooperating with the rest of his group, however, and as a result, the group is falling farther behind the other groups. There are only enough microscopes for every three students. One student uses the microscope to bring items into focus, another draws what the group sees through the eyepiece, then the three students answer questions. Quick Reference: Differentiated Lesson Planning Sequence A. Steps to take before designing the learning experiences: 1. Identify your essential understandings, questions,

benchmarks, objectives, skills, standards, and/or learner outcomes. 2. Identify your students with unique needs, and get an early look at what they will need in order to learn and achieve. 3. Design your formative and summative assessments. 4. Design and deliver your pre-assessments based on the summative assessments and identified objectives. 5. Adjust assessments or objectives based on your further thinking discovered while designing the assessments. Learner Profile: Any Factor that might Influence Learning Family dynamics (if influential) SES 504

LD Physical health Speech and Language Issues Nationality (if influential) Religious affiliation (if influential) Multiple Intelligences Personal background/experiences Ethics Personal interests: sports, music, television, movies, books, hobbies, other Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory Bernice McCarthys 4MAT Tourettes Syndrome

Downs Syndrome Visually Impaired Transiency rate IEP ELL Gifted/Advanced Emotional health Behavior/Discipline concerns Diet (if influential) Technology access/comfort Arts comfort/profiency Leadership qualities Collaboration

Weekly schedule Politics (if influential) Anthony Gregorc Scale Home responsibilities ADHD Aspergers Syndrome Hearing Impaired Auditory Processing issues Quick Reference: Differentiated Lesson Planning Sequence B. Steps to take while designing the learning experiences: 1. Design the learning experiences for students based on preassessments, your knowledge of your students, and your expertise with the curriculum, cognitive theory, and students at this stage of human development.

2. Run a mental tape of each step in the lesson sequence to make sure things make sense for your diverse group of students and that the lesson will run smoothly. 3. Review your plans with a colleague. 4. Obtain/Create materials needed for the lesson. 5. Conduct the lesson. 6. Adjust formative and summative assessments and objectives as necessary based on observations and data collected while teaching. When Designing your Actual Lessons. 1. Brainstorm multiple strategies 2. Cluster into introductory, advanced, and strategies that fit between these two

3. Sequence activities in plan book 4. Correlate Class Profile descriptors, expertise in students at this age, Differentiation Strategies, and Cognitive Science Principles to lessons What do you need to change in order to maximize instruction for all students? Moving Content into Long-term Memory Students have to do both, Access Sense-Making

Process Meaning-Making Quick Reference: Differentiated Lesson Planning Sequence C. Steps to take after providing the learning experiences: 1. Evaluate the lessons success with students. What evidence do you have that the lesson was successful? What worked and what didnt, and why? 2. Record advice on lesson changes for yourself for when you do this lesson in future years.

Elements of Respnsive, Differentiated Instruction 1 11 21 1211 111221 312211 13112221 1113213211 Discern the

Pattern and Fill in the Last Row of Numbers - From, Creative Thinkering, 2011, Michael Michalko, p. 44 CELL BODY Dendrites Neuron Myelin sheath AXON

Schwann cell Node of Ranvier Synaptic terminals Nucleus Synapses Practice Repeated, but not the same thing over and over

Spaced Out Interleavened Increase Complexity Worthy they were, Rafael, Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Donatello. Theirs a chromatic and plumed rebirth, A daring reflection upon man. Beyond Hastings and a Wifes tale in Canterbury, Galileo thrust at more than Windmills, He, Copernicus Gravitas. And for the spectre of debate, religion blinked then jailed,

errant no more, thereby errant forever. Cousin to Pericles, Son of Alexander, The cosmology of Adam fanned for all, feudal plains trampled by trumpeters, man and woman lay awake -calves on wobbly legs, staring at new freedom and Gutenbergs promise. Avoid Confabulation The brain seeks wholeness. It will fill in the holes in partial learning with made-up learning and experiences, and it will convince itself that this was the original learning all along. To prevent this:

Deal with Misconceptions! Students should summarize material they already understand, not material they are coming to know. Perception What do you see? What number do you see? What letter do you see? Perception is when we bring meaning to the information we receive, and it

depends on prior knowledge and what we expect to see. (Wolfe, 2001) Are we teaching so that students perceive, or just to present curriculum and leave it up to the student to perceive it? Meaning-Making An English professor wrote the words, A woman without her man is nothing, on the blackboard and directed the students to punctuate it correctly. The men wrote: A woman, without her man, is nothing, while the women wrote, A woman: without her, man is nothing.

---------------------------------------------Lets eat, Dad! Lets eat Dad. To a person uninstructed in natural history, his country or seaside stroll is a walk through a gallery filled with wonderful works of art, nine-tenths of which have their faces turned to the wall. -- Thomas Huxley, 1854 Expertise increases engagement and understanding. (Physics students example) Put another way:

Chance favors the prepared mind. Exposure to a wide array of experiences creates the connections needed for longretention and creativity. Insulation embalms the sentiment that the world we know is the only one that matters. The Brains Dilemna: What Input to Keep, and What Input to Discard? Survival

Familiarity/Context Priming Intensity Emotional Content Movement Novelty -- Summarized from Pat Wolfes Brain Matters, 2001

Prime the brain prior to asking students to do any learning experience. Priming means we show students: 1) What they will get out of the experience (the objectives) 2) What they will encounter as they go through the experience (itinerary, structure) Creating Background Where There is None Tell the story of the Code of Hammurabi before

discussing the Magna Charta. Before studying the detailed rules of baseball, play baseball. Before reading about how microscopes work, play with micros copes. Before reading the Gettysburg Address, inform students that Lincoln was dedicating a cemetery. Creating Background Where There is None Before reading a book about a military campaign or a murder mystery with references to chess, play Chess with a student in front of the class, or teach them the basic rules, get enough boards, and ask the class to play. In math, we might remind students of previous patterns as

they learn new ones. Before teaching students factorization, we ask them to review what they know about prime numbers. In English class, ask students, How is this storys protagonist moving in a different direction than the last storys protagonist? In science, ask students, Weve seen how photosynthesis reduces carbon dioxide to sugars and oxidizes water into oxygen, so what do you think the reverse of this process called, respiration, does? Chess masters can store over 100,000 different patterns of pieces in long term memory. Chess players get good by playing thousands of games!

Experts think in relationships, patterns, chunks, novices keep things individual pieces. Physics experiment in categorization Solid learning comes from when students make the connections, not when we tell them about them. Teachers can differentiate: Content -- Tomlinson, Eidson, 2003

Process Product Affect Learning Environment According to: Readiness Interest Learning Profile Flexible Grouping: Questions to Consider Is this the only way to organize students for learning? Where in the lesson could I create opportunities for students

to work in small groups? Would this part of the lesson be more effective as an independent activity? Why do I have the whole class involved in the same activity at this point in the lesson? Will I be able to meet the needs of all students with this grouping? Ive been using a lot of [insert type of grouping here whole class, small group, or independent work] lately. Which type of grouping should I add to the mix? Theres a range of flexible groupings:

Whole class or half class Teams Small groups led by students Partners and triads Individual study One-on-one mentoring with an adult

On-line communities Temporary pull-out groups to teach specific mini-lessons Anchor activities to which students return after working in small groups Learning centers or learning stations through which students rotate in small groups or individually. Ebb and Flow of Experiences [Tomlinson] Back and forth over time or course of unit Individual Individual

Small Group Small Group Whole Group Basic Principles: Assessment informs instruction Diagnosis and action taken as a result of diagnosis are paramount. Assessment and instruction are inseparable. Change complexity, not difficulty. Change the quality/nature, not the quantity.

Structured or open-ended? Basic Principles: (Continued) Use respectful tasks. Use tiered lessons Compact the curriculum.

Scaffold instruction. Organization and planning enable flexibility. Basic Principles: (Continued) Teachers have more control in the classroom, not less. Frequently uses flexible grouping. Teachers and students collaborate to deliver instruction. Models of Instruction That Work

Dimension of Learning: [Robert Marzano] Positive Attitudes and Perceptions about Learning Acquiring and Integrating Knowledge Extending and Refining Knowledge Using Knowledge Meaningfully Productive Habits of Mind

1/3 Model: [Canaday and Rettig] 1/3 Presentation of content 1/3 Application of knowledge and skills learned 1/3 Synthesis of the information Concept Attainment Model: [Summarized from Canaday and Rettig] Teacher presents examples, students work with them, noting attributes Teacher has students define the concept to be learned

More examples are critiqued in light of newly discovered concept Students are given practice activities in which they apply their understanding of the lesson concept Students are evaluated through additional applications Direct Instruction Model [Summarized from Canaday and Rettig]

Review previously learned material/homework State objectives for today Present material Provide guided practice with feedback Re-teach (as needed) Assign independent practice with feedback Review both during and at the end of the lesson Closure (Summarization) Learning Profile Models: Myers - Briggs Personality Styles, Bernice

McCarthys 4MAT System, Gregorc Scale and Teaching Model, Bramsons Styles of Thinking, Left Brain vs. Right Brain, Multiple Intelligences Additional Differentiated Instruction Strategies Use Anticipation Guides Create personal agendas for some students

Use centers/learning stations Adjust journal prompts and level of questioning to meet challenge levels Incorporate satellite studies (Orbitals) Personal Agenda for Michael R., December 5th, 2008 Daily Tasks: ___ Place last nights homework at the top right corner of desk.

___ Record warm-up activity from chalkboard into learning log. ___ Complete warm-up activity. ___ Listen to teachers explanation of the lessons agenda. ___ Record assignments from Homework Board into notebook. Specific to Todays Lesson:

___ Get graphic organizer from teacher and put name/date at top. ___ Fill in examples in g.o. while teacher explains it to the class. ___ Read both sides of the g.o. so you know what you are looking for. ___ Watch the video and fill in the g.o. during the breaks. ___ Complete closing activity for the video. ___ Ask Ms. Green to sign your assignment notebook. ___ Go to math class, but first pick up math book in locker. Tiering Common Definition -- Adjusting the following to maximize learning: Readiness Interest Learning Profile

Tier in gradations Ricks Preferred Definition: -- Changing the level of complexity or required readiness of a task or unit of study in order to meet the developmental needs of the students involved (Similar to Tomlinsons Ratcheting). Tiering Assignments and Assessments Example -- Graph the solution set of each of the following: 1. y > 2

2. 6x + 3y < 2 3. y < 3x 7 Given these two ordered pairs, students would then graph the line and shade above or below it, as warranted. 2. 6x + 3y < 2 3y < -6x + 2 y < -2x + 2/3 x

0 3 y 2/3 -5 1/3 Tiering Assignments and Assessments For early readiness students: Limit the number of variables for which student must account to one in all problems. ( y > 2 ) Limit the inequality symbols to, greater than or, less than, not, greater then or equal to or, less than or equal to

Provide an already set-up 4-quadrant graph on which to graph the inequality Suggest some values for x such that when solving for y, its value is not a fraction. Tiering Assignments and Assessments For advanced readiness students: Require students to generate the 4-quadrant graph themselves Increase the parameters for graphing with equations such as: --1 < y < 6 Ask students what happens on the graph when a variable is given in absolute value, such as: /y/ > 1 Ask students to graph two inequalities and shade or

color only the solution set (where the shaded areas overlap) Tiering Assignments and Assessments -- Advice Begin by listing every skill or bit of information a student must use in order to meet the needs of the task successfully. Most of what we teach has subsets of skills and content that we can break down for students and explore at length. Tiering Assignments and Assessments -- Advice

Tier tasks by designing the full-proficiency version first, then design the more advanced level of proficiency, followed by the remedial or early-readiness level, as necessary. Tiering Assignments and Assessments -- Advice Respond to the unique characteristics of the students in front of you. Dont always have high, medium, and low tiers. Tiering Assignments and Assessments -- Advice Dont tier every aspect of every lesson. Its

often okay for students to do what everyone else is doing. Tiering Assignments and Assessments -- Advice When first learning to tier, stay focused on one concept or task. Anchor activities refer to two types of learner management experiences: Sponge activities that soak up down time, such as when students finish early, the class is waiting for the next activity, or the class is cleaning up or distributing papers/supplies

A main activity everyone is doing from which the teacher pulls students for mini-lessons Anchor Lesson Design Activity/ Group: Activity/ Group: Activity/ Group: Anchor Activity

(10-45 min.) Activity/ Group: Anchor Activities Advice Use activities with multiple steps to engage students Require a product increases urgency and accountability Train students what to do when the teacher is not available Start small: Half the class and half the class, work toward more groups, smaller in size

Use a double t-chart to provide feedback Occasionally, videotape and provided feedback Double-T Charts [eye] [ear] [heart] Char.s of Char.s of

Char.s of success wed success wed success wed see wed hear feel

What to Do When the Teacher is Not Available Suggestions include: Move on to the next portion; something may trigger an idea Draw a picture of what you think it says or asks Re-read the directions or previous sections Find a successful example and study how it was done Ask a classmate (Ask Me, Graduate Assistant, Technoids) Define difficulty vocabulary Try to explain it to someone else The Football Sequence 1. First teach a general lesson to the whole class for the first 10 to 15 minutes.

2. After the general lesson, divide the class into groups according to readiness, interest, or learning profile and allow them to process the learning at their own pace or in their own way. This lasts for 15 to 20 minutes. We circulate through the room, clarifying directions, providing feedback, assessing students, and answering questions. This section is very expandable to help meet the needs of students. 3. Bring the class back together as a whole group and process what theyve learned. This can take the form of a summarization, a Question and Answer session, a quick assessment to see how students are doing, or some other specific task that gets students to debrief with each other about what they learned. This usually takes about 10 minutes. The football metaphor comes from the way we think about the lessons sequence: a narrow, whole class

experience in the beginning, a wider expansion of the topic as multiple groups learn at the own pace or in their own ways, then narrowing it back as we re-gather to process what weve learned. General lesson on the topic -everyone does the same thing Students practice, process, apply, and study the topic in small groups according to their

needs, styles, intelligences, pacing, or whatever other factors that are warranted Students come back together and summarize what theyve learned To Increase (or Decrease) a Tasks

Complexity, Add (or Remove) these Attributes:

Manipulate information, not just echo it Extend the concept to other areas Integrate more than one subject or skill Increase the number of variables that must be considered; incorporate more facets Demonstrate higher level thinking, i.e. Blooms Taxonomy, Williams Taxonomy Use or apply content/skills in situations not yet experienced Make choices among several substantive ones Work with advanced resources Add an unexpected element to the process or product Work independently

Reframe a topic under a new theme Share the backstory to a concept how it was developed Identify misconceptions within something

To Increase (or Decrease) a Tasks Complexity, Add (or Remove) these Attributes: Identify the bias or prejudice in something Negotiate the evaluative criteria Deal with ambiguity and multiple meanings or steps Use more authentic applications to the real world Analyze the action or object

Argue against something taken for granted or commonly accepted Synthesize (bring together) two or more unrelated concepts or objects to create something new Critique something against a set of standards Work with the ethical side of the subject Work in with more abstract concepts and models Respond to more open-ended situations Increase their automacity with the topic Identify big picture patterns or connections Defend their work Manipulate information, not just echo it: Once youve understood the motivations and viewpoints of the two

historical figures, identify how each one would respond to the three ethical issues provided. Extend the concept to other areas: How does this idea apply to the expansion of the railroads in 1800s? or, How is this portrayed in the Kingdom Protista? Work with advanced resources: Using the latest schematics of the Space Shuttle flight deck and real interviews with professionals at Jet Propulsion Laboratories in California, prepare a report that

Add an unexpected element to the process or product: What could prevent meiosis from creating four haploid nuclei (gametes) from a single haploid cell? Reframe a topic under a new theme: Re-write the scene from the point of view of the antagonist, Re-envision the countrys involvement in war in terms of insect behavior, or, Re-tell Goldilocks and the Three Bears so that it becomes a cautionary tale about McCarthyism. Synthesize (bring together) two or more unrelated concepts or objects to create something new:

How are grammar conventions like music? Work with the ethical side of the subject: At what point is the Federal government justified in subordinating an individuals rights in the pursuit of safeguarding its citizens? The Equalizer (Carol Ann Tomlinson) Foundational ------------------ Transformational Concrete ------------------------ Abstract Simple --------------------------- Complex Single Facet/fact -------------- Multi-Faceted/facts Smaller Leap ------------------- Greater Leap

More Structured --------------- More Open Clearly Defined ---------------- Fuzzy Problems Less Independence -------- Greater Independence Slower --------------------------- Quicker R.A.F.T.S. R = Role, A = Audience, F = Form, T = Time or Topic, S = Strong adverb or adjective Students take on a role, work for a specific audience, use a particular form to express the content, and do it within a time reference, such as pre-Civil War, 2025, or ancient Greece. Sample assignment chosen by a student: A candidate for the Green Party (role), trying to convince election board members (audience) to let him be in a national

debate with Democrats and the Republicans. The student writes a speech (form) to give to the Board during the Presidential election in 2004 (time). Within this assignment, students use arguments and information from this past election with third party concerns, as well as their knowledge of the election and debate process. Another student could be given a RAFT assignment in the same manner, but this time the student is a member of the election board who has just listened to the first students speech. R.A.F.T.S. Raise the complexity: Choose items for each category that are farther away from a natural fit for the topic . Example: When writing about Civil

War Reconstruction, choices include a rap artist, a scientist from the future, and Captain Nemo. Lower the complexity: Choose items for each category that are closer to a natural fit for the topic. Example: When writing about Civil War Reconstruction, choices include a member of the Freedmens Bureau, a southern colonel returning home to his burned plantation, and a northern business owner Learning Menus Similar to learning contracts, students are given choices of tasks to complete in a unit or for an assessment. Entre tasks are

required, they can select two from the list of side dish tasks, and they can choose to do one of the desert tasks for enrichment. (Tomlinson, Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom, 2003) Tic-Tac-Toe Board Geome try A Theorem An math tool Future Developments

Summarize (Describe) Compare (Analogy) Critique Change the Verb Instead of asking students to describe how FDR handled the economy during the Depression, ask them to rank four given economic principles in order of importance as they imagine FDR would rank them, then

ask them how President Hoover who preceded FDR would have ranked those same principles differently. Analyze Revise Decide between Why did Defend Devise Identify Classify Define Compose

Interpret Expand Develop Suppose Imagine Construct Rank Argue against Argue for Contrast Develop Plan Critique

Rank Organize Interview Predict Categorize Invent Recommend Practice Complex-ifying. Really. A lot. Practice turning regular education objectives and tasks into advanced objectives and tasks.

Students should be allowed to re-do assessments until they achieve acceptable mastery, and they should be given full credit for having achieved such. A Perspective that Changes our Thinking: A D is a cowards F. The student failed, but you didnt have enough guts to tell him. -- Doug Reeves

A B C I, IP, NE, or NTY Once we cross over into D and F(E) zones, does it really matter? Well do the same two things: Personally investigate and take corrective action

If we do not allow students to re-do work, we deny the growth mindset so vital to student maturation, and we are declaring to the student: This assignment had no legitimate educational value. Its okay if you dont do this work. Its okay if you dont learn this content or skill. None of these is acceptable to the highly accomplished, professional educator. Recovering in full from a failure teaches more than being labeled for failure ever could teach.

Its a false assumption that giving a student an F or wagging an admonishing finger from afar builds moral fiber, self-discipline, competence, and integrity. Re-Dos & Re-Takes: Are They Okay? More than okay! After 10,000 tries, heres a working light bulb. Any

questions? Thomas Edison Quotes for the Classroom, Mindsets for Teaching: The fellow who never makes a mistake takes his orders from one who does. -- Herbert Prochnow I have learned throughout my life as a composer chiefly through my mistakes and pursuits of false assumptions, not my exposure to founts of wisdom and knowledge. -- Igor Stravinsky An expert is a man who has made all the

mistakes which can be made, in a narrow field. -Neils Bohr F.A.I.L. First Attempt in Learning From Youtube.com: Dr. Tae Skateboarding (Ted Talk) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lHfo17ikSpY Helpful Procedures and Policies for Re-Dos and Re-Takes Always, at teacher discretion.

Dont hide behind the factory model of schooling that perpetuates curriculum by age, perfect mastery on everyones part by a particular calendar date. As appropriate, students write letters explaining what was different between the first and subsequent attempts, and what they learned about themselves as learners. Re-dos and re-takes must be within reason, and teachers decide whats reasonable. Identify a day by which time this will be accomplished or the grade is permanent, which, of course, may be adjusted at any point by the teacher. With the student, create a calendar of completion that will help them accomplish the re-do. If student doesnt follow

through on the learning plan, he writes letters of apology. There must be re-learning, or learning for the first time, before the re-assessing. Require the student to submit original version with the redone version so you and he can keep track of his development. If a student is repeatedly asking for re-doing work, somethings up. Investigate your approach and the childs situation. C, B, and B+ students get to re-do just as much as D and F students do. Do not stand in the way of a child seeking excellence. If report cards are due and theres not time to re-teach before re-assessing, record the lower grade, then work with

the student in the next marking period, and if he presents new evidence of proficiency, submit a grade-change report form, changing the grade on the transcript from the previous marking period. Reserve the right to give alternative versions and ask followup questions to see if theyve really mastered the material. Require parents to sign the original attempt. Its okay to let students, bank, sections of the assessment/assignment that are done well. No-re-dos the last week of the grading period. Replace the previous grade with the new one, do NOT average them together. Sometimes the greater gift is to deny the option. Choose your battles. Push for re-doing the material that is transformative, leveraging, fundamental.

Grading Late Work One whole letter grade down for each day late is punitive. It does not teach students, and it removes hope. A few points off for each day late is instructive; theres hope. Yes, the world beyond school is like this. Helpful Consideration for Dealing with Students Late Work: Is it chronic. or is it occasional?

We respond differently, depending on which one it is. . Questions to Begin and Maintain Conversation in your Differentiated Lesson Critiques A. Tell me about the students in this class. B. What were you trying to accomplish with this lesson? C. May I see your class profile? (also known as a, learner profile) D. How did you determine who was in which group today? E. Why are you teaching this topic this way to these specific students?

F. How did you alter your instruction based on the unique needs of these students? G.What did you do with students prior to this lesson to prepare them for it? . Questions to Begin and Maintain Conversation H. How will you have students respond to this information tomorrow or later in the week? I. How did(does) assessment inform your decisions? J. Is there anything you would change in this lesson the next time you teach it? K. How will (or did) you know you were successful in this

lesson with every student? L. Fair isnt always equal, is a popular sentiment in differentiated classrooms. Please show how this is manifest in your classroom. Become well read in differentiation. e Fantastic books! Richard Cash

David Sousa Carol Ann Tomlinson Check out the FREE Website for Perspective and Practicality on Assessment and Grading Issues! www.stenhouse.com/fiae 1.Two new, substantial study guides for Fair Isnt Always Equal 2.Q&As - abbreviated versions of correspondence with teachers and administrators 3.Video and audio podcasts on assessment and grading issues

4.Testimonials from educators 5.Articles that support the books main themes Among the articles: Also, check out ASCDs Education Leadership November 2011 issue Vol. 69, Number 3 Theme: Effective Grading Practices Single Issue: $7.00, 1-800-9332723 www.ascd.org Susan M. Brookhart

on starting the conversation about the purpose of grades Rick Wormeli on how to make redos and retakes work Thomas R. Guskey on overcoming obstacles to grading reform Robert Marzano on making the most of standards-based grading Ken OConnor and Rick Wormeli on characteristics of effective grading Cathy Vatterott on breaking the homework grading addiction Alfie Kohn on why we should end grading instead of trying to improve it Great Resources to Further your Thinking and Repertoire

Armstrong, Thomas. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. 2nd Edition, ASCD, 1994, 2000 Beers, Kylene. (2003) When Kids Cant Read What Teachers Can Do, Heineman Beers, Kylene and Samuels, Barabara G. (1998) Into Focus:

Understanding and Creating Middle School Readers. ChristopherGordon Publishers, Inc. Benjamin, Amy. Differentiating Instruction: A Guide for Middle and High School Teachers, Eye on Education, 2002 Burke, Kay. What to Do With the Kid Who: Developing Cooperation, Self-Discipline, and Responsibility in the Classroom, Skylight Professional Development, 2001 Forsten, Char; Grant, Jim; Hollas, Betty. Differentiated Instruction: Different Strategies for Different Learners, Crystal Springs Books, 2001 Forsten, Char: Grant, Jim; Hollas, Betty. Differentiating Textbooks: Strategies to Improve Student Comprehension and Motivation, Crystal Springs Books Frender, Gloria. Learning to Learn: Strengthening Study Skills and Brain Power, Incentive Publications, Inc., 1990

Great Resources to Further your Thinking and Repertoire

Glynn, Carol. Learning on their Feet: A Sourcebook for Kinesthetic Learning Across the Curriculum, Discover Writing Press, 2001 Heacox, Diane, Ed.D. Making Differentiation a Habit, Free Spirit Publishing, 2009 Heacox, Diane, Ed.D. Differentiated Instruction in the Regular Classroom, Grades 3 12, Free Spirit Publishing, 2000 Hyerle, David. A Field Guide to Visual Tools, ASCD, 2000 Jensen, Eric. Different Brains, Different Learners (The Brain Store, 800-325-4769, www.thebrainstore.com) Lavoie, Richard. How Difficult Can This Be? The F.A.T. City Workshop, WETA Video, P.O. box 2626, Washington, D.C., 20013-2631 (703) 998-3293. The video costs $49.95. Also available at www.Ldonline. Levine, Mel. All Kinds of Minds

Levine, Mel. The Myth of Laziness Marzano, Robert J. A Different Kind of Classroom: Teaching with Dimensions of Learning, ASCD, 1992. Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra J.; Pollock, Jane E. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, ASCD, 2001

Northey, Sheryn. Handbook for Differentiated Instruction, Eye on Education, 2005 Purkey, William W.; Novak, John M. Inviting School Success: A Self-Concept Approach to Teaching and Learning, Wadsworth Publishing, 1984 Rogers, Spence; Ludington, Jim; Graham, Shari. Motivation & Learning: Practical Teaching Tips for Block Schedules, Brain-Based Learning, Multiple Intelligences, Improved Student Motivation, Increased Achievement, Peak Learning Systems, Evergreen, CO. 1998, To order, call: 303-679-9780 Rutherford, Paula. Instruction for All Students, Just ASK Publications, Inc (703) 535-5432, 1998 Sousa, David. How the Special Needs Brain Learns, Corwin Press, 2001

Sprenger, Marilee. How to Teach So Students Remember, ASCD, 2005 Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L. Teaching for Successful Intelligence: To Increase Student Learning and Achievement, Skylight Training and Publishing, 2001 Strong, Richard W.; Silver, Harvey F.; Perini, Matthew J.; Tuculescu, Gregory M. Reading for Academic Success: Powerful Strategies for Struggling, Average, and Advanced Readers, Grades 7-12, Corwin Press, 2002

Tomlinson, Carol Ann -Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom, ASCD, 2003 How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms, ASCD, 1995 The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners, ASCD, 1999 At Work in the Differentiated Classroom (VIDEO), ASCD, 2001 Differentiation in Practice: A Resource Guide for Differentiating Curriculum, Grades 5-9. ASCD, 2003 (Theres one for K-5 and 9-12 as well) Integrating, with Jay McTighe, 2006, ASCD (This combines UBD and DI) Tovani, Cris. I Read It, But I Dont Get It. Stenhouse Publishers, 2001 Wolfe, Patricia. Brain Matters: Translating Research into Classroom Practice,

ASCD, 2001 Wormeli, Rick. Differentiation: From Planning to Practice, Grades 6-12, Stenhouse Publishers, 2007 Wormeli, Rick. Fair Isnt Always Equal: Assessment and Grading in the Differeniated Classroom, Stenhouse 2006 Wormeli, Rick. Summarization in Any Subject, ASCD, 2005 Wormeli, Rick. Day One and Beyond, Stenhouse Publishers, 2003 Wormeli, Rick. Meet Me in the Middle, Stenhouse Publishers, 2001

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