# Predicting the Microstructure and Properties of Steel Welds

Predicting the Microstructure and Properties of Steel Welds MULTIPASS ARC WELD L.-E. SVENSSON L.-E. SVENSSON c

a z a y x

100 m Barrite, 1982 20 m 1000 1000 Manual

ManualMetal MetalArc ArcWeld Weld 800 800 600 600

400 400 200 2000 0 180 180

Amps Amps 34 34 Volts Volts

44 mm/s mm/s 200 200C C interpass interpass 20

20 40 40 60 60 80 80 100

100 120 120 Time Time/ /ss calculations 800 2

1 3 Temperature / C 700 4

5 6 600 500 1. Fe-0.4C 2. Fe-0.4C-2Si 3. Fe-0.4C-1Ni

4. Fe-0.4C-1Mn 5. Fe-0.4C-1Mn-1Cr 6. Fe-0.4C-2Mn 400 300 200 0

10 1 10 2 10 Time / s

3 10 4 10 5

10 Barrite, 1982 Barrite, 1982 5 m Fe-1Mn-C wt % manual metal arc

welds Volume fraction 1.0 0.8 Allotriomorphic 0.6

Widmanstatte n 0.4 0.2 0.03 Acicular 0.05

0.07 0.09 Carbon / wt % 0.11 Bhadeshia

7Ni 2Mn 7Ni 0.5Mn 7Ni 2Mn 7Ni 0.5Mn Weld Shape - Stitch Weld at 2.26 kW Laser Output

With Ar shieldinggasv=45 mm/s; L=5mmv=45 mm/s; L=5mmv=45 mm/s; L=10mmv=40 mm/s; L=15m Laser beam Fusion Zone Laser

beam Keyhole w m Measured Calculated Optically: mainly -ferriteferrite

some w-ferriteferrite <5% martensite TEM: -ferriteferrite much w-ferriteferrite 155, 157 and 170 HV Mean Hardness: 161 HV Grain size 100 20 m

46% -ferriteferrite 21% w-ferriteferrite 30% acicular ferrite & bainite 3% martensite 168 HV Grain size 103 m

Charpy fatigue tensile critical stress intensity corrosion

Variables C, Mn, Si, Ni, Cr, Mo, V, Co, B, N, O.. Thermomechanical processing of steel Welding consumable Welding parameters Subsequent heat treatment Empirical Equations

yy == aa ++ bb (%C) (%C) +c +c (%Mn) (%Mn) ++ dd (%Ni) (%Ni) .... .... 122

yy == aa ++ bb (%C) (%C) +c +c (%Mn) (%Mn) yy == aa ++ bb (%C) (%C) +c +c (%Mn) (%Mn) ++ d(%C

d(%C xx %Mn) %Mn) yy == aa ++ bb (%C) (%C) +c +c (%Mn) (%Mn) yy == aa ++ bb (%C) (%C) +c +c (%Mn)

(%Mn) ++ d(%C d(%C xx %Mn) %Mn) yy == sin sin (%C) (%C) ++ tanh tanh (%Mn) (%Mn)

Hyperbolic Tangents (a) 2 y 1 f{xj }

(b) non-linear functions 7 6 5 4 3 2

1 0 0 1 2 3

4 x 5 6 7

400 400 (b) (a) 300 300

200 200 100 100 0

0 -100 0 2 4

6 8 -100 0 2

6 x x 400 (d) (c)

300 4 test error 200 100

0 -100 training error 0 2

4 x 6 8 Complexity of model

8 Predict what the next two numbers are likely to be: 2, 4, 6, 8, . 300 300

250 250 200 200 150

150 100 100 50 0 0.0

10CrMoW 0.4 10 4 h, 600 C 50 10 4 h, 550 C

0.2 10CrMoW 0.6 Nickel / wt.% 0.8

1.0 0 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06

Aluminium / wt.% Brun, Robson, Narayan, MacKay & Bhadeshia 0.08 Components of Creep Strength, 2.25Cr1Mo 550 C

iron + microstructure solid solution 600 C precipitates Murugananth & Bhadeshia GTA weld at 923 K (data from Nippon Steel) 400

300 200 100 0 0

5000 10000 Life / hours Cole & Bhadeshia Cool, 1996

Cool, 1996 As-welded 600 C 700 C 650 C

Cool, 1996 Siemens Mitsui Babcock Nippon Steel ABB Thank you.

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