ONTARIO BASE HOSPITAL GROUP ADVANCED ASSESSMENT Ventilation &

ONTARIO BASE HOSPITAL GROUP ADVANCED ASSESSMENT Ventilation &

ONTARIO BASE HOSPITAL GROUP ADVANCED ASSESSMENT Ventilation & Oxygenation 2007 Ontario Base Hospital Group QUIT ADVANCED ASSESSMENT Ventilation & Oxygenation AUTHORS REVIEWERS/CONTRIBUTORS Rob Theriault AEMCA, RCT(Adv.), CCP(F) Peel Region Base Hospital

Donna Smith AEMCA, ACP Hamilton Base Hospital 2007 Ontario Base Hospital Group OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT Lung anatomy Inhaled air passes through the mouth and nose trachea right & left mainstem bronchi

secondary & tertiary bronchi, etc Gas exchange region p. 5 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT Lung anatomy Gas exchange takes place in the respiratory bronchioles, the alveolar ducts and the alveoli. gas exchanging surface area is approximately 70 m2.

Alveoli have a rich capillary network for gas exchange p. 6 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT Relevant lung volumes/values Respiratory rate: number of breaths per minute (bpm) Tidal volume (TV): volume of air inhaled in one breath - exhaled tidal volume can also be measured

Minute volume (VM) = R.R. x tidal volume p. 7 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT Ventilation vs. Oxygenation p. 8 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT

Ventilation vs. Oxygenation Often thought of as synonymous two distinct processes p. 9 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT Ventilation vs. Oxygenation What is PaCO2 and PaO2? PaCO2 is the partial pressure exerted by dissolved CO 2 in arterial blood. Normal PaCO2 is: 35-45 mmHg PaO2 is the partial pressure exerted by dissolved O 2 in

arterial blood. Normal PaO2 is: 80-100 mmHg Think of RBCs as a magnet that is affected by blood ph p. 10 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Ventilation vs. Oxygenation PaCO2 is affected by ventilation e.g. if you were to hyperventilate someone without supplemental O2, you would notice that their PaCO2 level would drop (below 35 mmHg), while their PaO2 would remain unchanged or increase marginally. p. 11 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Ventilation vs. Oxygenation PaO2 is affected by providing supplementation

oxygen e.g. if you were to provide the patient with supplemental O2, now you would see their PaO2 begin to rise significantly (above 100 mmHg). Meanwhile, if their R.R. and tidal volume remained unchanged, you would see no change in their PaCO2. p. 11 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Exception If there is a ventilation to perfusion (V/Q) mismatch that can be improved by providing positive pressure ventilation (e.g. ventilating a patient who has pulmonary edema) , this may help to increase the PaO2. Positive pressure ventilation does this by opening up a greater number of alveoli and increasing the surface area across which oxygen can diffuse.

more about this later p. 12 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT Ventilation to perfusion ratio: V/Q Review p. 13 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT V/Q ratio

GOOD AIR ENTRY = V/Q MATCH GOOD BLOOD FLOW p. 14 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT Lets look at some examples of V/Q mismatch, i.e. shunting and dead space ventilation p. 15 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee

MENU QUIT WHAT IS A SHUNT? Results when something interferes with air movement to the gas exchanging areas p. 16 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT WHAT IS A SHUNT? EXAMPLES?

F.B.O. hypoventilation bronchospasm positional mucous plugging

etc. pneumonia pulmonary edema p. 17 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT

WHAT IS DEAD SPACE? PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL air passages where there is no gas exchange mouth & nose, trachea, mainstem bronchi, secondary, tertiary, etc ~ 150 cc in the adult

pulmonary embolus Shock (vasoconstriction) p. 18 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT Pathological dead space

Normal blood flow Blocked or impaired blood flow p. 19 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT Mixed shunt & dead space EXAMPLE emphysema

pulmonary edema Shunt from fluid in the airways Dead space: interstitial edema separates the airways from the capillaries p. 21 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT

SUMMARY Shunt vs. Dead Space Non-gas exchanging areas - or Areas of the lungs normally involved in gas exchange, however blocked or impaired blood flow preventing this. Results from anything that interferes with the movement of air down to the gas exchanging areas p. 20 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee

MENU QUIT Once again... IMPORTANT CLINICAL NOTE Ventilation alone has virtually no effect on PaO2 - except where there is a shunt and when positive pressure ventilation can help to open up additional alveoli to the surface area for oxygen diffusion p. 22 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT

FLOW OF OXYGEN O2 crosses the alveolar-capillary membrane then dissolves in plasma then binds to hemoglobin (98%) - 2% remains dissolved in blood plasma O2 bound to hemoglobin then comes off hemoglobin, dissolves in plasma and diffuses to the tissues p. 24 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT

NOTE: Pulse oximetry (SpO2) is the measurement of O2 bound to hemoglobin i.e. the percentage of hemoglobin saturated with O2 molecules. Whatever O2 is not bound to hemoglobin gets transported in its dissolved form in blood plasma this the PaO2 p. 25 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT Hemoglobins affinity for oxygen

...Its like a magnet p. 26 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT Bohr Effect Before we begin discussion of the Bohr effect, we need to review a little about blood pH normal blood pH is 7.35 to 7.45 a pH below 7.35 is called an acidosis, while a pH above 7.45 is called an alkalosis

CO2 is part of the carbonic acid buffer equation - when CO2 is blown off, its like blowing off acids - therefore the blood pH shifts toward the alkaline side. CO2 diffuses 20 times more readily that O2 - i.e. 20:1 ratio. p. 27 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT Bohr Effect The Bohr effect describes the bodys ability to take in and transport oxygen and release it at the tissue level. According to the Bohr effect, hemoglobin is like a magnet that

becomes stronger in an alkaline environment and weaker in an acidotic environment. Lets look now at how the Bohr effect is put in to practice in the process of breathing... p. 28 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT Bohr Effect when we exhale, we blow off CO2. This shifts the blood pH toward the alkaline side. Hemoglobin becomes a stronger magnet and attracts O2 as air is inhaled.

At the tissue level, CO2, a by-product of cellular metabolism, diffuses from the tissue to the blood. This shifts the blood pH toward the acidic side, weakening hemoglobins hold on O 2 (weaker magnet), and releasing O2 to the tissues. This occurs on a breath by breath basis p. 29 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT

Clinical application - Bohr Effect If you over-zealously hyperventilate a patient, they will become alkalotic. When the blood pH becomes persistently alkalotic, hemoglobin strongly attracts O2 at the level of the lungs, but doesnt release it well at the tissue level. i.e. blowing off too much CO2 may result in impairment of oxygenation at the tissue level. p. 30 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee

MENU QUIT Clinical application - Bohr Effect What did they teach you to do when you encounter a patient who is hyperventilating? 1. Dont give them oxygen ? 2. Coach their breathing to slow them down p. 31 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee

MENU QUIT Ventilation: Clinical Issues When the patient hyperventilates When we hyperventilate the patient p. 32 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT When the patient hyperventilates Benign or life-threatening

When you first encounter a patient who is hyperventilating, always assume theres an underlying medical condition responsible. Differential: Acute RDS, asthma, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, cardiomyopathy, exacerbated COPD, costochondritis, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperthyroidism, hyperventilation syndrome, metabolic acidosis, myocardial infarct, pleural effusion, panic disorder, bacterial pneumonia, pneumothorax, pulmonary embolism, smoke inhalation, CO poisoning, withdrawal syndromes, drug overdose (e.g. salycilates) p. 33 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT

When the patient hyperventilates too much CO2 is blown off respiratory alkalosis potassium and calcium shift intracellular tetany vessel spasm p. 34 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT When the patient hyperventilates

withholding oxygen from someone who is hyperventilating serves no benefit and may be harmful making the patient re-breath their own CO2 can be dangerous and even fatal p. 34 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT When the patient hyperventilates Shift in thinking 1.

dont judge the patient 2. give them all oxygen 3. dont coach their breathing - at least not at first 4. dont use a paper bag or oxygen mask (without oxygen) 5. begin assessment on the assumption that there is an underlying metabolic (or structural) cause

p. 35 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT When we hyperventilate the patient Brain Injury: Increased ICP CO2 is a potent vasodilator hyperventilating the patient causes cerebral vasoconstriction which helps decrease ICP good in theory not so good in practice p. 36 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU

QUIT When we hyperventilate the patient Secondary Brain Injury: Watershed The vessels within the injured area are damaged constricting the vessels surrounding the damaged area from overzealous hyperventilation results in blood flow into the damaged area resulting in worsened edema and further secondary brain damage. Injury Secondary injury p. 36 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU

QUIT SUMMARY Ventilation & Oxygenation Not the same thing p. 39 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee MENU QUIT QUIZ p. 37 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee

Question # 1 What does the term minute volume mean? A a very small volume B the amount of air inhaled with each breath (TV) C the volume of inhaled air over one minute (R.R. x TV) D a quiet sound

p. 38 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 1 What does the term minute volume mean? A a very small volume B the amount of air inhaled with each breath (TV) C the volume of inhaled air over one minute (R.R. x TV) D

a quiet sound p. 37 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 2 The gas exchanging areas of the lungs include: A The mouth, nose and trachea B the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli C

the mainstem bronchi D the lining of the stomach p. 38 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 2 The gas exchanging areas of the lungs include: A The mouth, nose and trachea B the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli

C the mainstem bronchi D the lining of the stomach p. 39 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 3 What blood gas component does ventilation affect? A PaO2

B PaCO2 p. 40 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 3 What blood gas component does ventilation affect? A PaO2 B PaCO2 Ventilation affects primarily the PaCO2 level

e.g. if you were to hyperventilate someone without supplemental O2, you would notice that their PaCO2 level would drop (below 35 mmHg), while their PaO2 would remain unchanged or increase only marginally. p. 41 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 4 The short form V/Q stands for: A vintage quality B various quantities C

verbal question D ventilation to perfusion ratio p. 42 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 4 The short form V/Q stands for: A vintage quality B

various quantities C verbal question D ventilation to perfusion ratio p. 43 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 5 All of the following are examples of a shunt except: A pulmonary embolus

B foreign body obstruction C bronchospasm D mucous plugging of the terminal bronchioles p. 44 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 5 All of the following are examples of a shunt except:

A pulmonary embolus B foreign body obstruction C bronchospasm D mucous plugging of the terminal bronchioles Pulmonary embolus is the only one from the list that is not an example of a shunt. It is an example of dead space ventilation.

p. 45 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 6 When you exhale, blood pH in the pulmonary capillaries shifts toward the: A acidic side B alkaline side p. 46 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 6

When you exhale, blood pH in the pulmonary capillaries shifts toward the: A acidic side B alkaline side p. 47 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 7 When the blood pH is acidotic, hemoglobins affinity for oxygen is: A

unaffected B stronger C weaker D none of the above p. 48 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 7 When the blood pH is acidotic, hemoglobins affinity for oxygen is:

A unaffected B stronger C weaker D none of the above p. 49 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee

Question # 8 At the tissue level, if the blood pH is too alkalotic, hemoglobin will: A hold onto oxygen more tightly B release oxygen more readily C destroy oxygen molecules D none of the above

p. 50 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 8 At the tissue level, if the blood pH is too alkalotic, hemoglobin will: A hold onto oxygen more tightly B release oxygen more readily C destroy oxygen molecules

D none of the above p. 51 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 9 A shunt means that ventilation is: A less than perfusion B the same as perfusion C

greater than perfusion D all of the above p. 52 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 9 A shunt means that ventilation is: A less than perfusion B

the same as perfusion C greater than perfusion D all of the above p. 53 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 10 Air entry to the lungs in a patient who has a massive pulmonary embolism is most likely to be: A

absent B markedly diminished C normal D absent on one side only p. 54 of 56 OBHG Education Subcommittee Question # 10 Air entry to the lungs in a patient who has a massive pulmonary

embolism is most likely to be: A absent B markedly diminished C normal D absent on one side only When an embolus blocks blood flow, air entry into the

lungs will be unaffected. p. 55 of 56 end OBHG Education Subcommittee ONTARIO START QUIT BASE HOSPITAL GROUP Well Done! Ontario Base Hospital Group Self-directed Education Program OBHG Education Subcommittee

MENU SORRY, THATS NOT THE CORRECT ANSWER QUIT OBHG Education Subcommittee

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