# Department of Computer and Information Science, School of Department of Computer and Information Science, School of Science, IUPUI CSCI 240 Boolean Algebra Standard Forms Dale Roberts, Lecturer Computer Science, IUPUI E-mail: [email protected] Dale Roberts

Standard Form Like regular algebra, Boolean equations can be expressed as a sum of products. Each product is a term of the equation. Consider the term xyxz. We define a term to be a Fundamental Product (FP) if it does not repeat any literal. Since our term repeats x, is it not FP. You can always minimize a term to make it FP. xyxz = xxyz = 0yz (which law) = 0 (which law?) An expression E is sum-of-products form if it is the sum of one or more FPs, none of which is included in another. Dale Roberts Sum-of-Products Form

1. Consider E=xz + yz + xyz. This is a sum of products, but is not sum-of-products form because xz is contained within xyz. i.e. it can be reduced. (which law?) 2. Consider E=xz + xyz + xyz. This is already sum-of-products form. Any non-zero Boolean expression can be changed to sumof-products form. (By duality, there is also a product-ofsums form, but it is used less often.) Dale Roberts Converting to Sum-of-Products Form 1. 2. 3.

4. Use DeMorgans Laws and Involution to move complements inside parenthesis until only variables are complemented. Use distributive law to transform in to sum of products Use commutative, idempotent, and complement laws to transform each term into 0 or FP. Use absorption law to make sum-of-products form. Example Consider E=((ab)c)((a+c)(b+c)) E=((ab)+c)((a+c)+(b+c)) DeMorgans Law E=(ab+c)(ac+bc) DeMorgans and Involution Laws

E=abac + abbc +acc + bcc Distributive Law E=abc + abc + ac + 0 Idempotent and Complement E=ac + abc Absorption Law Dale Roberts Complete Sum-of-Products Form A complete sum-of-products form is a sum-of-products form where each term involves all the variables. (Each term will have the same number of literals. You can add missing variables by multiplying by 1, where 1 is of the form x + x. Theorem: Every non-zero Boolean expression can be

placed in complete sum-of-products form, and it is unique. Dale Roberts Complete Sum-of-Products Example Express E(x,y,z) = (x + y) + xy in complete sum-ofproducts form. E = xy + xy DeMorgans Law. If we didnt know z was involved, wed think we were done. E=xy(z + z) + xy(z + z) E=xyz + xyz + xyz + xyz Distributive Law (Dont simplify using Absorption, or youll take it back out of Complete S-O-P form)

Dale Roberts Sources Lipschutz, Discrete Mathematics Mowle, A Systematic Approach to Digital Logic Design Dale Roberts