Gluteal region Skin and fascia of the gluteal

Gluteal region Skin and fascia of the gluteal region A) Skin of the Buttock (Gluteal region) The upper medial quadrant-1 The upper lateral quadrant-2 Supplied by Anterior primary rami of Po ste rio rp rim ar yr

am io f Supplied by L1 L2 L3 S1 S2 S3 Lateral cutaneous branch of iliohypogastric nerve Lateral cutaneous nerve of the subcostal nerve T12 The lower lateral quadrant-4

Supplied by Anterior primary rami of The lower medial quadrant-3 Supplied by Anterior primary rami of Branches from posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh Branches from lateral cutaneous nerves of the thigh Cutaneous Innervation of the gluteal region B) Fascia of the Buttock (Gluteal region)

Superficial fascia; is thick especially in women .- 1 .It contributes to the prominence of the buttock Deep fascia; contentious with the deep- 2 .fascia of the thigh (fascia lata) Fascia lata Is a strong fibrous sheet that surrounds the whole of the thigh like a tight trousers. Thin on its medial side while it is getting thicker on its lateral side to form the iliotibial tract. Iliotibial tract Is a strong wide band (thickening of the deep fascia (fascia lata)) on the lateral side of the thigh) attached above to the tubercle of ilium .and below to the lateral condyle of tibia Receives the insertion of tensor fascia latae

.and GM muscles Muscles of the gluteal region Gluteus maximus Origin: 1- Ilium ( area behind the posterior gluteal line) 2- Back of sacrum and coccyx 3- Back of sacrotuberous ligament Insertion 1- The superficial three fourths are inserted into the iliotibial tract

2- The lower deep part is inserted into the gluteal tuberosity of femur Actions 1- Extends thigh, some lateral rotation (main extensor of the hip joint) 2-Plays an important role in climbing upstairs and cycling 3- Supports the Extended knee joint through Iliotibial tract Innervation - Inferior gluteal nerve, L5;S1,2

STRUCTURES UNDER THE COVER OF GLUTEUS MAXIMUS MUSCLE A- Bony structures 1-Greater trochanter and bursa 2-Gluteal tuberosity 3-Ischial tuberosity and bursa B- Ligaments 1- Sacrotuberous ligament 2- Scrospinous ligament C- Muscles 1- Gluteus medius and minimus 2-Short Lateral rotator muscles (6) 3- origin of the hamstring muscles D- Vessels 1- Superior gluteal vessels 2- inferior gluteal vessels 3- Internal pudendal vessels E- Nerves

Superior and inferior gluteal nerve- 1 Sciatic nerve- 2 5- Nerve to obturator internus Pudendal nerve- 3 6- Nerve to quadratus femoris Posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh- 4 Te n s o r f a s c i a e l a t a e Origin Iliac crest Insertion Iliotibial tract Action Assist gluteus maximus in extending the knee joint

Nerve supply Superior gluteal nerve L4,5 Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus Origin Ilium ? Insertion Greater trochanter of femur Actions 1-Abduction (main abductor of the hip joint)

2-Medial rotation (anterior fibers) 3-Both muscle contract reflexly on each side alternatively during walking to prevent tilting of the pelvis to the unsupported side Innervation Superior gluteal nerve Short Lateral rotator muscles 1-Piriformis 2-Quadratus femoris 3-Obturator internus

4-Superior gemellus 5-Obturator externus 6-Inferior gemellus Read these muscles from this slide which can be found on page (566) Snell 8 th edition Short lateral rotator muscles of the hip joint They have common function; lateral rotation of the thigh at hip joint. Muscle Origin Insertion Nerve supply Make sure that you know where to find it on the femur

A) Structures passing through the greater sciatic foramen: 1- Piriformis: fills the foramen almost completely leaving some structures to pass either above or below it. Structures passing above Piriformis muscle: 1- Superior gluteal nerve and vessels Structures passing below Piriformis muscle: 1-inferior gluteal nerve 2-inferior gluteal vessels 3-sciatic nerve 4-posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh 5-nerve to quadratus femoris 6-pudendal nerve 7-internal pudendal vessels 9-nerve to obturator internus B) Structures passing through the lesser sciatic foramen:

1- tendon of obturator internus 2-pudendal nerve 3-internal pudendal vessels 4-nerve to obturator internus Superior Gluteal Nerve (L4, 5 and S1) a branch of the sacral plexus leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis It divides into superior and inferior branches The superior branch supplies the gluteus medius muscle The inferior branch supplies the gluteus medius, minimus muscles and ends by supplying the tensor fasciae

latae muscle. Inferior Gluteal Nerve (L5, S1, S2) a branch of the sacral plexus, leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis It supplies the gluteus maximus muscle Arteries of the Gluteal Region 1-Superior Gluteal Artery is a branch from the internal iliac artery enters the gluteal region through the greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis It divides into superficial and deep branches. The superficial branch supplies the gluteus maximus muscle

The deep branch supplies the glutei medius and minimus. 2-Inferior Gluteal Artery is a branch of the internal iliac artery enters the gluteal region through the greater sciatic foramen, below the piriformis It divides into numerous branches that are distributed throughout the gluteal region. Branches from the internal iliac artery (superior and inferior gluteal arteries) anastomosis With branches from the femoral artery to form 1-The Trochanteric Anastomosis 2-The Cruciate Anastomosis The Cruciate Anastomosis The cruciate anastomosis is situated at the level of The trochanteric anastomosis : the lesser trochanter of the femur and, together

provides the main blood supply to with the trochanteric anastomosis, provides a THE HEAD OF THE connection between the internal iliac and the femoral arteries FEMUR The nutrient arteries pass along the femoral neck beneath the capsule The following arteries take part in the anastomosis: A) The superior gluteal artery, the inferior gluteal artery and the obturator artery (from the internal iliac artery) B) The medial femoral circumflex

artery, and the lateral femoral circumflex artery (from the femoral artery) The muscles of the gluteal region are acting on the hip joint as different functional groups Gluteus maximus Acts as the main extensor of the hip joint Gluteus medius and minimus They act as the main abductors of the hip joint while their anterior fibers act as medial rotators on the hip joint Short Lateral rotator muscles They act as lateral rotators on the hip joint The muscles of the gluteal region, therefore, extend, abduct and rotate the hip joint medially and laterally ? Leaving adduction and flexion to other groups of muscles, which ? Why

Trendelenburgs test The stability of the hip in the standing position depends on :two factors The strength of the surrounding muscles- 1 The integrity of the lever system of-2 the femoral neck and head within the intact hip joint When standing on one leg, the abductors of the hip on this side (gluteus medius and minimus and tensor fasciae latae) maintain fixation at the hip joint If, however, there is any defect in these muscles or lever mechanism of the hip joint, the weight of the body in these circumstances forces .the pelvis to tilt downwards on the opposite side The positive Trendelenburg test is seen if: A- The hip abductors are paralysed (e.g. poliomyelitis) nerve injury B-Congenital dislocation of the hip C-The head of the femur has been destroyed by disease or , removed operatively (pseudarthrosis) D-There is an un-united fracture of the femoral neck

E-There is a very severe degree of coxa vara Injury to the superior gluteal nerve On one side causes Lurching gait Both sides Waddling gait Positive Trendelenburgs test The test indicates a defect in the osseo-muscular stability of the hip joint Clinical Notes Gluteus Medius and Minimus and Poliomyelitis

The gluteus medius and minimus muscles may be paralyzed when poliomyelitis involves the lower lumbar and sacral segments of the . spinal cord They are supplied by the superior gluteal nerve (L4 and 5 and S1) Paralysis of these muscles seriously interferes with the ability of the .patient to tilt the pelvis when walking Clinical Notes The great thickness of gluteus maximus muscle makes it ideal for intramuscular injections. To avoid injury to the underlying sciatic nerve, the injection should be given well forward on the upper outer quadrant of the buttock.

However, the upper lateral quadrant, most likely to be made by the Gluteus medius muscle rather than the .gluteus maximus muscle The gluteus maximus covers the posterior part only of the Gluteus medius while the anterior part (which makes the upper lateral quadrant) is covered by skin and fascia only Therefore, the intramuscular injection will be injected into the gluteus medius muscle rather than gluteus maximus muscle

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