Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services at the CSIR What

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services at the CSIR What is biodiversity? Biological diversity the variety and richness of plant and animal life (from genetic level to ecosystems). CSIR 2007 What are ecosystem services? Benefits derived from ecosystems Products of ecosystem processes Strong positive link between ecosystem processes and biodiversity Loss of biodiversity strongly linked to reduced ecosystem services Threat to human well-being

CSIR 2007 CSIR 2007 CSIR 2007 Status of provisioning services Service Food Fiber Status crops

livestock capture fisheries aquaculture wild foods timber +/ cotton, silk +/

wood fuel Genetic resources Biochemicals, medicines Water fresh water CSIR 2007 Status of regulating and cultural services Status

Air quality regulation Climate regulation global Climate regulation regional and local Water regulation +/ Erosion regulation Water purification and waste treatment

Disease regulation +/ Pest regulation Pollination Natural hazard regulation Spiritual and religious values Aesthetic values

Recreation and ecotourism CSIR 2007 +/ Implications The degradation of ecosystem services could grow significantly worse during the first half of this century and is a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MA 2005). Reversing ecosystem degradation while meeting increasing demands for their services will involve significant changes in policies, practices, and institutions (MA 2005). CSIR 2007

Decisions about ecosystem services & trade offs Mangrove ecosystem CSIR 2007 Mangrove Services: nursery and adult fishery habitat housing fuelwood & timber carbon sequestration traps sediment shrimp detoxifies pollutants protection from erosion & disaster

crops Economic case for conservation The total economic value associated with managing ecosystems more sustainably is often higher than the value associated with conversion CSIR 2007 Biodiversity & Ecosystem Services at the CSIR The ecology of ecosystem services - What ecosystem components are important in the - supply of ecosystem services? How do changes in ecosystems impact on these components and their supply of ecosystem

services? Aims to contribute to the ecological understanding of Ecosystem Services in order to promote their management and conservation Informing ecosystem management - How do we apply our knowledge of ecosystems and their services to inform the management of these services? Aims to work with management agencies to promote informed decisions through the use of existing and CSIR 2007 and protocols emerging 0 Fynbos Grassland Succulent

karoo Nama karoo 6 562 2 764 145 5 000 366 268 10 000 6 765 15 000 2 621 1 951

13 188 20 000 14 306 25 000 13 391 26 615 Without alien plants With current levels of infestation With future levels of infestation 25 777 30 000 5 701 4 271

Mean annual surface water runoff . (millions of m3) Ecology of ecosystem services Savanna and thicket Van Wilgen et al. 2008 CSIR 2007 Reyers et al. 2009 Informing management CSIR 2007

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