Research Opportunities at LCLS September 2011 Joachim Sthr
Research Opportunities at LCLS September 2011 Joachim Sthr Five Revolutions in light 1879 - Invention of the light bulb 1895 - Discovery of X-Rays 1960 - Invention of the LASER 1970 - Synchrotron radiation x-rays - SSRL 2009 - The first x-ray laser - LCLS The speed of things the smaller the fast
manifestation of the physical concept of inertia = resistance to motion, action, or change macro molecules molecular groups atoms electrons & spins
Laser flash The new science paradigm: Static structure plus dynamic function Present technological speeds Las er s X-ray Lasers
Future technological speeds Important areas of LCLS research Because of their size, atoms and bonds can change fast but how do systems evolve? key areas of interest: equilibrium (phase diagrams of complex materials) close to equilibrium (operation or function of a system) far from equilibrium (transient states like a chemical reaction)
far, far from equilibrium (matter during inertial confinement fusion) Equilibrium: What is the structure of water? Small angle x-ray scattering shows inhomogeneity Disordered soup Ice like clusters Components probably dynamic form and dissolve - can we take an ultrafast snapshot??
How do we image with LCLS? Close to equilibrium how does a device function: e.g. how does a spin current turn the magnetization ? magnetic switching today in 1 ns how fast can it be done? bit in cell 100 nm Computer chip
Electronic circuit Memory cell Magnetic structure of bit Far from equilibrium: How does a chemical reaction proceed? reaction dynamics & intermediates end reaction products What are the key intermediate reactive species?
Far, far from equilibrium: Warm and hot dense matter The properties of matter in extreme states - which on earth can only be created transiently on ultrafast time scale- Sample Image before destroy snapshots femtosecond protein crystallography Atoms = electronic cores move slow enough so that image before destruction becomes possible at LCLS requirements:
maximum intensity for signal-to-noise pulse length (~10 fs) shorter than atomic motion (100 fs) LCLS facilities overview Injector electron beam 1km linac 14GeV AMO SXR
132 meters of FEL undulators Experimental Halls and Operations Schedules Near Experimental Hall AMO SXR XPP X-ray Transport Tunnel 200 m Start of operation
AMO Oct-09 SXR May-10 XPP October-10 CXI
February-11 XCS Spring-12 MEC Fall-12 < 30Hz 60Hz
60Hz, 120Hz since Jan 2011 XCS CXI MEC Far Experimental Hall Optical laser versus X-ray free electron laser Optical laser X-ray laser
electrons in discrete energy states a bunch (~109) of free electrons stimulated emission amplified through mirrors stimulated emission amplified through electron ordering fixed photon energy tunable photon energy
low energy, long wavelength photons high energy, short wavelength photons compact large The end
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