The Chernobyl Disaster By: M. Mikschl P. Jrg

The Chernobyl Disaster By: M. Mikschl P. Jrg

The Chernobyl Disaster By: M. Mikschl P. Jrg S. Demirev T. Fink T. Vassileva The Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Saturday, 26 April 1986: The accident at reactor 4 occurred during an experiment to test a potential safety emergency core cooling feature. 2 workers died on the night of the accident 28 people died within a few weeks Radiation injuries to over a hundred 115,000 people evacuated

220,000 people relocated 6,000 cases of thyroid cancer Large areas were contaminated Crisis Management Immediate Reaction by the Soviet Government Radiation levels on site exceeded dosimeters limits -> Assumption of intact reactor All fires were extinguished 5 hours after the accident; most involved firefighters perished later on Evacuation of Pripyat started only 36 hours after the accident. The town was evacuated within 3 hours, using 1100 buses

The government only admitted the accident after high radiation levels were measured in Sweden Further development in 1986 The government tried to hush up the extent of the disaster, admitting 30 people had died 600,000 liquidators shoveled most of the debris inside the reactor A sarcophagus was erected around the reactor by December 1986 Blocks 2 and 1 of the power plant were restarted in October Relief Operation Pros and Cons Irrational implementation of the immediate operations Firemen, unaware of that they were fighting, local defense militia was called in to clean nuclear fuel from the roof (90sec. = disability pension and cash bonus). -

The logical thing was to bury the fire and the tons of radionuclides that remained in the ruins of the reactor. + Helicopters with sand, boron, to absorb neutrons, lead, to shield the radiation, and dolomite, which would break down into carbon dioxide and help smother the flames. + The pilots and crews received radiation at a rate of several hundred rad per hour. - Fear that the nuclear fuel would become too concentrated and set off a true atomic explosion, destroying the neighboring three reactors => nuclear fuel carried out by hand - Radioactive emission started melting the floor. Danger for getting into contact with the suppression pool below the reactor, the water there would instantly vaporize and explode. The water was taken out. + Relief Operation Pros and Cons Cont. Errors during the Sarcophagus building:

No protective clothing or respirators for the workers and had no shower facilities where they could wash the radionuclides from their bodies. Most of the soldiers were later transferred to points throughout the Soviet Union No accurate number of soldiers participated in the operations is available An unhealthy environment: burning of radioactive objects (clothes, trees, pets, etc.) Information deficiency: manipulated to hide health problems, solders were dislocated to different parts of the soviet union, lack of info for the population and that of the countries that might have been affected Evacuation everybody left their houses waiting outside to be evacuated under an invisible shower of isotopes Past 27 years Chernobyl Humanitarian Assistance and Rehabilitation Programme (CHARP)

Program running since 1990 by International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies with local societies address basic health needs of those living in the regions of the 3 countries affected (Belarus, Russia, Ukraine) core activity is cancer screening, provide psychosocial support, distribute multivitamins to children living in radiation contaminated areas Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme (CRDP) developed by the United Nations Development Program, initiated 2002 Aim: return to normal life by providing support to the government of Ukraine for elaboration and implementation of development-oriented solutions for the regions mitigate long-term social, economic and environmental consequences create more favorable living conditions and to promote sustainable human development in affected regions International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

employs a safeguards system which is among the most advanced at any safeguarded nuclear facility remote monitoring, on-site inspections, seals to ensure the non-diversion of nuclear material Lessons Learnt Chernobyl a stepping stone for a new philosophy new term in nuclear energy safety culture Nuclear power plants (NPPs) as units of national importance Safety first! Priority given to peoples safety and preservation of the environment rather than productivity Overhaul of current and future projects with focus on risk minimization Emergency preparedness and safety measures

Understand, respect and minimize risk International and national emergency response systems, highly involving the community Adequate radiation measuring technology in place NPP community for knowledge exchange (WANO) and international scientific co-operation Constant quality and safety control and measurement Continuous improvement of technology and safety measures Communication is key! References UNSCEAR; The Chernobyl Incident; Available at: http://www.unscear.org/unscear/en/chernobyl.html World Nuclear Association; Chernobyl Accident 1986; Available at: http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Safety-and-Security/Safety-of-Plants/ChernobylAccident/#.UUR3xRzEOWI International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2011). Revised Plan 2011

- Chernobyl Humanitarian Assistance and Rehabilitation Programme (CHARP). Available at: http://www.ifrc.org/docs/Appeals/annual11/MAA6700211p.pdf International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2011). Annual Report Chernobyl Humanitarian Assistance and Rehabilitation Programme - Belarus, Ukraine, Russia. Available at: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/ MAA6700211ar.pdf United Nations Development Program (2008). UN to continue Chernobyl recovery efforts until 2016. Available at: http://content.undp.org/go/newsroom/2008/april/un-to-continuechernobyl-recovery-efforts-until-2016.en United Nations Development Program (2013). Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme. Available at: http://www.undp.org.ua/en/projects-list-all/37-localdevelopment-and-human-security-/614-chornobyl-recovery-and-development-programme United Nations (2008). UN Action Plan on Chernobyl to 2016 - Final Version. Available at: http://chernobyl.undp.org/russian/docs/UNActionPlan_revised.pdf International Atomic Energy Agency (2012). Chernobyl - 25 years, 25 Stories. Available at: http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/focus/chernobyl/25years/ OWT. Chernobyl Timeline. Available at: http://users.owt.com/smsrpm/Chernobyl/tline.html TESEC. Lessons Learnt from Chernobyl. Available at: http://www.tesec-int.org/chernobyl/Lessons.htm The Telegraph. Chernobyl anniversary: 5 lessons from the disaster. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/ukraine/8473439/Chernobyl-anniversary-5-lessons-from-the-disaster.html Thank you for the attention!

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