GEOG 215Climatology Expectations Strongly recommended: GEOG 214 -Meteorology

GEOG 215Climatology Expectations Strongly recommended: GEOG 214 -Meteorology

GEOG 215Climatology Expectations Strongly recommended: GEOG 214 -Meteorology OR GEOG 112 - Earth Systems Science a science course within geography discipline A lot of terminology Application of terminology Attendance in class is essential Note taking while listening is critical toward obtaining information needed to perform well in the class

Course structure 3 exams and a number of class assignments - exams 1 and 2 are worth 125 points - Final exam is worth 200 points semi-comprehensive 60% new content 40% old content exams are curved up to 10% of total pts based on the highest score achieved -class assignments are worth 50 points total Total points for course = 500 points Exam curve

Example 1The highest score is 119 out of 125 points. The curve would be 6 points. Thus everyone has 6 points added to their score, making the top score 100% or 125 pts Example 2The highest score is 99 out of 125 points. The curve would be 12.5 points or 10% of 125 possible. Thus everyone gets 12.5 points added to their score, making the top score 89% or 111.5 points Exam dates are fixed and will not be changed. They are: Exam 1- Thursday, February 11, 2010 9-10:15

AM Exam 2- Thursday, March 25, 2010 9-10:15 AM Final Exam- Thursday, May 6, 2010 9-11 AM Legitimate reason to miss an exam (academics, athletics, illness) - you must inform me at least one week before the scheduled exam to make arrangements for the make up exam. Illness- call me or email within 24 hours. Make ups are given at times of my choosing. The final exam will not be rescheduled to accommodate travel plans for students wishing to Chapter 1 Climatology? What is it and why is it important?

Atmosphere-One of the critical components on our planet. It functions as Thermal regulator- movement of energy from areas with excess (Equatorial) to areas with limited (Polar). Protective shield- prevents, limits or alters harmful materials from reaching the Earth. Essential for Respiration- Most Living organisms (plant and animal) require interaction with gases in the atmosphere Important fields of Study within the atmospheric sciences Aerology- study of the structure and chemical and physical interactions of the various components in

the atmosphere.- typically incorporated into other two fields Meteorology- deals with air mass motion, air mass characteristics such as temperature, moisture and pressure, and weather phenomena such as storms, on a short (seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks) time scale. Climatology- the same as with meteorology only over a longer (Months, years, decades, millennia) time scale. Both average and extreme conditions

these are very important Atmospheric variables Air Temperature: units -> C, F, K

Clouds: type, height (elevation) amount Barometric pressure: bar, millibar, mm or in Dew Point Temperature: F or C Precipitation: kind (rain, snow sleet, etc., and amount inches or cm Wind velocity and direction: MPH, Knots, KmPH and N, S, E, W, NW, NE, SE, SW Degree of sunshine: qualitative estimate These constitute the Current or Prevailing Weather conditions QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Parts per million Percentage of total Nitrogen (N2) 780,840 78.1% Oxygen (O, O2) 209,460

20.9% 9,340 0.9% 350 0.035% Neon (Ne) 18

0.0018% Helium (He) 5.2 0.00052% Methane (CH4) 1.4 0.00014% 1

0.0001% Nitrous Oxide (NOx) 0.5 0.00005% Hydrogen (H2) 0.5 0.00005%

Xenon (Xe) 0.09 0.000009% Ozone (O3) 0.07 0.000007% Gas Argon (Ar)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Kryton (Kr) E Constant gases relative proportions of these gases remains constant vertically to around 80 km many of these are present in small amounts Most important abundant constant gases are Nitrogen- relatively inactive

Oxygen - very active Argon - very inactive Variable gases The concentrations vary throughout time and space e.g., Ozone, CO2, Water Vapor Periodic table of elements Yellow squares are gases at Earths temp ranges Annual Avg. Monthly Temperature 80

60 40 Temperature F 20 Jan Feb MarchApril May June July Aug Sept Oct

Nov Dec Month Annual Avg Monthly precipitation 5 4 3 Precipitation (inches) 2

Jan Feb March April May June July Month Aug Sept Oct Nov

Dec Climogram Temperature Temperature 80 60 40 20 2

3 Inches of Precipitation per 4 5 Gas Laws Boyles first law: PoVo=P V = K 1

1 Pressure = P; Volume=V; Constant= K 0= time 1; 1= time 2 an increase in pressure results in a decrease in volume and vice versa Boyles second law: P/D = K D= Density As pressure increases so does the density of the gas Gay-Lussacs Law Relates Temperature (t) and volume (Vx) with pressure constant Vt = Vo(1+t/273) where Vt is a volume at temperature t in (C) and Vo is the volume at

temperature 0 C. Charles law Relationship between Pressure and Temperature when Volume is constant Pt = Po (1+ t /273) Pt is a pressure at temperature t in (C) and Po is the pressure at temperature 0 C. Structure: Atmosphere has discrete zones each with specific characteristics Atmosphere is base

loaded- most stuff is present in higher amounts in the lower zones Troposhpere/Tropopause The lowermost part of the atmosphere Most turbulent vertical and horizontal air motion Variable height Poles: 9-12 Km Equator: 16-18 km Think WHY? Most moisture here thus most cloud cover in this layer

Area of active weather This is the area with most meteorological phenomena Separated from over lying layer by a zone of overlapping zones called the Tropopause Can be seen as towering clouds encounter this boundary and get sheared off in the next layer punching through the Tropopause into the Stratosphere Stratosphere /Stratopause Stable dry and little vertical motion Lowermost region in Stratosphere has high velocity horizontal winds

jetstreams are located here Temperature remains constant throughout most of the stratosphere still cold though!!! Ozone layer (ozonosphere) resides primarily in this zone Separated from overlying layer by the Stratopause overlapping zones create this boundary mostly determined by temperature change QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor

are needed to see this picture. Mesosphere Decreasing temperature with altitude the mesosphere is part of a thicker layer or zone called the ionosphere Ionosphere created by the Suns incoming radiative energy the radiation strips electrons from atoms ions interact with other ions incoming and encountered in the atmosphere creates some interesting phenomena

Aurora Borealis (Northern and Southern Lights) interference with electrical systems on Earth B(northern hemisphere) AA AA (southern hemisphere) QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Above the Mesosphere exists

several zones with discrete elemental compositions The lowermost part (up to 120 km) of these zones is called the Thermosphere Otherwise they are referred to by their gaseous composition e.g., Nitrogen, Oxygen, Helium, and Hydrogen

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