Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at

Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at

Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Sustainability Strategies for Flexible Pavements Hasan Ozer, PhD Research Assistant Professor University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Outline Sustainability: Where did it all start? Sustainability and Pavements Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) Approach Sustainability Strategies What are these? How have they been evaluated? Next steps? Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign

US DOT is Committed to Advancing Sustainability DOT will incorporate sustainability principles into our policies, operations, investments and research through innovative initiatives and actions such as: Infrastructure investments and other grant programs, Innovative financial tools and credit programs, Rule- and policy- making, Research, technology development and application, Public information, and Enforcement and monitoring. Policy Statement Signed Secretary Anthony R. Foxx, June 2014 3 of 111 Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign

Sustainability Programs and Efforts FHWA Sustainable Pavements Program First phase 2010-2015 Second phase covering 2015-2020 Webinars Tech Briefs Technical Working Group (TWG) Meetings https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/sustainability/ Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Sustainable Pavements Sustainable in the context of pavements refers to system characteristics that encompasses a pavements ability to: Achieve the engineering goals for which they are constructed Use resources wisely (money + natural) Preserve and restore surrounding ecosystems

Meet basic human needs such as health, safety, employment, and comfort 5 Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Sustainability Metrics and Tools Performance assessment Evaluate performance vs. intended function Metrics: distress, thickness, material attributes Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) Total user and agency costs over its life-cycle Life-cycle assessment (LCA) Environmental burden of a pavement from cradle to grave Environmental burden of producing asphalt mixture Rating systems A list of sustainability best practices with a common metric 6 Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation

University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign What is LCA? A method for characterizing and quantifying environmental sustainability of a product or service Applies a cradle-to-grave perspective when analyzing products or systems LCA methodology follows general purpose ISO 14000 series of standards for all products and services First use of LCA is a study sponsored by the Coca Cola Company in 1969 Business decision between reusable or disposable Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Pavement LCA Accounting for inputs and outputs throughout pavement life-cycle Fuel Materials Electricity

Construction Resources Maintenance End-of-Life Use Pavement deterioration Transport Recycling Raw materials Transport Repairs Transport Equipment Rehabilitation Mix Production

Placement Rolling resistance Traffic Delay Albedo Landfill Lighting Emissions to air Emissions to water Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Emissions to soil Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign What Can I Use LCA For? Accounting Provide numbers for reporting requirements Example: What GHG emissions are attributable to DOT

infrastructure projects this year? Decision support Provide information that can influence a decision Example: Which pavement alternative uses the least energy? Which mix design has least impact while providing same function in the design? Process improvement Provide feedback to improve a process Example: How can we reduce the GHG footprint of an asphalt mix? Transportation, plant energy use, or somewhere else??? Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Marketing Claims NAPA promotes asphalt pavements as: Less energy in building asphalt pavements Less energy spent by travelling public More environmental friendly Leading recycler to make more sustainable pavements LCA can be used to substantiate such

claims (fact checking!) Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign LCA in Decision Making Paper or plastic bags? Refillable or disposable? Electric vs. fuel driven cars Biomass vs. petroleum products? Cars vs. transit buses? How about pavements? Design and type selection Maintenance and rehabilitation schedule (when to do and what to do to optimize impact) Material selection 11 Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Future of LCAs Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) are underway for asphalt and concrete paving materials

12 Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Illinois Tollway LCA Tool The Pavement LCA is one of five LCA modules in the Tollways Roadway/ Roadside LCA Toolkit Pavement LCA Landscape LCA Roadway/ Roadside Drainage LCA LCA Lighting LCA Where Excellence and Transportation Meet

Structures LCA Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Strategies for Improving Sustainability 1. Increase material performance and time between future t maintenance and rehabilitation treatments n e e r m u e s ! v ! a e Reduce % of virgin asphalt binder & aggregate, polymer p ak ed ktire rubber, consider

Use more RAP, recycled RAS s c i m e Only use additional additives where performance increase m o h t ro impact warrants additional c environmental e s p c Reduce materials transportation y n m a a Use locally

but o lower quality aggregates wavailable l c m t Use in-place recycling r A o o ! f ! n of plant operations r Improve efficiency e p t is i Mix design and material selection Construction quality 2. 3.

4. Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Where Does the Energy Go? First, we define a system boundary to calculate all inputs and outputs Yang, R., Kang, S., Ozer, H. and Al-Qadi, I.L., 2015. Environmental and economic analyses of recycled asphalt concrete mixtures based on material production and potential performance. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 104, pp.141-151. Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign HMA Primary Energy (as fuel) Breakdown Virgin HMA Surface Mix Contribution of Primary Energy, as Fuel HMA Plant; 53.8% Roller; 0.6% Natural Aggregate; 1.3% Paver; 0.6%

Crushed Aggregate; 7.4% Straight Binder; 36.4% Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign HMA Primary Energy (as fuel) Breakdown 17% Recycled HMA Surface Mix Contribution of Primary Energy, as Fuel HMA Plant; 60.2% RAP; 0.6% Roller; 0.7% Natural Aggregate; 0.7% Crushed Aggregate; 2.7% Straight Binder; 34.5%

Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Paver; 0.7% Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Different Types of Mixes Energy Consumption from Producing and Mixing 2500 2000 Energy (MJ/CY) 1500 1000 500 0 v Le n e li g A ce M

H urfa S Binder MA face W ur S Aggregates A ce SM urfa S F C ce G O urfa S A M Transportation H se a B

/ .. Int . se a B / .. . t In MA W Plant Operations Yang et al. (2015). Quantifying Sustainable Strategies for the Construction of Highway Pavements, TRB Where Excellence and Transportation Meet b Su

s ba e Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign RAP and Environment Clear reduction in energy and GWP when using recycled materials for replacing virgin binder with recycled binder SMAs have generally higher energy and GWP SMA Mixes HMA/WMA Mixes Common mixtures used in Illinois having various combinations of RAP and RAS that result in different asphalt binder replacement (ABR) levels

Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Virgin vs. RAP/RAS The following questions need to be answered: Can equivalent or better performance achieved? What is the transportation distance? Does RAP undermine future recyclability? Can target volumetrics be achieved in the plant and field? Are there any specifications limiting its use? LCA provides a systematic platform to make a comparative assessment and answer such questions Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign

In-Place Recycling Three commonly used techniques are: Hot in-place recycling (HIR) Cold in-place recycling (CIR) Full depth reclamation (FDR) Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign State & Contractor Perspectives Environmental Benefits from using in-place recycling Agency % Contractor % 16 Other 5 Overall perception is positive Use is limited to less than

50 lane-miles a year 58 Reduces Emis... 18 61 Reduces Fuel Consum... 20 68 Shortens Lane Clo... 20 82 Saves Virgin Mate... 57 0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Stroup-Gardiner (2011). Recycling and Reclamation of Asphalt Pavements Using In-Place Methods. Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign

Sustainability Impacts Literature is full of studies reporting significant reduction in energy and emissions with in-place techniques Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Sustainability Impacts Very context sensitive CIR treatment life reported in the literature: 6 to 15 years (Peshkin et al. 2011) Avoided hauling and its impacts Traffic closures and resulting delays Surface treatment type Availability of specialized contractor and mobilization distances Additive selection (emulsion vs. cement) Depth of recycling Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign

Ongoing FHWA Study FHWA study is underway to develop a LifeCycle Methodology and Tool for Energy Use by In-Place Pavement Recycle Techniques University of Illinois, UCDavis, and Rutgers are partnering The life-cycle tool will make comparative assessment considering: Regional characteristics Life-cycle methodology Realistic contractor data collected across the US Agency surveys User friendly tool that can be used by agencies and contractors Where Excellence and Transportation Meet Illinois Center for Transportation University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Concluding Remarks Sustainability is a system characteristics and goals cannot be achieved alone by one contractor, one agency, or one industry

There are tools and sufficient number of strategies for asphalt pavements to make a difference Sustainability goals can provide opportunities to both agencies and industry Sustainability can help contractors and producers to enhance their product portfolio (WMA example) Where Excellence and Transportation Meet

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