Classify each of the following as a mono-,

Classify each of the following as a mono-,

Classify each of the following as a mono-, di-, or polysaccharide: starch, glucose, glycogen, ribose,

sucrose, lactose, fructose, cellulose Describe a dehydration

reaction. Define cohesion and explain why its important

to life on Earth. Compare the number of H+ ions in a solution with

a pH of 2 to a solution with a pH of 6. Describe an ionic bond

and how it forms. What are the thermal properties of water and

how are they important to life on Earth? Draw a condensation

reaction including reactants and products. What are the functions of

carbohydrates? Describe the bonds found within and between

water molecules. What are the 3 subatomic particles and their

charges? Distinguish between reactants and products

How does hydrogen bonding contribute to the properties of water?

Describe the effects of temperature on protein structure.

Describe the effects of pH on protein structure.

Describe the pH scale in terms of concentration of H+ and OH- ions.

How are waters solvent properties important to life on Earth?

Is water more or less dense in its solid form compared to its liquid form? How is this important to life on

Earth? Describe a covalent bond and how it forms.

How many L of solution are there is a 0.00M solution is made using

25.5g of LiF? Atomic masses Li=7, F = 19 If G of one reaction is -7.3

kcal/mol and G of another is 2.4 kcal/mol and these reactions are coupled, what is the net G and will this

coupled reaction be spontaneous? What is denaturation and

what can cause it? Describe a hydrogen bond and how it forms.

Define allosteric. Define metabolism.

Define solvent, solute, and solution.

Define activation energy. Describe how competitive inhibition works.

Distinguish between coenzymes and cofactors.

Describe the 4 levels of protein structure and the bonds that create them.

What are buffers and why are they important to living things?

Describe a hydrolysis reaction. Describe a dehydration

reaction. How does the shape of an enzyme relate to its

function? Define organic.

Draw a dehydration reaction including reactants and products.

How do enzymes lower the activation energy of reactions?

What are the functions of proteins? What makes carbon

unique and important to living systems? What are the functions of

nucleic acids? Distinguish between anabolism and

catabolism. Describe the induced-fit model of enzymes.

What is energy coupling and what is ATPs role in coupled reactions?

Describe/draw the structure of and amino acid.

Describe how noncompetitive inhibition works.

Name 2 environmental factors that effect enzyme function and describe how they effect enzyme

function. Distinguish between endergonic and exergonic

reactions. Define substrate and active site.

Describe 4 molecular factors that effect enzyme function and note

whether each one helps or hurts enzyme function. Describe feedback

inhibition. Is this usually accomplished by competitive or noncompetitive inhibition?

What are the functions of lipids? What are the monomers

or subunits of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids?

Describe the structure of a prokaryote.

Describe the differences between a prokaryote and a eukaryote.

What types of organisms are prokaryotes? Describe the structure

and function of the nucleus. Describe the structure

and function of the mitochondria. Describe the structure

and function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Describe the structure

and function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

Describe the structure and function of the ribosomes. Distinguish between prokaryote and

eukaryote ribosomes. Describe the structure and function of the Golgi

apparatus. Describe the structure and function of

lysosomes. Describe the structure and function of

peroxisomes. Describe the structure and function of the

central vacuoles and contractile vacuoles. Describe the structure

and function of the chloroplasts. Describe the

endosymbiotic theory and evidence that supports it.

Describe the structure and function of microtubules.

Describe the structure and function of the cell wall and describe what it is made of in various

types of organisms. What are plasmodesmata?

What is extra-cellular matrix and why is it important to cells?

Describe the 3 types of intercellular junctions found in animal cells.

Why and how are membranes selectively permeable? What does

that mean? Describe/draw the fluid mosaic model of the

plasma membrane. Draw/describe a phospholipid.

What is the difference between an integral and a peripheral membrane

protein? Describe the variety of functions that can be

performed by integral membrane proteins. What are aquaporins and

why are they necessary? What is a concentration gradient?

Describe diffusion. What types of molecules

can cross the lipid bilayer by simple diffusion? Give two examples.

What is equilibrium? Distinguish between active and passive

transport. Describe facilitated diffusion. Is this active or

passive transport? Describe what will happen to a cell placed in

a hypotonic environment. Describe what will happen to a cell placed in

a hypertonic environment. Why is it important that

IV (intravenous) solutions given to patients in hospitals be isotonic?

Describe the process of active transport. What is membrane

potential? What are electrochemical gradients and why are

they important to living organisms? Describe the process of

endocytosis. Describe the process of exocytosis.

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