DE-PBS Secondary Forum Fall 2014 October 22, 2014 This is how other schools include students in their PBSThey initiatives Shape SW They Shape SW Acknowledgement Systems They Reinforce SW Expectations Modeling Expectations Fashion Show SW Videos They Provide Feedback Regarding SW PBS Data They Encourage Peer Buy-In
Creating Video Advertising Campaigns Tracking Student Participation in Events Facilitating Staff Fidelity Commenting on Office Discipline Referral (ODR) Data Trends Determining Acknowledgement Events and Reinforcers Black History Month Quarterly Celebrations They Speak With Peer Student Groups Peer Mentor Groups SGA Visits
They Share with Us and Each Other High School Forums Middle School Forums Email, calls, and school visits Agenda I. Introductions II. Bullying III. Minor vs. Major Behaviors Break IV. Social Emotional Learning IV. Updates from the DEPBS Project and YOU! Topic 1: Bullying Wed like to share: Results from the DSCS Bullying Subscales (Secondary Schools, 2013-14) Results from the Youth Voice Project (Davis & Nixon, 2014) Bullying Action Planning Overall, wed like to know:
Where is your school in regard to bullying prevention? Grade Level Differences: Student Survey 2014 Teacher-Student Relations Respect for Diversity Clarity of Expectations Student Relations Student Engagement School-wide Fairness of Rules School Safety Bullying Schoolwide Total School Climate 2014 Teacher Survey Results, K-12 School Safety Teacher-Home
Communication Bullying School-wide Staff Relations Total School Climate Sample subscale responses associated with teacher/staff scores (Part I: School Climate) Percent who Agreed or Agreed a lot Elem School Middle High School Schoo l Teacher-Student Relations 7. Teachers care about their students. 99.3 98.0 97.5 StudentStudent Relations 11. Students are friendly with each other.
92.4 82.2 85.1 Student Engagement School-wide 29. Most students work hard to get good grades. 88.1 69.4 54.9 Clarity of Expectations 10. Students know how they are expected to act. 96.9 91.1 87.8 Now, lets look at the questions specifically related to: Verbal Bullying Physical Bullying Social/Relational Bullying Cyberbullying
Verbal Bullying Items 1. I was teased by someone saying hurtful things to me. Elementar y Grade Level Middle High Total Never Sometim es Once or Twice a Month Once a Week Several Times a Week Everyday 48.9% 35.2% 4.9%
79.0% 12.9% 2.4% 2.0% 1.5% 2.2% Physical Bullying Items 8. A student stole or broke something of mine on purpose. Elementar y Grade Level Middle High Total Never Sometim es Once or Twice a Month Once a Week
Several Times a Week Everyday 72.9% 18.2% 3.3% 1.9% 1.4% 2.2% 73.2% 17.4% 3.4% 2.3% 1.7% 2.0% 80.3% 12.2%
2.7% 2.0% 1.1% 1.7% 75.0% 16.3% 3.2% 2.1% 1.4% 2.0% 11. A student threatened to harm me. Elementar y Grade Level Middle High Total Never Sometim es
Once or Twice a Month Once a Week Several Times a Week Everyday 77.6% 14.0% 2.5% 1.8% 1.4% 2.8% 77.7% 13.0% 2.8% 2.0%
1.8% 2.6% 82.4% 9.6% 2.4% 1.9% 1.5% 2.3% 78.9% 12.4% 2.6% 1.9% 1.6% 2.6% Social/Relational Bullying Itemsleft me out of things to make me feel 3. Students badly. Elementar
y Grade Level Middle High Total Never Sometim es Once or Twice a Month Once a Week Several Times a Week Everyday 63.4% 23.8% 4.2% 2.7% 2.3%
17.8% 3.2% 2.2% 2.1% 3.8% Social/Relational Bullying 9. A Items student got others to say mean things about me. Elementar y Grade Level Middle High Total Never Sometim es Once or Twice a Month Once a Week
Several Times a Week Everyday 73.5% 17.0% 2.7% 1.8% 1.7% 3.3% 72.2% 16.2% 3.0% 2.4% 2.4% 3.8% 76.6% 13.9%
3.4% 2.0% 1.7% 2.5% 73.8% 15.9% 3.0% 2.1% 2.0% 3.3% 12. Students told another student not to be friends with me because the other students didnt like me. Elementar Grade y Level Middle High Total Never Sometim es
Once or Twice a Month Once a Week Several Times a Week Everyday 72.4% 18.0% 2.5% 1.9% 1.8% 3.5% 73.6% 76.9% 74.1% 15.8% 13.7% 16.0% 2.9%
2.7% 2.7% 2.1% 2.2% 2.0% 2.0% 1.6% 1.8% 3.7% 2.9% 3.4% Cyberbullying Items 14. A student sent me a mean or hurtful message about me using email, text messaging, instant messaging, or similar electronic messaging. Never Sometim es Grade Middle Level High 84.8% 9.9% Once or Twice a
Month 2.0% Once a Week 1.2% Several Times a Week .9% 83.5% 10.2% 2.0% 1.6% 1.0% 1.7% Total 84.3% 10.0% 2.0% 1.3%
.9% 1.4% Everyday 1.2% 15. A student sent to others a mean or hurtful message about me using email, text messaging, instant messaging, or similar electronic messaging. Grade Middle Level High 82.4% Once or Twice a Month 11.2% 2.1% 80.5% 11.6% 2.6% 1.9% 1.2% 2.1%
Total 81.6% 11.4% 2.3% 1.7% 1.2% 1.8% Never Sometim es Several Times a Everyday Week 1.5% 1.1% 1.6% Once a Week Cyberbullying Items 16. A student posted something mean or hurtful about me on a social media website, such as Facebook, Twitter, or Myspace. Never
Sometim es Grade Middle Level High 87.0% 8.1% Once or Twice a Month 1.6% Once a Week 1.3% Several Times a Week .7% 83.6% 9.3% 2.5% 1.8%
1.1% 1.8% Total 85.6% 8.6% 2.0% 1.5% .9% 1.5% Everyday 1.3% 17. A student pretending to be me sent or posted something hurtful or mean about me or others using text messaging, a social media website, email, or a similar method. Never Sometim es Grade Middle Level High
91.2% 5.1% Once or Twice a Month 1.0% Once a Week 1.0% Several Times a Week .7% 91.0% 4.1% 1.3% 1.3% .9% 1.5% Total 91.1%
4.7% 1.1% 1.1% .7% 1.2% Everyday 1.0% Cyberbullying Items 18. A student sent me a mean or hurtful text message, email, or posting for me to see about another student. Never Sometim es Once or Twice a Month Once a Week Several Times a Week Everyday
Grade Middle Level High 84.4% 9.5% 1.8% 1.5% 1.2% 1.6% 82.3% 9.3% 2.9% 1.8% 1.5% 2.2% Total 83.5% 9.4%
2.3% 1.6% 1.3% 1.9% Get to Know Your 13-14 DSCS Bullying Data Really Well 13-14 DSCS Part III: Bullying Student Survey Climate Home Survey Results Report Sub-Scale Results Report School-Wide N/A Bullying SW* (Pgs. 1, 2, 7, 11) Physical Bullying Physical Bullying (Pgs. 4-5, 8, 12) (Pgs. 2, 4-5) Verbal Bullying Verbal Bullying (Pgs. 4-5, 8, 12) (Pgs. 2, 4-5) Bullying Victimization Social/Relational Bullying Social/Relational Bullying (Pgs. 4-5, 8, 12)
(Pgs. 2, 4-5) Cyberbullying N/A (Pgs. 4-5, 8, 12) * A higher score represents an unfavorable response to items on the Bullying School-Wide subscale and the Use of Punitive Techniques subscale. Your School Data What kind of story does it tell? What have your students told you about the data? Lets find out what students across the United States told researchers about bullying and other forms of peer mistreatment Bullying What Was This Research About? Survey Study Participants: 31 schools in 12 states in the USA, 13,177 students 45 minute online questionnaires, 45 questions, 33 multiple choice, 12 open-ended Topics 1. School connection * 2. Prevalence of peer mistreatment 3. Focus of mistreatment 4. Perceived trauma 5. Self-actions * 6. Adult actions * 7. Peer actions * Additional Mini-Study of 2 Middle School
Bullying Recommended Activities to Strengthen Students School Connection : 1. Greet and Welcome Youth 2. Listen to, Get to Know, and Share Oneself with Students 3. A Collaborative Schoolwide Approach to DecisionMaking and Reinforcing Ethics Bullying Recommended Actions to Build Students Self Action: 1. Support student self-efficacy 2. Building positive narratives 3. Cognitive restructuring (with filtering destructive criticism) 4. Teaching young people to solve problems Means-end thinking Weighing pros/cons Alternative solution thinking 5. Giving feedback that emphasizes effort over ability [growth mindset] Bullying Recommended Actions for Addressing Adult Actions: 1. When adults at school listened to them, they reported less trauma related to their peer mistreatment 2. Our listening breaks down the loneliness of social isolation and gives youth a sense of belonging, value, and hope (p.98) 3. Stop telling students to Stop Tattling Bullying
Recommended Actions for Addressing Peer Actions: 1. Use the Social Norms Approach for promoting positive behaviors (Perkins & Berkowitz, 1996) 2. Use theater and student-created video to model positive peer actions 3. Using observational feedback to encourage kind and inclusive behavior 4. Student leadership programs Bullying What Davis and Nixon Also Noticed in the Mini-Study The following also contributed to positive school functioning and a culture of helpfulness (p.135): Peer partners (8th with 6th ) Advisor-advisee program (advisory time was to be together and have fun) After-school programming (more than athletics) Districtwide code of ethics (consistent across grade-level, ESHS) Bullying The Bottom Line from Davis and Nixon (2014) Effectively addressing bullying and other peer mistreatment requires a shift toward a focus on school culture. Bullying: DE-PBS Action Planning Initiative with Chad Rose Step 1: Confirm how you are defining bullying in your school (see district policy)
Consider these 4 components of bullying in developing the definition. Imbalance of physical or emotional power Repeated across time or individuals/victims Intent to cause physical or emotional harm Unequal levels of affect Step 2: Develop plan for teaching definition & establish clear reporting protocol (for staff, students, & families) Consider these 4 steps in establishing protocol: Create Teach Practice Monitor Step 3: Establish a protocol for responding to bullying reports Consider these 3 perspectives when establishing a protocol: Bully Victim Bystander
Why do we need Major Versus Minor ? Consistent way of dealing with behaviors Same consequence in different classes Same expectations in all parts of the building with all teachers Give teachers tools to respond to various types of behaviors Cut down on lost instructional time due to inappropriate referrals to office Topic 2: Minors vs. Majors Wed like to share: Developing appropriate definitions of problem behaviors Developing behavior tracking forms ODR Forms & Classroom Behavior Tracking Forms De-Escalation Strategies Overall, wed like to know: How do you define and reinforce the M&Ms in your school? How and when does your school use behavior tracking forms? How do you promote de-escalation strategies? Appropriate Definitions of Problem Behaviors What one teacher may consider disrespectful,
may not be disrespectful to another teacher. For that reason, problem behaviors must be operationally defined. 30 Appropriate Definitions of Problem Behaviors Clear set of definitions for all categories on the office discipline referral form exists and is in line with the SWIS definitions Once behaviors are defined, all faculty, staff, administration, students and families will need to be trained on the definitions 31 Definitions of Problem Behaviors All problem behaviors are covered and none of the definitions overlap Consistent definitions make data collection much more accurate and reliable The addition of minor problem behaviors assists in the summary of minor infractions 32 Compatible Definitions A complete list of problem behaviors, as well as, locations, possible motivations, others involved, and administrative decisions are all operationally defined on www.swis.org.
33 Characteristics of a Compatible Referral Form A clear distinction must exist between problem behaviors that are staff-managed (minor) versus problem behaviors that are office-managed or crisis (major) 34 Major Discipline Incidents Defined Discipline incidents that must be handled by the administration. These may include but are not limited to: physical fights, property damage, drugs, weapons, tobacco, etc. Purpose Once problem behaviors are operationally defined, it is essential that the team distinguish the major discipline incidents from the minor to determine the appropriate consequence 35 Minor Discipline Incidents Defined Discipline incidents that can be handled by the classroom teacher and usually do not warrant a discipline referral to the office*. These may include but are not limited to: tardiness to class, lack of classroom material, incomplete classroom assignments, gum chewing, etc.
Purpose To determine appropriate consequence and where the consequence should be delivered 36 * These incidences are still tracked but the consequence is delivered in the classroom Emergency or Crisis Incidents Defined* Discipline incidents that require immediate response from administration and/or crisis response team. These incidences may cause short-term change to a schools PBS Plan and may include, but are not limited to: bomb threats, weapons alerts, intruder, fire evacuations, etc. *These incidents do not necessarily result in an ODR Purpose Maintain order and safety during emergency situations * Each school is urged to consult their district and school policies for 37 emergency/crisis incidents Office Discipline Referral (ODR) Forms Be sure to answer the following 5 questions on each referral form: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Who? Why? What? When? Where? Clarity on the referral form takes the guess work out of the data entry persons job Data will be more reliable and accurate as judgment calls are minimized 38 Characteristics of a SWIS Compatible Referral Form Students Name Date Time of Incident Students Teacher (optional) Students Grade Level Referring Staff Location of Incident Problem Behavior Possible Motivation Others Involved Administrative
Decision Other Comments No more than 3 extra info. 39 Developing the ODR Challenges: The form is not filled out correctly Solutions: Re-train faculty or return to faculty to fill out completely before processing 40 Goal of the Tracking Form Collect data that are necessary to identify effective ways of changing inappropriate classroom behavior (minor) before it results in an office discipline referral (major) 41 Classroom Tracking Forms Classroom behaviors take up considerable amounts of teacher time that could be better spent on instruction
Forms assist in identifying the pattern of behavior and determining interventions that will be most effective for the student(s) 42 De-Escalation Strategies: Making Sure a Minor Doesnt Turn into a Major 43 Topic 3: Social Emotional Learning Wed like to share: Current CASEL and DEDOE framework Definitions of 3 SEL skills of focus to DEDOE 3 Strategies for developing SEL in classrooms and schools The DSCS items related to these SEL skills Overall, wed like to know: Which of these SEL strategies are being reinforced in your school and how? What does your DSCS results tell you about the SEL at your school? Social Emotional Learning (SEL) The CASEL Model Current DELAWARE
SEL Areas of Focus 1.Self-Awareness 2.Self-Management 3.Responsible Decision-Making http://www.casel.org/ Self-Awareness The ability to accurately recognize ones emotions and thoughts and their influence on behavior. This includes: accurately assessing ones strengths and limitations possessing a well-grounded sense of confidence and optimism. http://www.casel.org/social-and-emotional-learning/core-competencies/ Self-Management The ability to regulate ones emotions, thoughts, and behaviors effectively in different situations. This includes: managing stress controlling impulses motivating oneself setting and working toward achieving personal and academic goals. http://www.casel.org/social-and-emotional-learning/core-competencies/ Responsible Decision-Making The ability to make constructive and respectful choices about personal behavior and social interactions. These decisions are based on: consideration of ethical standards safety concerns
social norms the realistic evaluation of consequences of various actions the well-being of self and others. http://www.casel.org/social-and-emotional-learning/core-competencies/ SEL: Related Intervention #1 Self-Awareness SelfManagement Classroom Level Responsible Decision-Making Research-Based Intervention Name: Relevance Writing Exercise (Hulleman and Harackiewicz, 2009) Finding: In a randomized field experiment with high school students, we found that a relevance intervention, which encouraged students to make connections between their lives and what they were learning in their science courses, increased interest in science and course grades for students with low success expectations. SEL: Related Intervention #1 Self-Awareness SelfManagement Classroom Level Responsible
Decision-Making Relevance Writing Exercise Methods: In science, present summarization activities that instruct students to describe My application to life How might this information be useful to you, or a friend/relative? How does learning about this topic apply to your future plans? Additional Notes: This intervention seemed to work most for students who expected low-success in science, but it did not harm students who came in initially expecting high success. Authors believe this intervention may work in any class. See handouts for more information. SEL: Related Intervention #2 Self-Awareness SelfManagement Classroom Level Responsible Decision-Making Research-Based Intervention Name: Self-Affirmation Writing (Cohen, et al., 2009) Finding: Over 2 years, the grade point average (GPA) of African Americans was, on average, raised by 0.24 grade points. Lowachieving African Americans were particularly benefited. Their GPA improved, on average, 0.41 points, and their rate of remediation or grade repetition was less (5% versus 18%). Additionally, treated students' self-perceptions showed long-term benefits. SEL: Related Intervention #2
Self-Awareness SelfManagement Classroom Level Responsible Decision-Making Self-Affirmation Writing Methods: Students are asked to complete a neutral (no right/wrong answer) writing assignment that related to questions about your ideas, your beliefs, and your life and how they rated the importance of personal values such as athletic ability, being good at art, being smart or getting good grades, etc. Additional Notes: This intervention seemed to work most for students who were African American and low-achieving in school, but it did not harm students who came in initially expecting high success. See handouts for more information. SEL: Related Intervention #3 SelfAwareness SelfManagement Intensive Tier 2 Level Responsible Decision-Making ALAS (1995) used Social Thinking Skills Training (Larson)
to remediate the students deficient social and task-related problem solving skills See handout for more information about ALAS. Even more information can be found at: http://www.ncset.org/publications/essentialtools/dropout/part3.3.01.asp http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/intervention_reports/WWC_Project_ALAS_100506.pdf http://raiseinspiredkids.com/files/alas_program/ALASFinalReportPart1.pdf http://raiseinspiredkids.com/files/alas_program/ALASFinalReportPart2.pdf SEL: Related Intervention #3 Intensive Tier 2 Level SEL: Items in the DSCS Use of SEL Techniques Student Engagement SW Student Engagement Cognitive and Behavioral Engagement Emotional Engagement SEL: Items in the DSCS Use of SEL Techniques SEL: Items in the DSCS Student Engagement: Cognitive, Behavioral, Emotional Trauma-Sensitive Practice: A Definition Trauma-sensitive schools acknowledge the prevalence of traumatic occurrence in students lives & create a flexible framework that provides universal supports, is sensitive to unique needs of students, & is mindful of avoiding re-traumatization.
From http://sspw.dpi.wi.gov/team-keyword-categories/trauma-sensitive-schools-0 And From http://www.oregon.gov/oha/amh/trauma-policy/trauma-its.pdf/ PEERS Social Skills: 14-15 Pilot Schools Brandywine: Mount Pleasant HS, PS DuPont MS Red Clay: Seaford: Appoquinimink: Redding MS Caesar Rodney: HS/MS Seaford: HS/MS Charter Schools: Gateway Other Updates: Achievement Mentoring (Dover HS) http://supportiveschools.org/solutions/achievement-mentoring/
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