Semisolid Dosage Forms Ointments Semisolid dosage forms: Ointment
Semisolid Dosage Forms Ointments Semisolid dosage forms: Ointment (unguentum - ung.) Paste (pasta) Cream (creme) Gel (gel) Adhesive plaster (emplastrum) Transdermal therapeutic systems TTS Suppositories (suppositoria - supp.) Semisolid Dosage Forms
Semisolid dosage forms are Topical preparations . They may be applied to the skin, placed on the surface of the eye, or used nasally, vaginally, or rectally. Topical preparations are used for both local and systemic effects. Most of these preparations are used for the effects of the therapeutic agents they contain.
The unmedicated ones are used for their physical effects as protectants or lubricants. Systemic drug absorption should always be considered when using topical products if the patient is pregnant or nursing, because drugs can enter the fetal blood supply and breast milk and be transferred to the fetus or nursing infant.
dermatologic applications A topical dermatological product is designed to deliver drug into the skin in treating dermal disorders, with the skin as the target organ. Protectants, lubricants, emollients, drying agents, astringents Local effects A transdermal product is designed to deliver drugs through the skin (percutaneous systemic effects for
absorption) to the general circulation , with the skin not being the target organ :IDEAL PROPERTIES OF SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORMS : PHYSICAL PROPERTIES a) Smooth texture b) Elegant in appearance c) Non dehydrating d) Non gritty e) Non greasy and non staining f) Non hygroscopic
PHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES: a) b) c) d) Non irritating Do not alter membrane / skin functioning Miscible with skin secretion Have low sensitization effect APPLICATION PROPERTIES: Easily applicable with efficient drug release.
OINTMENTS Ointments are semisolid preparations intended for external application to the skin or mucous membranes. Ointments may be medicated or not. Unmedicated ointments are used for the physical effects they provide as protectants, emollients, or lubricants. Ointment bases, may by used for their physical effects or as vehicles for medicated ointments. OINTMENTS
OINTMENT BASES: Ointment bases are generally classified by the USP into four groups: (a) oleaginous bases, (b) absorption bases, (c) water-removable bases, (d) water-soluble bases. (a) Oleaginous Bases Oleaginous bases are also termed hydrocarbon bases.
Properties: The base is water free. Aqueous preparations may be incorporated into them . Uses: 1. Used mainly for their Emollient effect. 2. Protect the skin against the escape of moisture. 3. Occlusive dressing can remain on the skin for
prolonged periods of time without drying out. (a) Oleaginous Bases Examples: a. Petrolatum b. White petrolatum, c. Yellow ointment d. White ointment Water and aqueous preparations may be incorporated, but only in small amounts and with some difficulty. Petrolatum, white petrolatum, white ointment,
and yellow ointment are examples of hydrocarbon ointment bases. When powdered substances are to be incorporated into hydrocarbon bases, liquid petrolatum (mineral oil) may be used as the levitating agent. (a) Oleaginous Bases Petrolatum, USP, Vaseline is a purified mixture of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is an unctuous (oily) mass, varying in color from yellowish to light amber ( yellowish
brown ). It melts at 38C to 60C and may be used alone or in combination with other agents as an ointment base. Petrolatum is also known as yellow petrolatum and petroleum jelly. A commercial product is Vaseline (a) Oleaginous Bases White Petrolatum, USP, is a purified mixture of semisolid hydrocarbons from petroleum that has been wholly or nearly decolorized.
It is used for the same purpose as petrolatum, but because of its lighter color, it is considered more esthetically pleasing by some pharmacists and patients. White petrolatum is also known as white petroleum jelly. A commercial product is White Vaseline (a) Oleaginous Bases Yellow Ointment, USP. This ointment has the following formula for the preparation of 1000 g: Yellow wax
50 g Petrolatum 950 g Yellow wax is the purified wax obtained from the honeycomb of the bee Apis mellifera. The ointment is prepared by melting the yellow wax on a water bath, adding the petrolatum until the mixture is uniform, then cooling and stirring until congealed (harden). Also called simple ointment, it has a slightly greater effective as occlusive dressings viscosity than plain petrolatum.
(a) Oleaginous Bases White Ointment, USP. This ointment differs from yellow ointment by substitution of white wax (bleached and purified yellow wax) and white petrolatum in the formula. (b) Absorption Bases Absorption bases are of two types: (a) those that permit the incorporation of aqueous solutions resulting in
the formation of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions (e.g., hydrophilic petrolatum) (b) those that are W/O emulsions (syn: emulsion bases) that permit the incorporation of additional quantities of aqueous solutions (e.g., lanolin). These bases may be used as emollients,
although they do not provide the degree of occlusion afforded by the oleaginous bases. Absorption bases are not easily removed from the skin with water washing, because the external phase of the emulsion is oleaginous. Absorption bases are useful as pharmaceutical adjuncts to incorporate small volumes of aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon bases. This is accomplished by incorporating the aqueous solution into the absorption base and then incorporating this mixture into the hydrocarbon base.
(b) Absorption Bases Hydrophilic Petrolatum, USP, has the following formula for the preparation of 1000 g: Cholesterol 30 g w/o emulsifing agent Stearyl alcohol 30 g o/w emulsifing agent White wax 80 g oil phase
White petrolatum 860 g It is prepared by melting the stearyl alcohol and white wax on a steam bath, adding the cholesterol with stirring until dissolved, adding the white petrolatum, and allowing the mixture to cool while stirring until congealed. (b) Absorption Bases A commercial product, Aquaphor, a variation of hydrophilic petrolatum, has the capacity to absorb up to three times its
weight in water and useful to help incorporate a water-soluble drug, e.g., tobramycin sulfate, into a oleaginous ointment base. This concept is used in the preparation of ophthalmic ointments. (b) Absorption Bases Lanolin, USP (Anhydrous lanolin) Obtained from the wool of sheep (Ovis aries), is a purified wax-like substance that has been cleaned, deodorized, and decolorized.
It contains not more than 0.25% water. Additional water may be incorporated into lanolin by mixing. (b) Absorption Bases Modified Lanolin, USP, is lanolin processed to reduce the contents of free lanolin alcohols and any detergent and pesticide residues. (c) Water-Removable Bases Water-removable bases are oil-in-water
emulsions resembling creams. Because the external phase of the emulsion is aqueous, they are easily washed from skin and are often called water washable bases. Good Emollient effect They may be diluted with oraqueous incorporate larg water volumes of aqueous solutions. They can absorb serous discharges.
(c) Water-Removable Bases Hydrophilic Ointment, USP, has the following formula for the preparation of about 1000 g: Ingredient Amount (grams) Methylparaben 0.25 Propylparaben 0.15 Sodium lauryl sulfate 10.00 Propylene glycol 120.00 Stearyl alcohol 250.00 White petrolatum 250.00 Purified water 370.00
The stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum are melted together at about 75C. The other agents, dissolved in the purified water, are added with stirring until the mixture congeals. Sodium lauryl sulfate is the emulsifying agent, with the stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum constituting the oleaginous phase of the emulsion and the other ingredients the aqueous phase. Methylparaben and propylparaben are antimicrobial preservatives. (d) Water-Soluble Bases
Water-soluble bases do not contain oleaginous components. They are completely water washable and often referred to as greaseless. Because they soften greatly with the addition of water, large amounts of aqueous solutions are not effectively incorporated into these bases. They mostly are used for incorporation of solid substances. water-soluble Solid drug (d) Water-Soluble Bases Polyethylene Glycol Ointment,
NF PEG is a polymer of ethylene oxide and water represented by the formula H(OCH2CH2)nOH, in which n represents the average number of oxyethylene groups. The numeric designations associated with PEGs refer to the average molecular weight of the polymer. PEGs having average molecular weight below 600 are clear, colorless liquids; those with molecular weight above 1,000
are wax-like white materials; those with molecular weight in between are semisolids. The greater the molecular weight, the greater the viscosity. The NF lists the viscosity of PEGs ranging from average molecular weight of 200 to 8,000. (d) Water-Soluble Bases The general formula for preparation of 1,000 g of PEG ointment is
PEG 3350 400 g PEG 400 600 g Combining PEG 3350, a solid, with PEG 400, a liquid, results in a very pliable (fixable) semisolid ointment. If a firmer (harder) ointment is desired, the formula may be altered to contain up to equal parts of the two ingredients.
(a) Oleaginous Bases hydrocarbon ointment bases Petrolatum, white petrolatum, white ointment, (White wax , White Petrolatum ) yellow ointment (Yellow wax , Petrolatum ) (b) Absorption Bases hydrophilic petrolatum ( Cholesterol, Stearyl alcohol , White wax , White petrolatum)
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