are words that name persons, places, things, or ideas. Everything that you can see and touch and many things that are invisible are named by a noun. There are 6 kinds: 1. Abstract nouns- these are feelings, characteristics, or qualities. EX: courage, intelligence, theme, cost. 2. Concrete nouns- these name things that you can see, hear, smell, taste, or touch. EX: lemon, snow, sand, telephone, puppy.
3. Proper nouns- name particular persons, places, things, or ideas. EX: Arizona, Empire State Building, Mrs. OKeefe 4. Common nouns- are general, not particular, and are NOT TO BE CAPITALIZED. EX: state, building, teacher 5. Collective nouns- name a group of people or things. EX: family, team, group, committee, herd 6. Compound nouns- consist of 2 or more words. EX: great-uncle, high school, fire fighter, one-third Pronouns are words that take the place of a noun or
other pronouns. There are 6 kinds: 1. Personal 2. Indefinite 3. Demonstrative 4. Interrogative 5. Reflexive 6. Intensive 1. Personal pronouns are the most common. What are some personal pronouns? I me we us you he him she EX: I went with him to the movies.
Possessive pronouns are a form of personal pronouns. What are some possessive pronouns? My mine your yours our ours her hers his their theirs its EX: My cat licks her chops at their 2. Indefinite pronouns express an amount or refer to an unspecified person or thing. EX: Most of us studied. Somebody sneezed. Anything you can do, I can do
better. all both few Some another indefinite pronouns: each most no one one
any either many several anybody everybody neither
some anyone everyone nobody somebody anything everything none
someone 3. Demonstrative pronouns point to specific people or things. EX: That is Ivans cousin. Those are mine. This will go down in history. They are: this that these those
4. Interrogative pronouns begin in a question. EX: Who has the key? What is the problem? Some interrogative pronouns are: Who? Whom? Whose? What? Which? 5. Reflexive pronouns end in self or selves and refer to an earlier noun or pronoun in the same sentence. 6. Intensive pronouns are there to add
emphasis. EX: Tricia cut herself slicing a bagel. I, myself, dont believe the story. They are: myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves Correct Pronoun Usage! Subject vs. Object pronouns Subject Pronouns: He She
They We I Object pronouns: Him Her Them Us Me Which one do I use? Subject form: If the pronoun is functioning as a subject
(It is doing some action) Object form: If the pronoun is functioning as a direct or indirect object If the pronoun is the object of a preposition Tip: Choose the pronoun you would if the pronoun were alone in the sentence. Ex: The magician chose Janet and (me or I?) as volunteers. Think The magician chose me. I vs. Me Object = Me My parents grounded my sister and me when we
came home late. The amount of people at the park surprised me. She let me go first. Subject = I My sister and I love watching movies. My best friend and I went to the mall after school. My teacher and I got into an argument yesterday. He/She vs. Him/Her Object = Him/Her The teacher gave him detention for being disrespectful. I gave my sister and her a ride
to the store. They dont like him. Subject = He/She She and I like the same type of books. Her friend and she go to the same gym. My brother and he are no longer friends. They vs. Them Object = Them I decided not to go with them.
John doesnt talk to them or me anymore. Subject = They She had no idea who they were. They are never prepared for class. They and I agree that theres no such thing as We vs. Us Object = Us The era in which an event takes place matters to us historians.
The dog brought us the bone. The teacher gave us clear instructions. Subject = We We have two dogs at home. We athletes will participate in the state championship. We teachers grade a lot of papers on the weekend. Who vs. Whom Object = whom To whom should I address the letter?
I hired the candidate whom Ive heard a lot about. She doesnt know whom to ask for help. Subject = who She doesnt know who the new teacher is. Who has the correct answer? Verbs! Verbs are words that express an action or a state of being. Every sentence has at least one action verb or one linking verb. Some action verbs can be an action you can observe. Ex: slide, giggle, carry
The boy laughed when his mommy tickled him. Other action verbs express an action that you cant really see. EX: worry, dislike, appreciate, love I love you. Verbs are also able to change to indicate different times. EX: The bear roared. The bear roars. The bear has been roaring. Linking verbs join or link the subject of a sentence with a word that describes or identifies
it. EX: For 123 years Mt. St. Helens remained dormant. Some forms of be: am can be are is was have been
will be should be were being would have been Some other linking verbs: appear remain become feel
grow seem smell sound look taste A verb phrase contains a main verb + one or more helping verbs. EX: They may have gone home. Helping verb
Verb Some helping verbs: be (is, am, are, was, were, be, been, being) have (has, have, had) do (does, do, did) could can may might should must will
shall would Adjectives Adjectives are modifiers. They give information about the nouns and pronouns they modify. Ex: gray clouds, three weeks, more dessert (yum!), best poster They answer: What kind? How many? How much? Which one?
Two or more adjectives can modify the same noun. EX: I think that Lady Gaga is talented and colorful. The funny, clumsy ducklings wandered after their mother. The chocolate cake was moist and delicious! 1. Proper adjectives come from proper nouns, and always begin with a capital letter. EX: Mexican fiesta African mask Democratic candidate 2. Predicate adjectives come after a linking verb
to modify the subject of a sentence. EX: The tulips are purple. The ocean looks blue and clear. * When a noun modifies another noun it becomes an adjective. EX: kitchen table, back porch swing Adverbs! Adverbs modify or tell more about- verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. They answer the key questions: When? How?
Where? To what extent? Examples: We happily visited Adam. The extremely graceful swan swims. Jackie ran very quickly. Many adverbs can come before OR after the verbs that they modify. EX: Suddenly the light went out. The light went out suddenly. The light suddenly
went out. * HINT: Many adverbs end in ly, but unfortunately some dont. Prepositions! Prepositions connect another word in a sentence to a noun or pronoun. They NEVER stand alone, instead they make up a prepositional phrase. There are A LOT of prepositions! Ex:
Will we travel beyond Oz? What do you see over the rainbow? Preposition list: about above across after against along among around at before behind
below beneath beside between by down during except for from in in front of inside instead of
into like near of off on onto on top of out of outside over past since through
to toward under underneath until up upon with within without Articles! There are 2 kinds of articles: Indefinite a, an OR
Definite the SO EASY!!! Conjunctions! Conjunctions join words or groups of words. Coordinating conjunctions join words or groups of words that are equal in importance. Coordinating conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, so, yet Ex: Davis and she have finished their science projects. They are done, but I am not.
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