Chapter 11 Local Government LEARNING OBJECTIVES LO 11.1

Chapter 11 Local Government LEARNING OBJECTIVES LO 11.1

Chapter 11 Local Government LEARNING OBJECTIVES LO 11.1 Describe and evaluate the organization and structure of municipal governments. LO 11.2 Describe and evaluate the organization and structure of county governments. LO 11.3 Describe and evaluate the organization and structure of special-district governments. LO 11.4 Evaluate the role of councils of governments as local government partners.

LO 11.5 Apply what you have learned about local government. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS, UNITED STATES AND TEXAS, 2012 How is it possible for ordinary voters to keep track of the numerous elected officials that they elect to local offices? How can government be simplified to best serve citizens? Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning.

All rights reserved. 3 MUNICIPALITIES General-Law and Home-Rule Cities General-law citya city with a population of 5,000 or fewer that is limited in the subject matter upon which it may legislate Home-rule citya city with a population greater than 5,000 that can adopt its own charter using any organizational structure that complies with state law

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4 MUNICIPALITIES General-Law and Home-Rule Cities (cont.) Direct democracy at the municipal level Home rule allows local voters to participate directly through: Initiative Referendum

Recall The limits of home rule Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 5 MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTS IN TEXAS, 19522012 What factors should mayors and city councils take into consideration when prioritizing the needs of their communities?

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 6 MUNICIPALITIES Forms of Municipal Government Council-Manager system Mayor-Council system The strong-mayor form The weak-mayor form Commission system

What challenges do all mayors face? What are key leadership traits that every mayor should have? Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 COMMON FORMS OF MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

8 MUNICIPALITIES Municipal Election Systems Nonpartisan elections In Texas, all city elections are nonpartisan Cities have choice to use at-large and singlemember district systems Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 9

MUNICIPALITIES Municipal Election Systems Election System Options At-large elections Pure at-large system At-large place system Single-member districts Cumulative voting Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

10 MUNICIPALITIES Revenue Sources and Limitations Sources and amount of revenue used to meet a citys budget depend on: Size of the citys population Amount and type of taxes a city is allowed and willing to levy Total assessed value of taxable property Needs of the residents Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

11 TEXAS MUNICIPAL FINANCES: GENERAL REVENUE AND EXPENDITURES What factors determine the budget priorities of municipal governments? Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 12

MUNICIPALITIES Revenue Sources and Limitations (cont.) Sales taxes Property taxes Limits on property taxes Rollback elections User fees Public debt Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. (#)

MUNICIPALITIES Municipalities: Issues, Trends and Controversies Population growth and demographic change Economic development Government mandates Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 14

MUNICIPALITIES Municipalities: Issues, Trends and Controversies Annexation Extraterritorial jurisdiction Colonias City Hall and Social Issues Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

15 COUNTIES Functions of Counties Structure and Organization of Counties Commissioners court County judge Constables and sheriff Tax assessor-collector Should counties have fewer elected offices? Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

16 TEXAS COUNTY OFFICIALS ELECTED BY VOTERS Should counties have fewer elected offices and nonpartisan elections, as is the case with Texas municipalities? Or do counties provide greater accountability with a divided executive structure in which voters elect numerous county administrators? Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

17 COUNTIES Structure and Organization of Counties County treasurer County auditor County clerk District clerk County or district attorneys Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

18 COUNTIES Counties: Issues, Trends, and Controversies Constitutional rigidity Long ballot Unit road system Spoils system vs. merit system Consolidation Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

19 SPECIAL-DISTRICT GOVERNMENTS Special-District Governments Local governments that provide single services not provided by counties or cities Airport authorities

Hospital authorities Municipal utility districts Metropolitan transit authorities Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 20 SPECIAL DISTRICTS IN TEXAS, 19522012 What are the benefits of having a specialized approach to

providing government services? What are the drawbacks? Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 21 CITIES AND COUNTIES SERVED BY PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Should Texas cities invest more in public transportation? Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning.

All rights reserved. 22 SPECIAL-DISTRICT GOVERNMENTS Reasons for Creating Special District Governments Limited revenue Reaching state-mandated sales tax ceiling Only a small area may need the service Demand for service may extend beyond a single jurisdiction

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 23 SPECIAL-DISTRICT GOVERNMENTS Special Districts: Issues, Trends and Controversies Multiplicity of governments and lack of visibility Cost and inefficiency

Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 24 COUNCILS OF GOVERNMENTS Councils of Government (COGs) Voluntary regional groupings of local governments Attempt to coordinate government activities Share information Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning.

All rights reserved. 25 HOUSTON TAPS EMERGENCY WATER Click picture to view video Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 26

VIDEO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. What role do special districts play in delivering water services to residents? 2. Who determines water priorities when there are conflicting interests? 3. When the water supply is limited, should it cost more? Why or why not? Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 27

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