Turn of the Century Life NCSCOS Goal 7 Science and Urban Life By the turn of the 20th century, four out of ten Americans lived in cities In response to urbanization, technological advances began to meet
communication, transportation, and space demands Skyscrapers They emerged after two critical inventions elevators and steel skeletons to bear their weight Most dramatic development in architecture It solved the issue how best to use
limited and expansive space William LeBaron Jenney receives credit for designing first skyscraper was built in Chicago- 10 stories high Louis Sullivan Among Chicago architects Louis Sullivan stands out emphasized height designed an exterior
that largely reflected interior function ("form follows function) Frank Lloyd Wright worked with Sullivan began to produce works of his own laid basis for later reputation as most
creative American architect of 20th century Another view of Burnhams Flatiron Building Electric Transit Changes in transportation allowed cities to spread outward By the turn of the
century, intricate networks of electric streetcars also called trolley cars ran from outlying neighborhoods to downtown offices & stores Postcard, "Rush Hour on West Superior Street, Cleveland, Ohio." Trolley cars dominate the street. Before the automobile, the streets belonged to the public.
ELS and the Subways A few large cities moved their streetcars far above street level, creating elevated or el trains Other cities built subways by moving their rail lines underground
Bridges and Parks Steel-cable suspension bridges, like the Brooklyn Bridge, also brought cities sections closer Some urban planners sought to include landscaped areas & parks Frederick Law Olmsted was instrumental in drawing up plans for
Central park, NYC The main object and justification of the park is simply to produce a certain influence in the minds of people and through this to make life in the city healthier and happier. The character of this influenceis to be produced by means of scenes, through observation of which the mind may be more or less lifted out of moods and habits.
~Frederick Law Olmstead City Planning Daniel Burnham oversaw the transformation of Chicagos lakefront from swampy wasteland to elegant parks strung along Lake Michigan Today Chicagos lakefront is one of the most
beautiful shorelines in North America Revolution in Printing By 1890, the literacy rate in the U.S. was nearly 90% American mills began to produce huge quantities of cheap paper from wood pulp Electrical web-perfecting
presses printed on both sides of paper at the same time Faster production and lower costs made newspapers and magazines more affordable (most papers sold for 1 cent) Airplane Actual photo of Wright
Brothers first flight 12/17/03 In the early 20th century, brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright, experimented with engines and aircrafts They commissioned a fourcylinder internal combustion engine, chose a propeller, and built a biplane On December 17, 1903 they flew their plane for 12 seconds
covering 120 feet in Kitty Hawk, NC Within two years the brothers were making 30 minute flights By 1920, the U.S. was using airmail flights regularly Photography Before 1880, photography was a professional activity Subjects could not move and
the film had to be developed immediately George Eastman invented lighter weight equipment and more versatile film In 1888, Eastman introduced his Kodak Camera The $25 camera came with 100-picture roll of film In 1888, George Eastman introduced his Kodak camera. The purchase
price of $25 included a 100-picture roll of film. After taking pictures, the photographer would send the camera back to Eastmans Rochester, New York, factory. For $10, the pictures were developed and returned with the camera reloaded. Easily held and operated, the Kodak camera prompted millions of Americans to become amateur photographers. The camera also helped create the field of photojournalism. Expansion of Public Education Between 1865 and 1895, states passed laws requiring 12 to 16 weeks of
annual education for students ages 8-14, but the curriculum was poor and the teachers were usually not qualified However, the number of kindergartens expanded from 200 in 1880 to 3,000 in 1900 High School Enrollments Soar
High schools expanded their curriculum to include science, civics and social studies By 1900 500,000 teenagers were enrolled in high schools Racial Discrimination in schools African Americans were mostly excluded from secondary education
In 1890 less than 1% attended high school By 1910 that figured had reached only 3% Education for Immigrants Unlike African Americans, immigrants were encouraged to go to school Most immigrants sent
their children to public schools Also, thousands of adult immigrants attended night schools to learn English Expanding Higher Education In 1900, less than 3% of Americas youth attended college
Between 1880 and 1920 college enrollments more than quadrupled Professional schools were established for law and medicine Newspapers First Mass Circulation Joseph Pulitzer New York World
William Randolph Hearst New York Morning Journal Pulitzer and Hearst in a constant competition to out-do competition Both sold over one million copies per day Realism Literature
Portrayed life as it actually happen Focused on the Rugged Individualism of the tough urban setting or the unexplored wilderness Realist Writers Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) - Wrote The Adventures of
Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer - Captured frontier realism and humor with authentic American dialect Stephen Crane- Red Badge of Courage Jack London- The Call of the Wildunexplored wilderness Ashcan School Attention to city was characteristic of work
Robert Henri and associates, called "the Eight," in early 1900s Later labeled the Ash Can School because of preoccupation with urban life and ordinary people Thomas Eakins who the founder of the school Dawn of Mass Culture
Many middle class Americans fought off city congestion and dull industrial work by enjoying amusement parks, bicycling, tennis and spectator sports American leisure was developing into a multimillion dollar industry Amusement Parks
To meet the recreational needs of city dwellers, Chicago, NYC and other cities began setting aside land for parks Amusement parks were constructed on the outskirts of cities These parks had picnic grounds and a variety of rides Coney Island was the most
popular park of the era Inside the park was an enchanted, storybook land of trellises, columns, domes, minarets, lagoons, and lofty aerial flights. And everywhere was life a pageant of happy people; and everywhere was color a wide harmony of orange and white and goldIt was a world removed shut away from the sordid clatter and turmoil of the street. -- Bruce Blen on Coney Island
Bicycling and Tennis After the introduction of the safety bike in 1885, Americans increasingly enjoyed biking By 1890, 312 companies made over 10,000,000 bikes Tennis also was very popular in the late 19th
century Coke and Candy Hersheys chocolate Bar First sold in 1900 Factory located in Hershey Pennsylvania Coca cola Originally created to cure headaches
Originally contained small amounts of cocaine Motion Pictures 1st film- The Great Train Robbery Vaudeville and Music Vaudeville- traveling shows attracted many, theatrical. Music, dancing Ragtime Music
a) Blends African American spirituals and European music b) Originated in Saloons c) Important for Jazz Vaudeville appeals to the businessmen, tired and worn, who drops in for half an hour on his way home; to the person who has an hour or two before a train goes, or before a business appointment; to the woman who is wearied of shopping; to the children who love animals and acrobats; to the man with his sweetheart or sister, to the individual who wants to be diverted but doesnt want to think or feel; to the American
of all grades and kinds who wants a great deal for his money. Circus P.T. Barnum and James A. Bailey 1881 The Greatest Show on Earth Today Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus
Spectator Sports Americans not only participated in new sports, but became avid fans of spectator sports Baseball and boxing became profitable businesses Mark Twain called baseball, the very symbol of the booming
19th century Sports/Entertainment Spectator sports enjoyed by millions Baseball has seized upon the American people, irrespective of age, sex or other condition.
-baseball - Harpers Weekly- American pastime Father of Baseball Alexander Cartwright Clubs started in 1845 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings- 1st
Professional Team 1871 National League 1st Professional League 1903 1st World Series Boston v Pittsburgh __________________ Baseball is the very symboland visible expression of the drive and push and
rush and struggle of the raging, tearing, booming nineteenth century. - Mark Twain - "The American National Game of Baseball." The 1862 World Series. Notice that the pitcher is pitching underhand and the fielders do not have gloves. The umpire is standing way off to the right. The New York Polo Grounds, from a stereoscopic photograph, 1906, of "World's Pennant Day" when New York
was playing Cincinnati. New York boys playing baseball in an alley, 1910. Beginning in the 1890s there was increasing agitation for small parks and playgrounds to get the city's children off the streets. Boxing Very popular and profitable Placed wagers John L. Sullivan Heavy weight champion
Basketball Invented by James Naismith at Springfield College Only true American Sport- Developed in U.S. Football Invented by Walter Camp 1st College Game
Princeton v Rutgers 1920s Professional Football born Started in Canton, Ohio NFL formed in 1922 with 16 teams Green Bay and Chicago still exist Growing Consumerism The turn of the
century witnessed the beginnings of the shopping center, department and chain stores, and the birth of modern advertising Department Stores Marshall Field of Chicago brought the first
department store to America Fields motto was Give the lady what she wants Field also pioneered the bargain basement concept Macys in NYC Chain Store In the 1870s, F.W.
Woolworth found that if he offered an item at a low price, the consumer would purchase it on the spur of the moment By 1911, the Woolworth chain had 596 stores and sold $1,000,000 per week Advertising
Expenditures for advertising was under $10 million a year in 1865, but increased to $95 million by 1900 Ads appeared in newspapers, magazines and on billboards Catalogs and RFD Montgomery Ward and
Sears were two pioneers in catalog sales By 1910, 10 million Americans shopped by mail In 1896 the Post Office introduced a rural free delivery (RFD) system that brought packages directly to every home
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