The Lexicon, Risk Management, and You John McCumber
The Lexicon, Risk Management, and You John McCumber (ISC) Director of Cybersecurity Advocacy, North America 2 Whos this guy?
Cybersecurity Advocate? Fellow of (ISC) Retired Air Force Public and Private Sector Experience 3 What Are We Talking About?
What is a lexicon? Why do we need one? Why is it important? Relationships in risk management How you can use this information? 4 The new lexicon 5 But First
Why 6 Cybersecurity Find out the cause of this effect, Or rather say, the cause of this defect, For this effect defective comes by cause. - William Shakespeare, Hamlet 7
Thoughts on measurement "When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; But when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind: It may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the stage of science." William Thomson Lord Kelvin (1824-1907) 8
Wheres the disconnect? Break Image Slide 9 Traditional cybersecurity
Technical issues only Vulnerability-centric Probes exterior boundaries Little actual analysis Based on a state Recommends point solutions tied to specific vulnerabilities based on consultants experience 10 Risk management definition The process of designing, developing, sustaining, and modifying operational processes and systems
in consideration of applicable risks* to asset confidentiality, integrity, and availability. *Applicable risks are those reasonably expected to be realized and to cause an unacceptable impact. 11 Risk management principles Incorporates an analytical, systems approach into the entire operational and support cycle. Provides systems and operational leaders a reliable decision support process. Encourages protection of only that which requires protection. Manages cost while achieving significant
performance benefits. 12 Empirical Objective Cost Performance Risk Applying Safeguards 13 Essential Elements of Risk
Threats Assets Vulnerabilities Safeguards Products Procedures People
14 The Risk Equations 1: 2: T x V x A = Rb T x V x A = Rr S 15
Risk = Volume of a Cube 16 Risk Assessment Process Threat Threat Assessment Assessment Asset Asset Valuation Valuation
Support Analysis Analysis Vulnerability Vulnerability Assessment Assessment 17 Asset Valuation Information is more than data
information is data placed in context - related to other data - processed into a consumable resource or asset Data Information small amount of information can have more value than a large amount of data 18 Bases of Value Development basis Operational basis Market basis
Collection basis 19 Defining Operational Requirements Capture the users needs - such as performance, mission requirements, and constraints. Collect user perception of incident/unacceptable impact. Have owners, consumers, and maintainers of the assets rate the areas of operational concern (confidentiality, integrity, and availability). Asset value is the first component of risk. 20
Threat Determination Threat factors are a product of historical data and trend projections. Statistical and expert analysis provide default threat factor ratings. Purpose is to identify and rank those threats that apply specifically to the assets or organization. 21 Threat Classifications Threat Threat
Vulnerability Determination Vulnerabilities are those specific technical weaknesses which can be exploited to impact an asset. System and network hardware System and network operating systems System and network applications Network protocols Connectivity
Current safeguards Physical environment Necessary to identify and rank vulnerabilities 23 Risk Measure Formula Risk Measurei (RMi) = Threat Measureh * Vulnerability Measurej * Asset N Measurek RM
i Risk MeasureTotal =i 1 T x V x A = Rb or 24 Safeguard Determination Identify applicable safeguards by considering system specific threats, vulnerabilities, assets and components. Produce a list of valid safeguards to support the decision support cycle.
25 Residual Risk Calculation Residual Risk Measurei (RRMi) = (f(Threat Measureh, CV) * g(Vulnerability Measurej, CV) * h(Asset Measurek, CV)) N Residual Risk MeasureTotal = T x V x A S
RRM i i 1 = Rr 26 Risk Assessment Process Threat Threat Assessment Assessment
Assessment Decision Decision Support Support Analysis Analysis Vulnerability Vulnerability Assessment Assessment
27 Decision Support Methodologies Weak Link Analysis Cost Benefit Analysis Linear Programming Goal Oriented Programming
Combinations of the above 28 Conclusion If you can measure, you can: justify target control predict If you can measure, you can MANAGE, and move cybersecurity from art to science. 29
What did we learn? Break Image Language is important to our 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. understanding.
We need to use terms accurately. Many common risk terms have mathematical relationships. Threats should be categorized. You have an important role. 30 Learn More & Get Involved Get the full report Hiring and Retaining Top Cybersecurity Talent at www.isc2.org Engage a local (ISC) Chapter Join community.isc2.org Help make a difference at
www.isc2.org/cybersecurity-advocates 31 The End 32
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