Chng 11 CN BNG TRONG DUNG DCH LNG

Chng 11 CN BNG TRONG DUNG DCH LNG

Chng 11 CN BNG TRONG DUNG DCH LNG Solutions Khi nim v h phn tn v dung dch - H phn tn: + Mt cht l ht rt nh c phn b vo trong cht kia. cht phn tn mi trng phn tn. + Phn loi: H phn tn th (h l lng): d >100m huyn ph. nh tng. H phn tn cao (h keo): 1m < d < 100m H phn tn phn t - ion (dung dch thc): d < 1m Solutions

S TO THNH DUNG DCH Cht tan Cht phn tn Dung mi Dung dch Mi trng phn tn Solutions DUNG DCH- l h ng th bn nhit ng, gm khng t hn hai cht trng thi phn tn phn t v thnh phn c th bin thin lin tc trong gii hn xc nh Dung dch kh * Khng kh Dung dch rn * Thu tinh (Na2O, CaO tan trong SiO2) *Vng tan trong bc Dung dch lng

*Dung dch nc ng(ng(r) +H2O dung dch) *Dung dch H2SO4(SO3(k) + H2O dung dch) *Ru Voka (C2H5OH (l) + H2O dung dch) Solutions DUNG DCH LNG C ch to thnh dd lng Qu trnh vt l qu trnh chuyn pha Hcp ,Scp Qu trnh ho hc -qu trnh solvat ho tng tc gia cht tan v dung mi Hsol<0 , Ssol<0 Solvat ho vt l Solvat ho ho hc Tng tc gia tiu phn v cht tan l yu t hng u quyt nh s to thnh dd Solutions Tng tc ht gia cht tan v dung mi

cng mnh th qu trnh ho tan cng thun li V d - ethanol tan tt trong nc Ethanol = CH3CH2OH Lc tng tc=lin kt hydro;lng cc-lng cc; khuch tn Solutions Glucose c lin kt hydro nn tan rt tt trong nc. Cyclohexane ch c lc khuch tn khng tan trong nc. Solutions Vitamin A tan trong dung mi khng cc (cht bo) Vitamin C tan trong nc. Solutions

Vitamin no tan trong nc v vitamin no tan trong cht bo? Solutions QU TRNH HO TAN V CN BNG HO TAN Cht tan (r) + dung mi Ho tan Dung dch Kt tinh Q C G RT ln RT ln K

C bh Dung dch bo ho G=0 Cn bng c = c bh = tan Dd cha bo ha G < 0 c < c bh Dd qu bo ho c > c bh G > 0 Solutions Khi nim v tan S tan - nng ca cht tan trong dd bo ha CC DUNG DCH BO HO 200C v 500C TAN

CHT TAN Solutions Cht tan l cht rn S- thng biu din s gam cht tan tan ti a trong100g dung mi S > 10g - cht d tan S < 1g - cht kh tan S < 0,01g- cht gn nh khng tan TAN CA CC HALOGENUA KIM LOI KIM TRONG H2O TAN (s gam mui/100g dung mi) Solutions Cht tan l cht kh S- thng biu din bng s ml kh (tan ti a) tan trong 100g dung mi hoc 100ml dung mi Cht tan l cht in ly kh tan S thng biu din bng s mol cht in ly kh tan (tan ti a) trong 1lit dung dch

Solutions tan ca mt s ion thng dng trong nc TAN KHNG TAN Ngai tr Ngai tr Ngai tr Solutions 14.2 CC YU T NH HNG N TAN Bn cht ca dung mi v cht tan Nhit , p sut Mi trng Solutions NH HNG CA BN CHT CHT TAN

V DUNG MI Cht tng t tan trong cht tng t. Cc hp cht c cc tan tt trong dung mi c cc hn l dung mi khng cc NaCl th : Tan tt trong nc phn cc ca Tan t trong ethyl alcohol dung mi Khng tan trong ether v benzene Solutions Cc cht khng cc th tan tt trong dung mi khng cc hn l cc dung mi c cc. phn cc ca dung mi Benzene th Khng tan trong nc Tan trong ether.

Solutions nh hng ca nhit v p sut Kh + dung mi dung dch dung dch Hcp<0 Hs<0 G= 0 P K ht nh lut Henry S P tan S Hht < 0 T khng i, p sut ring phn

ca kh tng S tng Solutions Kh + dung mi dung dch dung dch Hht<0 T tng tan cht kh gim Solutions EOS Cht rn + dung mi dung dch dung dch Hht p sut hu nh khng nh hng n tan ca cht rn k bnh thng. Hht < 0 Tth S Hht>0 Tth S Khong 95% hp cht ion c tan tng theo nhit .

Solutions S THAY I TNH CHT NHIT NG KHI TO THNH DUNG DCH Ght =Hht -TSht Kh +dm(l) = dung dch(l) Hht =Hcp (-)+Hsol(-) <0 Rn + dm(l) = dung dch (l) Hht =Hcp (+)+Hsol(-) <0 hay>0 Sht= Scp(-) - + Ssol (-) <0 Sht= Scp(+) + Ssol (-) >0 Solutions DUNG DCH L TNG L dung dch c Hht=0 ; Vht=0 ; Uht=0 Trong dung dch lc tng tc gia cc tiu phn

cng loi v khc loi ging nhau.S to thnh dd l do s tng entropy. Tnh cht ca dd l tng khng ph thuc vo bn cht cht tan m ph thuc vo nng ca chng. Dd lng t kh tt k l tng l dd m cc cu t ca n c cu to phn t v nhng thuc tnh vt l v ho hc ging nhau hoc rt gn nhau: Hn hp cc ng phn quang hc. Dd cc cu t ch khc nhau v thnh phn ng v V d - H2O + D2O Dd nhng cht ng ng cnh nhau V d - Benzen + toluen ; hexan +heptan Solutions Dung dch thc Nu lc tng tc gia cht tan v dung mi mnh hn lc tng tc gia cc tiu phn cng loi th dd ny thng c Hht<0 , Vht<0. Loi dd ny thng xy ra cho h m c hai cu t u c cc.Tng tc ht gia chng c th dn ti cc qu trnh ho hc (solvat ho, to lk hydro, to hp cht ho hc ) V d - h nc v axit nitric

Ngc li, nu lc tng tc gia cht tan v dung mi yu hn lc tng tc gia cc tiu phn cng loi th dd ny thng c Hht>0 , Vht>0 Loi dd ny thng xy ra cho h m c hai cu t c tnh phn cc khc nhau r rt V d- ho tan cht c cc vo dm khng cc: aceton trong CS2 Solutions Tng tc dm-ch tan yu hn Thu nhit Dd l tng Tng tc dm-ch tan mnh hn To nhit Solutions EOS Dung dch thc Ethanol v nc c lc

tng tc gia chng mnh hn gia cc ethanol vi nhau v gia cc pt nc vi nhau. Nn khi trn 50 mL H2O + 50 mL C2H5OH th th tch nh hn 100 mL Solutions EOS Nng dung dch mi C% 100% mi a. Nng phn trm: b. Nng mol: n ct CM 1000ml dd

n ct 1000g dm c. Nng molan: C m d. Nng phn mol: ni Ni ni e. Nng ng lng: CN - s ng lng gam cht tan / 1lit dd Solutions P SUT HI BO HO CA CHT LNG NGUYN CHT Bay hi H > 0 Lng Hi Ngng t H < 0

T, G = 0 Kp = (P)cb = P0 Pcb =P0(T) Cn bng pha p sut hi bo ho ca cht lng l hng s nhit xc nh v tng theo nhit Solutions Phng trnh Clapeyron Clausius dP H dT T.V L dung dch H ; R dung dch H ; R dung dch L

Gin trng thi Solutions Nhit si ca bt c pha lng no (nguyn cht hay dung dch) cng u bt u si nhit m ti p sut hi bo ho ca n bng p sut ngoi. i vi cht lng nguyn cht, khi p sut ngai khng i,nhit si khng thay i trong sut qu trnh si cho n khi ton b cht lng chuyn ht thnh hi. Solutions Nhit ng c ca bt c pha lng no (nguyn cht hay dung dch) cng u bt u ng c nhit m ti p sut hi bo ho trn pha lng bng vi p sut hi bo ho trn pha rn. i vi cht lng nguyn cht, khi p sut ngai khng i nhit ng c khng thay i trong sut qu trnh ng c.

Solutions p sut hi bo ho ca dung dch lng p sut hi bo ho ca dd l hi cn bng vi dung dch lng. p sut hi bo ho ca dd bng tng p sut hi bo ho ca tt c cc cu t c trong h. Pdd = Pi p sut hi bo ho ca dd lng, long cha cht tan khng in ly, khng bay hi chnh l p sut hi bo ho ca dung mi trong dung dch. Solutions P SUT HI BO HO ca dung dch lng long phn t cha cht tan khng in ly khng bay hi Bay hi Hbh > 0 Lng Hi Ngng t Hnt < 0

N1= Ndm =1 K= P0 N1= Ndm <1 (dung dch) K= P1 / N1 p1 = p0(1 N2) = p0 p0N2 N1 = 1 N2 nh lut RAOULT I P0 P1 N2 p1 p 0 N1 p0 p0 p1

p p0 Solutions P1 p sut hi bo ho ca dd lng, long cha cht tan khng in ly , khng bay hi cng chnh l p sut hi bo ho ca dung mi trong dung dch Dung mi ng cht P1 Pha n t dung mo i N1 N2 Pha

n t cha t tan kho ng bay hi p sut hi bo ha ca dung mi trong dung dch lun nh hn p sut hi bo ho ca dung Solutions mi nguyn cht cng nhit . P1

T nh lut Raoult II TS T T dm T ddphtu k C m Ts Ts ddphtu Tsdm k s C m Solutions Dung mi Water, H2O Benzen, C6H6 Ethanol, C2H6O Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4 Chloroform, CHCl3

Tsi (C) Ks (0C/m) T ( 0C) K (0C/m) 100.0 80.1 0.52 2.53 0.00 5.5 1.86 5.12 78.4 1.22

-114.0 1.99 76.8 5.02 -22 29.8 61.2 3.63 -63.5 4.68 Solutions Nhit si ca dung dch lng phn t cao

hn nhit si ca dung mi nguyn cht Ts (ddlpt ) Ts (dm) Nhit ng c ca dung dch lng phn t thp hn nhit ng c ca dung mi nguyn cht T (H2O) >T (dd) T (ddlpt ) T (dm) Tinh th dung mi nguyn cht Solutions Nhn xt i vi dung dch cha bo ho, nhit si l nhit bt u si,nhit ng c l nhit bt u ng c.Trong qu trnh si hay ng c do nng dd tng lin tc nn nhit si tng lin tc, nhit ng c gim lin tc. Khi dung dch bo ho, nhit si v nhit ng c mi l hng s. Solutions

p sut thm thu S thm thu v p sut thm thu Ndm=1 Ndm<1 nh lut Vant Hoff Mng bn thm C M RT Solutions Nhn xt nh lut Raoult v Vant hoff ch ng cho dd lng l tng v cc dd thc c nng cht tan rt nh (dd long) i vi dd thc (khng l tng) p sut hi ring phn c th c gi tr ln hn (sai lch dng) hoc b hn (sai lch m)so vi gi tr tnh theo l Raoult. Solutions

S khc bit ca dd in ly so vi dd lng phn t Dung dch in ly khng tun theo nh lut Raoult nh lut Vant Hoff Dung dch in ly dn in Solutions p sut hi bo ho ca dung mi nguyn cht ln hn p sut hi bo ho ca dm trong dd l do cc phn t dm t do trn b mt cht lng nhiu hn. N(dm ngcht)= 1 > N1 H2O(l) H2O(k) Solutions S tiu phn cht tan khng bay hi cng tng s

lm gim s phn t dung mi t do trn b mt nn p sut hi bo ho ca dung dch cng gim nhiu. H2O(l) H2O(k) Solutions DUNG DCH IN LY Dung dch in ly khng tun theo cc l Raoult v Vant Hoff i l h s ng trng hay h s Vant Hoff i= s tiu phn ch tan (s ion ,s ph t ch tan khng in ly) s phn t cht tan ho tan m- s ion trong 1 phn t (nguyn dng 2) Dung dich in ly 1< i m ; Dung dch lng phn t i=1 1 mol cht (dd in ly) =N1 +N2 S tiu phn cht tan = i.N2 Trong 1000g dmi s tiu phn cht tan =i.cm Trong 1lit dung dch s tiu phn cht tan= i.C(mol/l) Solutions

Lng Nguyn cht N2=0 , Hi N1=1 P0 Dd lng phn t, N2 s tp cht tan =N2 p' p 0 p1( dly) iN 2 p0 p0 Dd in ly , N2 i.N2 Cm i.cm T ' i.k C m CM (mol/l)i.cM

N2 p p o p1( pt ) p0 p0 T 's ik s C m ' i.C M RT Trong cng iu kin Po> P 1(pt) > P 1(ly) Ts(dm ngcht) < Ts(dd pt) < Ts(dd ly) T(dm ngcht) >T(dd pht) > T(dd ly) (dd pht ) < (dd ly) Solutions ng dng ng lut Raoult lm thay i nhit ng c ca nc Propylene glycol Dng lm ph gia

pha trong nc (lm ngui ng c t) nhm khc phc nc ng c vo ma ng. Ethylene glycol c hi vi gia sc Solutions chng hin tng ng bng tuyt vo ma ng trn cc con ng giao thng, theo bn ta nn chn cc gii php no sau y : a) Ct, SiO2 b) Mui m, NaCl c) CaCl2 Solutions

Dung dch in ly dn in dn in ring - 1cm3 dd (s=1cm2;d=1cm) 1 om 1cm 1 Khi pha long gim dn in ng lng - V cm3 (1lgam ctan) 1000 .V CN Khi pha long tng Khi pha long v cng = const Solutions THUYT IN LY CA ARRHENIUS

Phn t cht in ly (ax,baz,mui) ION T DO CATION (+) v ANION(-) HCl H+ + Cl- Gii thch c tnh dn in v do c s gia tng s tiu phn cht tan nn dd in ly khng tun theo cc l Raoult VantHoff CuSO4(mu trng) ddCuSO4 (mu xanh) Vsao ? Solutions Qu trnh ho tan NaCl trong nc hydrat s khuch CcCc Khi phnion

lc tb ht nc gia c cc cc ion tn ti,t raNa khi tinh + - th v s ht yu cc ion cc ion vs Cl

tch ra tan trong dung trong vb mng baotinh quanh thdch. cc lng mui,lm cc nc yu lc ht gia cc ion . Solutions 14.3 THUYT IN LY CA KABLUKOB Cht tan

Qu trnh solvat ho (c cc mnh) (Qu trnh hydrat ho H2O) Dung mi (c cc) ion solvat ho (ion hydrat ho) Trong dung dch khng c ion t do Hp cht ion qu trnh phn ly cc ion NaCl(r) + (n+m) H2O dung dch Na+ .nH2O + Cl- .mH2O Hp cht cng ho tr c cc qu trnh ion ho. HCl (k) + (n+m)H2O dung dch H3O+ .(n-1)H2O + Cl- .mH2O Solutions Nu cht tan c nhiu kiu lin kt ho hc khc nhau th qu trnh phn ly theo trt t sau: Lin kt ion Cng ho tr phn cc mnh NaHSO4 (dd) =

HSO4- (dd)+ H2O dung dch Na+ (dd) + HSO4-(dd) H3O+ (dd) + SO42- (dd) S phn ly khng xy ra cho nhng lk cng ho tr c cc yu hoc khng phn cc Solutions in ly = s phn t phn ly thnh ion Tng s phn t ho tan trong dung dch 0 1 =0 dd lng phn t =1 in ly hon ton Cng thc xc nh in ly n- s mol cht tan ho tan n- s mol cht tan in ly nm - s mol ion

i i 1 m 1 (n - n) s mol cht tan khng in ly nm n n 1 m 1 n Solutions Cc yu t nh hng n in ly Bn cht cht tan v dung mi Dung mi c cc yu nh Dung mi c cc mnh ln

Nng dung dch C gim th tng C 0 th 1 Nhit tng thng tng Solutions Quy c nh gi in ly Trong dd nc 0,1N 250C. > 30% cht in ly mnh 3%< < 30% cht in ly trung bnh < 30% cht in ly yu Solutions CN BNG TRONG DD CHT IN LY YU AmBn(dd) Qt ion ho mAn+(dd) + nBm-(dd)

Qt phn t ho n m Hng s in ly m n A . B K A m Bn Biu thc ca l tc dng khi lng Hng s in ly l hs cn bng ca qt in ly nn l lg c trng cho mi cht in ly v dung mi, ph thuc vo nhit . Axit hsly k hiu Ka c trng cho cng

Axit - base Baz hsly k hiu Kb Trong dd nc: Ka,Kb < 10-4 axit yu, base yu Solutions QUAN H GIA K v A+ (dd) + B-(dd) AB (dd) Ban u C0 in ly C0 C 0 C0 Cn bng

C0(1 - ) C 0 C0 Hng s in ly: K C A .C B Khi << 1 : (1 - ) 1 C AB C 0 Biu thc ton hc ca l pha 1 long Ostwald K

C0 2 Solutions AXIT - BASE YU A BC Hng s in ly cc bc gim dn theo trt t sau: K1>K2 >K3 >K4 Hng s in ly chung : K=K1.K2.K3.K4 Trong thc t thng ch ch n s phn ly bc th nht Mui a s mui thuc loi in ly mnh: KCl, NaF Cc mui in ly km : mui axit (H+),mui baz(OH-),mui phc. Solutions HNG S IN LY CA CC AXIT A BC Solutions Na2HPO4 (dd) = 2Na+ (dd) +

HPO4- (dd) H+ (dd) + HPO4-(dd) PO4- (dd) K3[Fe(CN)6](dd) = 3K+ (dd) + [Fe(CN)6]3-(dd) [Fe(CN)6]3-(dd) Fe3+ (dd) + 6CN- (dd) 6 Fe CN Fe(CN) 3 Hng s khng bn ca phc Fe3+ (dd)

+ 6CN- (dd) Hng s bn ca phc K kb 3 6 [Fe(CN)Fe(CN)6]3- (dd) Fe(CN ) 36 1 Kb K kb Fe3 CN

6 Solutions CN BNG TRONG DD CHT IN LY MNH Lp lun: thc nghim cho thy trong dd khng c phn t trung ha in Cht in ly mnh: in ly hon ton = 1 Lp lun Thc t in ly =1 <1 H s ng trng i L s nguyn Khng nguyn dn in khi pha Khng i long dung dch Tng ln

Solutions Thc t: khng tun theo L tc dng khi lng. V d: NaCl CN 0.001 0.005 0.01 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.977 0.953 0.936 0.882 0.852 0.818 K 0.042 0.097 0.137 0.380 0.491 0.735 Nng molan

Gi tr gii hn ca i Hp cht H s ng trng i Solutions L thuyt cht in ly mnh Trong dung dch xut hin lc ht tng h gia cc ion bu kh quyn ion. Khi pha long, lc ht tng h gim, dn in tng. Trong dd cht in ly mnh c lin hip ion, khi pha long cc lin hip ion phn ly thnh cc ion n gin. in ly trn thc t : in ly biu kin. dng hot a thay cho nng : a = fC Solutions HOT (a) l nng hot ng mang tnh tng qut hn hn nng v p dng l tc dng khi lng cho mi dd cht tan cc nng khc nhau a = fc

f- h s hot 0

1 I I 12 C i z i2 i vi dung dch nc v 250C: A = 0,5 Khi I 0,01 phng trnh trn c dng n gin nh sau: lg f i 0,5 z 2 i I lg f Am Bn 0,5 z An z B m I Solutions Cn bng trong dung dch cht in ly kh tan v tch s tan.

AgCl r Ag Cl dd n dd Am Bn r mA 0 K C Ag .C Cl T AgCl dd m dd nB T Am Bn C 0

m An C G RT ln TAm Bn H TS n Bm 0 Tch s tan ca mt cht ph thuc: Bn cht ca dung mi v cht tan Nhit Solutions Tch s tan v tan ca cht in ly kh tan. n m Am Bn r mA dd nB dd

S[mol/l] mS T Am Bn C m An nS C n Bm m mS nS m n

m n S tan trong nc S m n n m n T Am Bn mmnn Solutions nh hng ca cc ion trong dung dch n tan ca cht in ly kh tan. Thm ion cng loi: S n dd Am Bn r mA

m dd nB Thm ion khc loi: S TA m Bn a m m A n n a (mS) (nS) f n B m C

( m n ) A m Bn S ( m n ) m m A n A n f m C n n B m B m f

n ( m n ) ( m n ) A m Bn m n S f T Am Bn m n m n f ( m n ) Am Bn Solutions iu kin ho tan v kt ta ca cht ly kh tan. n dd

m dd Am Bn r mA G RT ln Dung dch bo ha Cht in ly s kt ta khi Cht in ly s tan ht khi nB Q TA m B n TA m Bn C C C m An

m A n C n B m n Bm T Am Bn n B m TA m Bn C C

m A n Solutions S ion ha v tch s ion ca nc dn in ca H2O = 5,54.10-18-1.cm-1 H2O + H2O H3O+ + OH- K n [H 3O ][OH ] 10 pH=-lg[H+] pOH=-lg[OH-] 14 pK=-lgK pKn = pH+ POH = 14

Solutions Ch s pH v mi trng dd Trong nc nguyn cht v mi trng trung tnh [H+] = [OH-] = 10-7 Trong pH = 7 dung dch axit c mi trng axit [H+] > [OH-] pH < 7 Trong dung dch baz c mi trng baz [H+] < [OH-] pH > 7 Solutions

Solutions Khi nim v axit, baz. a. Thuyt c in ca Arrhenius b. Thuyt proton Bronsted c. Thuyt electron ca Lewis Solutions Thuyt c in ca Arrhenius Axit: cht in ly cho ion H3O+ trong nc HCl(aq) +H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq) HNO3(aq)+H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + NO3-(aq) Baz: cht in ly cho ion OH- trong nc NH3(aq) + H2O (l)

NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) Solutions Thuyt proton Bronsted Axit :cho proton HA H+ + ABaz: nhn proton: B + H+ BH+ Cc cp axit baz lin hp: HA/A- , BH+ /B HA + B A- + BH+ Phn ng gia axit v baz l p trao i proton(H+) gia axit ca 1cp axit- baz lin hp ny vi 1baz ca 1 cp axit-baz lin hp khc. Solutions Phn ng gia cc cp axit baz lin hp Cp lin hp

Acid + Base Base + Acid Cp lin hp Reaction 1 HF + H2O F

+ H3O+ Reaction 2 HCOOH + CN HCOO + HCN Reaction 3 NH4+ +

CO32 NH3 Reaction 4 H2PO4 + OH HPO42 + Reaction 5 H2SO4 + N2H5+

2 2 + HSO4 3 HCO3 + H2O N H 2+ 2 6 Solutions D on axit, baz Bronsted Axit l cht phi cha H+

Phn t trung ho : HCl, HNO3, HF. Cation c cha H+ : NH4+ Anion c cha H : HSO4- , H2PO4- . Cation kim loi trong nc : Fe2+(aq) ; Al3+(aq).. Cation cu hnh kh tr c q2/ r cng ln tnh axit cng mnh Cation c in tch v bn knh tng ng, cu hnh: 18e (18e +2e) (18e> >8e ) tnh axit mnh hn cu hnh 8e Solutions 3+ Al(H2O)6 Al(H2O)63++H2O (l) Al3+(aq) b thu phn 2+ Al(OH)(H2O)5 + H+ 2+ Al(OH)(H2O)5 + H3O+

Solutions Baz Bronsted - cht c d mt in tch m Anion: Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, PO43-. Phn t cng ho tr phn cc : NH3 .. Cht lng tnh- cht va c kh nng cho H+ va c kh nng nhn H+. Cc hp cht c cha H thng l cht lng tnh HCl + H2PO4- Cl- + H3PO4 H2PO4- + HCO3- HPO42- + H2CO3 pK a 2 (H 3PO 4 ) 7,21 pK a 2 (H 2 CO 3 ) 10,33 Solutions Dung mi proton ho L hp cht cng ho tr phn cc c cha H nn c kh nng trao i proton (cht lng tnh) Thng to lk H2 nn Tsv Tnc cao. C tnh phn cc mnh nn c kh nng ho tan nhiu cht (c cc).

C th t ion ho mt phn khi trng thi lng. Hng s cn bng gi l hng s t proton ho K d Solutions H2O + H2O H3O + OH- kn= [OH-][H3O+] NH3 + NH3 NH2- + NH4+ kd= [NH2-][NH4+] HD + HD D- + H2D+ Kd = [Fe(CN)D-][Fe(CN)H2D+] Solutions S in ly ca axit v baz l kt qu ca p trao i proton gia axit v baz vi dung mi. NH3(aq) + H2O (l) baz axit NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

axit baz Solutions S in ly ca axit v baz trong nc Axit: HA + H2O A- + H3O+ H O A Ka Baz: B 3

HA Ka cng ln th tnh axit cng mnh + H2O BH+ + OH- BH OH Kb B Kb cng ln th tnh baz cng mnh Solutions

i vi cp axit baz lin hp: HA + H2O A + H3O - K a ( HA) + K b ( A ) A-+ H2O HA + OHK a ( HA) K b ( A ) [ H 3 O ][ A ] [ HA] [ HA][OH ] [ A ] [ H 3 O ][ A ] [ HA][OH ]

x [ H O ][ OH ] K n 3 [ HA] [A ] Ka.Kb = Kn Ka.Kb = Kd pKa + pKb = pKn = 14 pKa + pKb = pKd

Axit cng mnh (Ka) th baz lin hp l baz yu(Kb) Axit cng yu (Ka) th baz lin hp l baz mnh (Kb) Solutions HNG S IN LY CA CC BASE YU Solutions HNG S IN LY CA CC AXIT YU V BASE LIN HP 250C Solutions Hiu ng san bng dung mi HA + H2O A- + H3O+ H3O+ l ax mnh nht trong dd HA + H2O A- + H3O+ H3O+ l ax mnh nht trong dd Trong dung mi H2O : H3O+ l axit mnh nht, OH- l baz mnh hnt

Trong dung mi NH3 : NH4+ l axit mnh nht NH2- l baz mnh nht Trong dung mi HD : H2D+ l axit mnh nht D- l baz mnh nht Solutions nh hng ca dung mi n cng axit baz Hng s t proton ho (Kd ) HD + HD D- + H2D+ Kd = [D-][H2D+] Kd cng ln th tnh axit ca dung mi cng mnh. i lc proton (AP) HD + H+ =H2D+ H = -AP AP cng ln th dung mi c tnh baz cng mnh

Solutions Dung mi c AP th tnh axit ca cht tan tng tnh baz ca cht tan gim Trong nc, CH3COOH l axit yu Trong NH3 , CH3COOH l axit mnh Dung mi c AP th tnh axit ca cht tan gim tnh baz ca cht tan tng Trong dung mi HF,HClO4 khng cht no th hin tnh axit HNO3 + HF (dm) H2NO3+ + F- NH4OH l baz yu trong dung mi nc NH4OH l baz mnh trong dung mi axit acetic Solutions Thuyt electron ca Lewis Thuyt Lewis dng gii thch qu trnh to phc v tnh bn ca phc. Axit Lewis: l tiu phn c d mt in tch dng v

orbital ho tr trng nhn cp electron lin kt t baz. D on axit Lewis: Hu ht cc cation kim loi (Ag+, Co3+, Cr3+, Mg2+..) Cc halogenua ca B, Al, Si, Sn Cc hydrua ca B,Al Cc hp cht c lk i trong nhng k thch hp cng Solutions th hin tnh axit Base Lewis: cht cho cp electron. D on baz Lewis: Cc anion : Cl-, Br-, OH Phn t trung ho hay ion c cha nguyn t (N,O ) cn cp e ho tr t do nh : NH3, amin , ru, xeton.. + F F B + F acid 2NH3

N H H base [Fe(CN)Ag(NH3)2]+ F H Ag+ F B F H N H H Solutions

base acid acid + OH base H + H H acid

N H H+ + H base H O H + H N H H Solutions HCl, axit mnh

[Fe(CN)H ] = [Fe(CN)HCl] + HF, axit yu [Fe(CN)H+] < [Fe(CN)HF] Solutions pH ca dd long axit v baz mnh Axit mnh HA H+ + ACa Ca pH lg C H lg C a Baz mnh Ca >10-7 ion.g/lit MOH M+ + OHCb Cb

pOH lg C OH lg C b pH 14 pOH 14 lg C b Cb >10-7 ion.g/lit Solutions Axit mnh v base mnh HCl CH3CO2H Thymol Blue ch th pH < 1.2 < pH < 2.8 < pH Solutions pH ca dd axit yu v base yu. HA + H2O H3O+ + A- <<1, KaCa>> Kn Axit yu Cn bng Ca(1- )

C H O C a C a 3 pH lg C H O 3 Ca Ca Ka K a Ca Ca 1 1 lg K a lg Ca pK a lg Ca 2 2 Baz yu MOH Cn bng Cb(1- )

M+ + Cb OHCb <<1, KbCb>> Kn 1 1 pOH pK b lg Cb pH 14 pK b lg C b 2 2 Solutions i vi axit , base yu a bc Khi tnh pH dung dch ta ch da vo bc phn ly th nht 7 K

4 , 3 . 10 V d : tnh pH dung dch H2CO3 0,01M . a1 1 1 pH pK a1 lg Ca lg 4,3.10 7 lg10 2 4,19 2 2

Solutions Hng s in ly ca cc axit v base yu 250C Solutions o pH ca gim o pH ca dd NH3 Solutions Cc phng php o pH cho cc dd nc (a) Giy o pH (nh tnh) (b) My o pH(nh lng) Solutions pH ca dung dch m. nh nghi: Dung dch m l dd c pH const khi thm

lng nh axit mnh hoc baz mnh hoc pha long dd. Cu to (HA / A- ) m axit: axit yu + mui ca n CH3COOH+CH3COONa m baz: base yu + mui ca n NH3.H2O+ NH4Cl m trung tnh : hn hp cc mui axit yu C ch tc dng ca dung dch m CH3COOH CH3COO- + H+ (1) CH3COONa CH3COO- + Na+ Thm axit mnh: cb (1) Thm base mnh: H+ + OH- H2O: lng H+ cb (1) Pha long dd, in ly CH3COOH Solutions pH ca dung dch m axit ( HA + MA) CH3COONa CH3COO-

+ Cm CH3COOH + H2O CH3COOCa(1-) (Ca + Cm Cm) H O CH COO H O C Ka 3 3 CH 3COOH

3 Ca m + Na+ Cm H 3 O+ Ca Ca [H 3O ] K a Cm Ca Cm pH lg[H 3O ] lg K a lg

pK a lg Cm Ca PH ca dd m base ( MOH + MA ) Cm pH 14 pK lg b Cb Solutions

pH ca dung dch mui Phn ng thu phn l p trao i ion gia mui v nc, c kh nng lm thay i pH mi trng. Hthu phn >0 MA (dd) + H2O HA (dd) + MOH(dd) Htrung ho <0 Phn ng thy phn l phn ng l phn ng nghch ca p trung ho. Hng s cn bng ca qu trnh thu phn Kt s phn t mui thu phn thu phn h = S phn t mui ho tan 1 Solutions Do mui c lk ion nn khi ho tan trong nc s phn ly han ton thnh cc ion b hydrat ho M+ (aq) + A- (aq) +H2O MOH (aq) + HA (aq) ; H >0

Theo thuyt axit - base Bronsted : M+.nH2O / M(OH).(n-1)(H2O) l cp axit- base lin hp HA / A- l cp axit - baz lin hp Cation ca mui (M+) l axit bronsted Anion ca mui ( A-) l base bronsted Vy p thu phn thc cht l p trao i proton gia cc ion ca mui vi cc pt nc. Hay p thu phn l p axit base Bronsted. Solutions Mui no s b thu phn ? Nu cation ca mui (M+) l axit mnh hn nc (MOH l base yu), n s nhng H+ cho nc cation mui b thu phn lm cho pHmtr <7 Ag+ nH2O + H2O Ag(OH)(n-1)H2O + H3O+ NH4+ (aq) + H2O NH3 (aq) + H3O+ Nu anion ca mui (A-) l baz mnh hn nc (HA l axit yu), n s nhn H+ ca nc lm tng OH anion mui b thu phn lm cho pHmtr >7 CH3COO- + H2O CH3COOH + OHTt c cc mui (MA) u b thu phn tr mui c to thnh t axit mnh (HA) v base mnh (MOH)

Solutions Cation cu hnh kh tr c q2/ r cng ln tnh axit cng mnh nn thu phn cng mnh. V d : Ka[Mg2+(aq)] > Ka[Ba2+(aq)] Mg2+(aq) thu phn mnh hn Ba2+(aq). Cation c in tch v bn knh tng ng, cu hnh: 18e (18e +2e) (18e> >8e ) tnh axit mnh hn cu hnh 8e nn thu phn s mnh hn V d : Mg2+ (aq) thu phn yu hn Hg2+(aq) Solutions Hng s Ka ca cc ion kim loi trong nc 250C Ion kim loi Fe3+ (aq) Sn2+ (aq) Cr3+ (aq) Al3+ (aq) Be2+ (aq) Cu2+ (aq) Pb2+ (aq) Zn2+ (aq)

Co2+ (aq) Ni2+ (aq) Ka Tnh axit tng dn Thu phn mnh dn 6 x 10-3 4 x 10-4 1 x 10-4 1 x 10-5 4 x 10-6 3 x 10-8 3 x 10-8 1 x 10-9 2 x 10-10 1 x 10-10 Solutions CNG CA CP AXIT BASE LIN HP HA A-

Cc anion (A-) c tnh base cng mnh s thu phn cng mnh trong nuc. Solutions pH ca dung dch mui HA MOH Mui to thnh t axit mnh v base yu (M+ +H2O pH < 7) Mui to thnh t axit yu v base mnh (A- +H2O pH >7) Mui to thnh t axit yu v base yu ( M+ +A- + H2O ) Mui to thnh t axit mnh v base mnh MA khng b thu phn pH 7 Solutions Mui pH CH3COONH4 Cation tp Anion tp

(Axit) (Base) NH4+ KK CH3COO- AlCl3 Al3+ 7 <7 FeCl2 Fe2+ <7 KClO4 khng tp Khng

7 Na2S NaF NaBr NH4CN NH4F Khng NH + 4 KK S2- >7 F-

>7 7 >7 CN- NH4+ F- <7 pK(NH3)=4,76; pK(CH3COOH)=4,75;pK(HCN)=9,2;pK(HF)=3,18 Solutions Solutions Mui to thnh t axit yu (Ka) v baz mnh PH >7 S in ly: MA M+ (axy) + A- (base mnh hn H2O) S thy phn: A- + H2O

Cm(1-h) Hng s thy phn: Kt thy phn: Cmh HA OH HA A 2 HA OH

Cm h Cm h 2 Kt A C m 1 h 1 h Tnh pH: OH C HA + OH- m h C m Cmh Kn H OH

H A Ka C m h 2 Kt Kn h Cm K a Cm

Kn K n Cm K a Cm Ka K H OH 1 1 pH pK n pK a lg C m 7 pK a lg C m >7 2 2 n KnKa

Cm Solutions Mui to thnh t axit mnh v baz yu (Kb) pH<7 S in ly: MA M+ (axit mnh hn nc) + A- (basey) S thy phn: MOH + H+ M+ + H2O Cm(1-h) Hng s thy phn: Kt C mh Cmh MOH H

MOH M M OH H OH Kn Kb

thy phn: 2 MOH H Cm h Cm h 2 Kt Kn 2 Kt C m h h M C m 1 h 1 h Cm K bCm

Tnh pH: H C m h C m Kn K nCm K bCm Kb 1 1 pH pK n pK b lg C m 7 pK b lg C m <7 2 2 Solutions

Mui to thnh t axit yu (Ka) v base yu (Kb) S in ly: MA M+(axit mnh hn nc) + A-(base mnh hn nc) S thy phn: M+ Cm(1-h) Hng s thy phn: Kt + A- + H 2 O Cm(1-h) HA MOH HA M A thy phn: h Kt

Kn KaKb HA C mh MOH + MOH Cm h Kn H OH H A

M OH KaKb 2 HA MOH Cm h h2 Kt 2

2 M A Cm 1 h 1 h 2 h 2 Tnh pH: HA K H K A a Cm h h

Kn KnKa K a K a h K a a C m (1 h ) 1 h KaKb Kb 1 1 pH pK n pK a pK b 7 pK a pK b 2 2 Solutions NHN XT Hng s thu phn Kt ph thuc vo : Bn cht ca mui v nhit thu phn h ph thuc vo:

Ka v Kb ca axit v baz lin hp vi cc ion ca mui, c to thnh trong qt thu phn,chng c gi tr cng nh th thu phn cng tng. Cm cng nh th thu phn tng (tr mui to thnh t axit yu v baz yu ) Nhit tng th thu phn tng. Solutions Cch tnh pH ca cc dung dch. dch a. pH ca dd axit mnh v base mnh. pH lg C a pH 14 lg C b b. pH ca dd axit yu v base yu. 1 1 pH 14 pK b lg C b pH pK a lg C a

2 2 c. pH ca dung dch m. Cm Cm pH 14 pK b lg pH pK a lg Cb Ca d. pH ca dung dch mui 1 1 pH 7 pK b lg C m pH 7 pK a lg C m 2 2 1 pH 7 pK a pK b 2

Solutions Pha Pha long long dung dung dch dch Bnh nh mc ddA 1M pipet Pha long nng dung dch A t 1M xung 0,02M Dng pipet ht 10,00 ml dd A 1M cho vo bnh nh mc 500ml +nc vo cho n vch chun

ca bnh lc u ddA 0,02M Solutions Phn Phn ng ng trung trung ho ho HCl (dd) +NaOH(dd) = NaCl (dd) + H2O H3O+ + OH- = 2H2O ; H0298 = -13,36 kcal = - 55,84 kJ Hiu ng nhit tiu chun l hng s, khng ph thuc vo loi axit mnh v base mnh tham gia phn ng. Phn ng n cng, khng c phn ng thu phn xy ra im tng ng : VNaOH.CNaOH(N) = VHCl.CHCl(N) Ti im tng ng pH =7 Solutions Cho dd NaOH 0,10N vo buret ti vch chun (mc 0)

Dng Dng php php chun chun axit axit base base xc xc nh nh nng nng axit axit VNaOH.CNaOH(N) = VHCl.CHCl(N) 0 Cho 10,00 ml dd axit HCl cha bit nng + 100ml nc ct + 3 git phenolphatalein vo bnh tam gic (erlen) Solutions

Chun dd HCl bng dd NaOH ddNaOH 0,10N 0 24,6 Dd HCl CHCl ? Nh t t dd NaOH t burt xung bnh tam gic v lc u dd trong bnh cho n khi dung dch trong bnh bt u chuyn sang mu hng nht (bn trong 30 giy) c th tch ddNaOH dng trn buret V=24,6 ml tnh nng dd HCl theo l ng lng. CHCl = 0,25N Solutions

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