Y10 and Y11 Core KO (Knowledge Organisers) Learning this information will be so valuable for your exams! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Anthology (Literature Paper 1) Fiction Reading (Language Paper 1) Non-Fiction Writing (Language Paper 2) An Inspector Calls OR Blood Brothers OR Lord of the Flies (Literature Paper 2) YOU ONLY STUDY ONE Unseen Poetry (Literature Paper 2) Narrative Writing (Language Paper 1) Romeo and Juliet (Literature Paper 1) A Christmas Carol (Literature Paper 2) Non-Fiction Reading (Language Paper 2) ANTHOLOGY CORE KO Terminology Definition Imagery visually descriptive language Simile comparison between two things using like or as Metaphor where one thing becomes another in a comparison Onomatopoeia words that sound like their meaning Symbolism the use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities Noun the name of something Personification giving human qualities to inanimate objects, animals, or natural phenomena Adjective a word used to describe Verb a word used to describe an action Adverb often ly words which describes how things are done Connotations implied or suggested meanings of words or phrases Juxtaposition placing contrasting ideas close together in a text Oxymoron using two terms together, that normally contradict each other Repetition when words or phrases are used more than once in a piece of writing Enjambment incomplete sentences at the end of lines in poetry, where one line runs on to the next for effect Caesura a break in the middle of a line of poem using punctuation (. , : ; ) End-stopping punctuation at the end of a line of poetry Rhythm A recurring beat in the poem Stanzas the way verses are structured Assonance repetition of vowel sounds. Consonance Repetition of consonant sounds. SKILLS Analysis Points: Link to the question Link to the terminology (Lang/Structure evaluating choice) Short Quote(s) Explain meaning and effect both obvious and hidden (explicit and implicit) Zoom in on words/explore connotations and effect Suggest what other readers might think/feel (offering an alternative opinion) Link to the writers intentions (step out from the close analysis to give an overview of meaning) Explore a linking quote/supporting idea COMPARISON SKILLS: Link to the question for both texts stating the similarity or difference, Give a quote which links to your idea from TEXT 1 Explain briefly what the quote means Use comparative connectives in your answer to then explain a quote from TEXT 2 and HOW the quotes are different or the same and what they make you think The Romantics believed in the self and exploring intense emotional feelings. Also fascinated by beauty, nature and truth, and the way moments can go beyond normal human experience Byron Byron Wordsworth Shelley Keats Keats Blake Inspired by The Romantics Barrett-Browning Barrett-Browning Dickinson EXAM REQUIREMENTS SINGLE POEM ESSAY 20 mins (including planning time) Intro link to question. Explain the overall meaning of the poem briefly. Mention time period/context. Throughout the essay Choose relevant quotes and analyse the language, structure and effect of these quotes. Refer to the question and link to the context regularly. COMPARISON POEM ESSAY 40 mins (including planning time) Intro link to question. Explain the overall meaning of the poem briefly. Mention time period/context. Throughout the essay Start with the 2nd poem, choose relevant quotes from the poem and analyse the language, structure and effect of these quotes and then how they link to examples and analysis from poem 1. You must use connectives of comparison. Refer to the question and link to the context regularly. Comparison Connectives Tentative Phrases Similarly In contrast /Contrastingly Could Maybe In the same way On the other hand Might Possibly Also However May Perhaps LINKS BETWEEN THE POEMS WAR/CONFLICT -Mametz Wood, Dulce et Decorum Est, The Manhunt, The Soldier, A Wife in London NATURE Death of a Naturalist, To Autumn, Hawk Roosting,
Excerpt from the Prelude LOVE Cozy Apologia, Valentine, Afternoons, She Walks in Beauty, Sonnet 43 PLACE - Living Space, London, Ozymandias, Afternoons, As imperceptibly as grief The Manhunt by Simon Armitage (2007) Sonnet 43 by Elizabeth Barrett-Browning (1850) London by William Blake (1794) The Soldier by Rupert Brooke (1914) She walks in Beauty By Lord Byron(1813) Living Space by Imtiaz Dharker (1989) A soldier with physical and emotional pain. His wife supports him towards recovery A woman expressing her intense love in many ways. Criticising widespread suffering of the poor in London An idealistic representation of fighting and dying for ones country, written before the true horrors became apparent. The poet is captivated by female beauty both external and internal, and explores his feelings Poem concerned and awe-struck by dangerous living conditions of Mumbai slums where there is no space, or clean water. Eddie Beddoes peacekeeper in Bosnia, shot, PTSD. Rebuilding relationship with wife. Influenced by Romantic Poets. Wrote 44 sonnets to husband before marriage. Religious upbringing that her love transcends. Terrible age of poverty, and child labour/prostitution. Government and Church are blamed. Blake lived in London in Georgian Era saw it all. Written before the war started. Propaganda originally entitled The recruit 2 million men ended up dying in WW1 Written about Byrons cousins wife who wore a black dress at a funeral. One of the Romantics believed in passion/beauty Wild, many affairs, womaniser. Poet is a film maker, dividing time between London and India, and wanting to raise awareness of social issues like terrible conditions within Mumbai slums. Frozen river which ran through How do I love thee? Let me count the ways to the depth, breadth and height my soul can reach with my childhoods faith with the breath, smiles, tears of my life better after death Mark in every face I meet/Marks of weakness, marks of woe In every Every blackning church appals Soldiers sigh /runs in blood down palace walls The youthful harlots curse The marriage hearse Theres some corner of a foreign field that is She walks in beauty like the night of cloudless climes and starry skies All thats best of dark and bright meet in her eyes One shade the more, one ray the less had half impaired So soft, so calm, yet eloquent A heart whose love is innocent There are just not enough straight lines. That/is the problem Nails clutch at open seams The whole structure leans dangerously / towards the miraculous The dark edge of a slanted universe The bright, thin walls of faith his face Handle and hold His grazed heart Foetus of metal beneath his chest Unexploded mine buried deep in his mind forever England A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware All evil shed away Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England given At peace under and English heaven As imperceptibly as grief by Emily Dickinson (1890) Cozy Apologia by Rita Dove (1999) Valentine by Carol Ann Duffy (1993) A Wife in London by Thomas Hardy (1899) Death of a Naturalist by Seamus Heaney ( 1966) Hawk Roosting by Ted Hughes (1960) The poet is consumed by grief. This is symbolised by the summer passing too quickly, and the darker side of nature approaching. A contented romantic relationship, set against the backdrop of a hurricane A realistic interpretation of love using the extended metaphor of an onion A wife waits alone in the gloomy London fog, She receives news of her husbands death, by telegram, then the next day ironically recieves a love letter from him. Describes the joy of discovering nature in childhood, then later finding it different and frightening. Hawks viewpoint is used to show its dominance in nature. It is in awe of its creation, kills brutally and indiscriminately. It has always been this way in nature, and the Hawk doesnt want it to change. A recluse. Written about departure/death of a friend who had been staying. 5 school friends died of T.B. Grew up in beautiful New England countryside Inspired by Romantics Poet married to Fred Viebahn a tribute to him. Set against imminent arrival of Hurricane which led to evacuation of 2.6 million people Feminist,Lesbian seeking to challenge traditional views of love in society. Dad was Labour party candidate. Criticising Thatcherite materialistic society and the fake, cliched Valentines day institution About the Boer War, and a soldiers death. Communication channels bad in 19th century. Poet separated from wife. Wife died. He still loved her though and read her letters after her death links to vocie from beyond the grave idea. Reflects poets interest in nature. Reflects loss of childhood innocence. Age 12 his brother died. References fear of his maturing sexuality, as he started a Catholic boarding school, where sinful deeds were punished, and attitudes to sex were very strict The poet was fascinated by animals a farmer for a short while. Also he studied Anthropology the behaviour of humans trhoughout history. Hawk was a Nazi symbol. Poet using hawk as a metaphor for the way leaders like Hitler abuse power. As imperceptibly as grief A quietness distilled as twilight long begun As guest that would be gone Without a wing or service of a keel Our summer made her light escape I could choose any hero, any cause, any age, and sure as shooting arrows to the heartthere youll be One eye smiling, the other firm upon the enemy Oddly male: Big Bad Floyd When has the ordinary ever been news? To keep me from melancholy, I fill this stolen time with you Not a red rose or a satin heart. I give you an She sits in the tawny vapour
A messengers knock cracks smartly Flashed news Shaped so shortly He has fallen-in the far Soth Land. His hand, whom the worm now knows Penned in highest feather page full of his hoped return Gargled delicately The thick warm slobber of frogspawn grew like clotted water Miss Walls would tell us how the daddy frog was called a bullfrog A coarse croaking I had not heard before The great slime kings were gathered there for vengeance Rehearse perfect kills and eat. Earths face upward for my inspection I hold creation in my foot My manners are tearing off heads No arguments assert my right Nothing has changed since I began. My eye has permitted no change. onion It will blind you with tears Its fierce kiss will stay on your lips possessive and faithful Its platinum loops shrink to a wedding ring Its scent will cling to your fingers, cling to your knife To Autumn by John Keats (1819) Afternoons by Philip Larkin (1959) Dulce et Decorum est by Wilfred Owen (1917) Ozymandias by Percy Shelley (1818) Mametz Wood by Owen Sheers (2005) Excerpt from the Prelude by William Wordsworth (1798) The poet explores how Autumn is a beautiful season, and metaphorically suggests the seasons are linked to life and death. The poet reflects on marital relationships, beauty and growing older. Considers the horror and lies told about the glory of war and dying for ones country, with an account of a gas attack. Considers the faded power of a ruler who had a statue erected for him, that now lies in ruins in the desert. Explores the waste of life within a Welsh regiment sent to fight and die at Mametz Wood and never given credit. As the farmers find their bodies, their voices are heard again, and we remember them. Poet explores awe of nature and his childhood, ice-skating with friends on the frozen lakes. Keats was dying of T.B. and had seen many of his friends and family die. One of the Romantics believer in beauty and truth. Realised accepting our own mortality doesnt mean we cant see the beauty in things. Poet never married /had family. Was cynical towards family life, saying it diluted you as a person Terrified by the passing of time and how life races away. Latin It is sweet and fitting to die for ones country Propaganda message of the time. Owen experienced WW1 first hand, and believed this to be a lie. Use of mustard gas was a chemical first used by German army in 1917 led to agonising death. Poet inspired to write poem when British Museum got hold of a large fragment of the Egyptian Pharoah Ramesses II. Shelleys wife, Mary Shelley fasinated by Science of the time obsessed with living on after death. Hated Royalty, and written as warning to arrogant rulers. Nature would always be more powerful. Part of Battle of the Somme bloodiest battle of WW1. Mametz Wood much bigger undertaking than Generals thought 600 died, 4000 injured. Bravery not acknowledged at the time. Welsh poet fascinated by history/identity of the Welsh. Poet grew up in the poems setting of the beautiful Lake District. One of the Romantics believed in beauty and nature, and moments that transcend reality. Mother died at 8, Father died at 13. Poem depicts happier time before these events. Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness Swell the gourd Sitting careless on a granary floor, thy hair soft lifted by the winnowing wind Where are the songs of Spring? Thou hast thy beauty too Summer is fading Setting free their children The albums lettered Our Wedding /lying Their beauty has thickened Something is pushing them to the side of their own lives Like old beggars under sacks, coughing like hags Gas! Gas, quick boys! He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning His hanging face, like a devils sick of sin My friend, you would not tell with such high zest Two vast and trunkless legs of stone The sneer of cold command tell that its sculptor well those passions read The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed My name is Ozymandias, king of kings, Look on my works, ye Mighty and despair! The lone and level sands stretch far away For years afterwards, the farmers found them the wasted young The broken birds egg of a skull Twenty men buried in one long grave Their skeletons paused mid dance macabre absent tongues The twilight blazd I heeded not the summons happy time I wheeld about, proud and exulting, like an untired horse An alien sound of melancholy The orange sky of evening died away Y10 FICTION READING C1 CORE KO SKILLS For A1: Short to the point selection of information in a bullet point list Vocabulary for question types Impressions Definition an idea or opinion of what something or someone is like? Argument a reason or set of reasons given in support of an idea Writer/Author The person who wrote the extract List To create a separated series of points Tension state of mental or emotional strain or suspense in the story Drama an event or situation, especially an unexpected one, in which there is worry or excitement and usually a lot of action: Question A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 For A2, A3 & A4: What you should/could cover in developed concise analysis: Link to the question Link to the terminology (Lang/Structure evaluating choice) Short Quote(s)
Explain meaning and effect both obvious and hidden (explicit and implicit) For A5: Link to the question Give a quote which links to your idea Explain briefly what the quote means Explain your opinion in relation to the question Exam Question Requirements A1 One question with five points Selecting evidence or own words, Bullet point list, No analysis A2 How does the author present OR, How does the writer show One Language Analysis question Link to question, Link to Terminology language, Quotation 4 5, Explore hidden & obvious meaning & Effect, Link to writers intentions A3 What impressions do you get Or, How does the writer show the reader. One Language Analysis question Link to question, Link to Terminology language , Quotation 7 8, Explore hidden & obvious meaning & Effect, Link to writers intentions A4 One Language/Structure Analysis question Link to question, Link to Terminology language and structure/tension/ drama, Quotations 7 8, Explore hidden & obvious meaning & Effect, Link to writers intentions A5 One persuasive evaluation question Link to question, Give own opinion, Quotations 7 8, Evaluate the writers viewpoint and own response to this Example of question type List five things you learn How is tension and drama created OR, What impressions do you get of Statement How far do you agree with this OR. Evaluate the way Word Class Terminology Definition Noun the name of something (Proper Noun: people, places, dates & months must have a capital letter at the start) Verb A word used to describe an action Adverb often ly words which describes how things are done Adjective a word used to describe Connotations implied or suggested meanings of words or phrases Language & Structure Terminology Definition Simile comparison between two things using like or as Metaphor where one thing becomes another in a comparison giving human qualities to inanimate objects, animals, nature placing contrasting ideas close together in a text Personification Juxtaposition Symbolism Tone Hyperbole Pathetic Fallacy Emotive Language the use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities the way a piece of text sounds e.g. sarcastic etc. The mood or atmosphere in the writing. use of exaggerated terms for emphasis ascribing human conduct and feelings to nature, usually the weather language which creates an emotion in the reader Dialogue Speech Description Showing the reader by describing what is happening Foreshadowing a hint or suggestion of what might happen later in the story holding back information from the reader to create a range of emotions Withholding Information How can I use emotion words for analysis? Use the range of emotions/alternative words to analyse the way characters are presented, how they feel and what the writer has intended in your analysis. Emotions Synonyms to describe this feeling or emotion Anger Fear Irritated, Annoyed, Rage, Hostility, Agitation, Aggravated, Contempt Horror, Rage, Mortification, inferiority, Hysterical, Panic, Insecurity Love Tenderness, Desire, Longing, Affection, Caring, Passion, Compassion Joy Elated, Enthusiastic, Eager, Hopeful, Enchanted, Rapturous, Delighted Surprise Confusion, Overcome, Stimulated, Astounded, Speechless, Awe-struck, Dismayed Sadness Disappointed, Suffering, Despair, Dismayed, Hurt, Regretful, Isolated Tension Tense, fraught, dramatic, nerve-wracking, anxiety, stress, strain, straining, stretching, apprehension, pressure, worry Analysis Terminology Definition Explicit obvious or easy to select as the meaning Implicit inferred - it is suggested, but not actually said, the reader reads between the lines Effect cause (something) to happen; bring about: Tentative Style Explaining the meaning using words that express modality (could/may/might) Impression an idea, feeling, or opinion about something or someone Evaluate To consider an idea carefully offering opinions on the idea Evidence To use a quotation from a text (short and snappy is best) Other words for shows Suggest, implies, creates, infers, conveys demonstrates, explores, represents, indicates Other words for emphasises Accentuates, highlights, reinforces, strengthens, supports
Triplets or alternative reading Triplets: repetition of three ideas, words or phrases close together/offering more than one piece of analysis Concise Straight to the point and avoiding waffle or empty phrases NON-FICTION WRITING CORE KO Exam Question Requirements 2 Tasks 30 minutes each Plan(2 mins/Write and Edit -28 mins) Terminology Definition PAFT Purpose, audience, form and tone Purpose What a text trying to do. Is it informative, advisory or persuasive Audience Who a text is aimed at Format The type of text (eg: letter, speech, report etc) Punctuation Rules to Apply Tone The way a piece of text sounds e.g. sarcastic etc. The mood or atmosphere in the writing. Hyperbole Use of exaggerated terms for emphasis. Anecdote A short story often from ones own experience Capital Letters: For Proper Nouns Name of place/person & at the start of a sentence Full Stops: end of a sentence that is not a question or statement Comma: separates lists/phrases/words & when using sentence adverbs (however, moreover etc.) from the rest of the sentence, & to indicate a sub-clause in a sentence Colon: to introduce a list. Parenthesise: To include additional information. Directives Using you, we or us. Asides Offering a quick humorous comment to the reader, often in brackets Facts/Statistics Facts and figures Passive voice When the subject of the sentence has an action done to it but something or someone else. E.g. the dog was being washed by the girl. Modal Verb A word that provides an option -Should, Could, Might Rhetorical Question Asking a question as a way of asserting something. Asking a question, which already has the answer hidden in it. Anecdote A short story, often from ones own experience Guilt trip Making the reader feel guilty about something Repetition Where words or phrases are used more than once in a piece of writing Writing for 2 different purpose, audience and formats with clear communication and technical accuracy. Write a report about..for. Write a letter to..about SPAG & vocabulary must be accurate and effective. How to develop ANY non-fiction paragraph: Start in an interesting way Use Imagine perhaps. Ask yourself why your idea is important. Give a specific example of how it might work. Consider what effect it will have or why it might be different to the norm. Finish up with a persuasive technique. SKILLS SPAG Applying spelling, punctuation and grammar effectively. Minimum expectations: capital letters, full stops, commas & apostrophes. Challenge: colons, semi-colons, parenthesis, exclamation marks, hyphens. Sentence structures applying a variety for effect simple, compound and complex. Using time and sequencing connectives. Paragraphing TIPTOP rules & being able to apply these effectively. Persuasion Using a range of techniques effectively and suitably (FATHORSE/HADAFOREST) ADVICE 2 person You nd PERSUADE REVIEW REPORT 1 person I 1 person I 3rd person st Modal phrases should/could/perhaps Rhetorical questions to strengthen advice Keep it simple, uncomplicated 2nd person You NOT 1st person I Informal, friendly tone Reassuring Give choices/alternatives Rhetorical Questions Facts / Statistics Imagery Short Sentence Flattery Guilt trip Anecdote Directives Repetition Exaggeration/Hyperbole Emotive Language st Strengths& Weaknesses Humour Descriptive techniques adjectives, similes Directives / Asides Exaggeration / Hyperbole Informal friendly tone For each of the 3 sections, provide a problem, and recommended solution Formal style Factual Combines informative and advice writing
Passive voice Structure / Format Reminders FOR ANY TASK: Aim for a brief introduction, 3 detailed points/paragraphs, a brief conclusion Article Title Speech Introduce who you are/ speech topic Grab audiences attention to begin End with a powerful final message Letter Your address, date, Dear Sir/Madam/Mr Smith End with -Yours faithfully/sincerely Report Title Sub-headings An Inspector Calls CORE KO Vocabulary Definition Poverty Lacking in money linked to deprivation in social conditions, housing and education Wealth The abundance of money or possessions Socialism In a socialist system the goal is people, not profit . The State or community regulates industry so its fair for all, not private companies. Capitalism An economic system where a countrys industry is controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. Social responsibility An ethical framework that suggests, an organisation or individual has an obligation to act for the benefit of society as a whole. Welfare State A system where the state sets out to protect the health and well being of its citizens, especiallly those in financial or social need, by means of grants, pensions, and other benefits. e.g. the NHS. Crime Thriller The thriller genre is characterised by giving the audience heightened feelings of suspense, anticipation and excitement. Crime Thrillers will focus on detectives trying to track down criminals and crimes. It may also focus on the law/justice. Class System Hierarchy The concept that there is more than one social class of people: working class, middle class and upper class and the rules which govern peoples lives in different classes lead to societal unfairness Ranking of members of society due to status or authority, particularly defined at the start of the 20th Century when the play is set. This class hierarchy faded after 2 World Wars. Interrogation An intense form of probing questioning Condescension A patronising, condescending attitude towards others Morality Principles that focus on knowing the difference between right and wrong, between good and bad behaviour. Authoritative Able to be trusted, confident, likely to be respected Terminology Definition Rhetoric The art of effective persuasive speaking often using techniques Empathetic Showing an ability to understand and share feelings of another person Withholding Information holding back information from the reader to create a range of emotions Dramatic Irony where the audience are more aware of the action happening than the characters Foreshadowing a hint or suggestion of what might happen later in the story Climax The most intense or exciting point of something Lighting The arrangement or effect of lights Motif a recurring set of words/phrases or imagery for effect SKILLS Analysis Points: Link to the question Link to the terminology (Lang/Structure evaluating choice) Short Quote(s) -or Moment Explain meaning and effect both obvious and hidden (explicit and implicit) Zoom in on words/explore connotations and effect Suggest what other readers might think/feel (offering an alternative opinion) Link to the writers intentions (step out from the close analysis to give an overview of meaning) Explore a linking quote/supporting idea KEY THEMES Social Responsibility, Women, Young & Old, Time/Change, Social Class EXAM REQUIREMENTS ESSAY QUESTION 45 mins (including planning time) Brief introduction Mention where extract is from in the novel / Offer an overall link to the question covering the novel as a whole. Extract Focus 1 paragraph Link to Question. Aim for up to 6 quotes covered Whole Novel Focus -2 paragraphs Link to how question can be answered in other key moments/quotes throughout the novel Brief Conclusion Link back to the question Place the extract chronologically in your essay where it appears in the text Typical Questions Write about the Theme/Character of _______ and how it/they is/are presented at different points in the play. In your response you should: refer to the extract and the play as a whole; show your understanding of theme and events in the play. [35+5] 5 of this questions marks are allocated for accuracy in spelling, punctuation and the use of vocabulary and sentence structures. This question assesses AO1, AO2 and AO4 (5 additional marks). Event Guide: Act 1 The The Birling Birling family family are are celebrating celebrating the the engagement engagement of of Sheila Sheila Birling Birling to to Gerald Gerald Croft Croft aa marriage marriage that that will will result result in in the the merging merging of of the the two two families families successful successful businesses. businesses. However, However, they they receive receive aa surprise
surprise visit visit from from Inspector Inspector Goole Goole who who is is investigating investigating the the suicide suicide of of aa young young girl. girl. After seeing a photograph of the girl, Birling admits she After seeing a photograph of the girl, Birling admits she used used to to be be one one of of his his employees employees but but he he sacked sacked her her for for being being the the ring-leader of a strike asking for higher wages. He denies ring-leader of a strike asking for higher wages. He denies any any responsibility responsibility for for her her death death though. though. We We next next learn learn that that Sheila Sheila got got Eva Eva fired fired from from her her next next job job at at Milwards, Milwards, aa department department store. store. This This was was because because Eva Eva had had apparently apparently been been smiling smiling (smirking?) (smirking?) at at another another shop shop assistant, assistant, and and Sheila Sheila used used her her familys familys position position and and influence influence to to demand demand Eva Eva be be fired. fired. Sheila Sheila is is devastated devastated by by this this news news and and blames blames herself. herself. The The Inspector Inspector then then announces announces Eva Eva changed changed her her name name to to Daisy Daisy Renton, Renton, and and the the audience audience recognise recognise from from Geralds Geralds reaction reaction that that he he also also knows knows of of this this girl. girl. ACT ACT 2 2 Sheila Sheila and and Gerald Gerald have have tense tense words, words, and and Gerald Gerald admits admits to to the the Inspector Inspector that that he he had had met met Daisy Daisy at at the the Palace Palace Bar, Bar, and and had had rescued rescued her her from from the the attention attention of of Alderman Alderman Meggarty, Meggarty, aa councilor. councilor. Gerald Gerald let let Daisy Daisy stay stay in in his his flat flat and and she she became became his his mistress. mistress. He He ended ended the the affair affair though though when when he he had had to to go go away away on on business, business, giving giving her her some some money money to to see see her her through through for for aa few few more more months. months. Gerald Gerald is is quite
quite sad sad about about the the events events and and says says they they were were fond of one another. fond of one another. Mrs Mrs Birling Birling is is shocked shocked by by this this scandal, scandal, but but then then it it is is her her turn. turn. The The Inspector Inspector shows shows the the photo photo of of the the girl girl to to Mrs Mrs Birling Birling who who admits she had seen the girl (then pregnant) when she admits she had seen the girl (then pregnant) when she had had come to ask for financial assistance from the Brumley come to ask for financial assistance from the Brumley Womens Womens Charity Charity Organisation. Organisation. Mrs Mrs Birling Birling turned turned her her request request down down because because the the girl girl had had the the nerve nerve to to call call herself herself Mrs Mrs Birling Birling (which (which Mrs Mrs Birling Birling doesnt doesnt understand understand at at this this point) point) Mrs Mrs Birling Birling says says the the father father should should contribute contribute to to help help the the girl, girl, not not the the organization organization and and is is proud proud of of her her decision. decision. Right Right as as Mrs Mrs Birling Birling is is demanding demanding this, this, Sheila Sheila realizes realizes that that Eric Eric is is involved involved in in the the proceedings, proceedings, and and is is the the father. father. ACT ACT 3 3 Eric Eric tells tells his his story. story. He He met met Daisy Daisy at at the the same same Theatre Theatre Bar Bar as as Gerald, Gerald, got got her her drunk, drunk, then then almost almost turned turned violent violent when when she she didnt didnt want want to to let let him him in in to to the the lodgings. lodgings. She She gave gave in, in, and and they they had had sex. sex. Two Two weeks weeks later later when when they they met, met, she she told told Eric Eric she she was was pregnant. pregnant. She She did did not not want want to to marry marry him him because because she she knew knew Eric Eric did did not not love love her, her, but but she she did did accept accept gifts gifts of of money money to to help help her her situation
situation until until she she realized realized that that Eric Eric had had stolen stolen the the money money -50 -50 pounds pounds from from Mr Mr Birlings Birlings office. office. Mr Mr and and Mrs Mrs Birling Birling are are furious furious about about this. this. The The Inspector Inspector leaves leaves after after giving giving aa strong strong message message about about our our collective collective social social responsibility. responsibility. Gerald Gerald then then realizes realizes they they may have been conned, as there is no Inspector Goole may have been conned, as there is no Inspector Goole on on the force. Birling is delighted, assuming they are all off the the force. Birling is delighted, assuming they are all off the hook, hook, but but Sheila Sheila and and Eric Eric maintain maintain nothing nothing has has changed changed with with regard regard to to their their crimes, crimes, even even if if it it is is not not the the same same girl. girl. Finally, Finally, the the telephone telephone rings, rings, and and we we learn learn an an Inspector Inspector is is on on his his way way to to ask ask questions questions about about the the suicide suicide of of aa young young girl. girl. The Inspector After all its better to ask for the earth than to take it A young woman drank some disinfectant and died, after several hours of agony She lies with a burnt out inside on a slab. And you think young women ought to be protected against unpleasant and disturbing things? We have to share something. If theres nothing else, well have to share our guilt Your daughter isnt living on the moon. Shes here in Brumley too. She needed not only money but advice, sympathy, friendlinessand you slammed the door in her face. And my trouble is I havent much time. Youll be able to divide up the responsibility between you when Ive gone. There are millions of Eva Smiths and John Smiths still left with usWe dont live alone. We are members of one body. We are responsible for one another. The time will come when if men will not learn that lesson, they will be taught it in fire and blood and anguish. Mr Birling Im talking as a hardheaded, practical man of business. I say there isnt a chance of warthe Titanic unsinkable, absolutely unsinkable. One of the happiest nights of my life Theres a fair chance I might find my way into the next Honours List A man has to make his own way has to look after himself and his family too. If we were all responsible for everything that happened to everybody wed had anything to do with, it would be very awkward, wouldnt it? If you dont come down sharply on some of these people, theyd soon be asking for the earth Look Inspector, Id give thousands, thousands Therell be a public scandal and who here will suffer from that more than I will? Probably a socialist or some sort of crank . He talked like one Ill admit he gave me a bit of a scare. Mrs Birling Sheila Birling Girls of that class- These girls arent cheap labour theyre people. So far you seem to be conducting the inquiry in a rather peculiar and offensive manner. Shut up Eric. Its the only time Ive ever done anything like that, and Ill never, never do it again to anybody. Sheila, dont talk nonsense Were you seeing her last spring and summer when you hardly came near me and said you were so busy? I dont think we want any further details of this disgusting affair. She called herself Mrs Birling a piece of gross impertinence Unlike the other three, I did nothing Im ashamed of.
As if a girl of that sort would ever refuse money Youre behaving like a hysterical child. The rude way he spoke to Mr Birling and me. It was quite extraordinary. I cant believe I wont believe its simply my fault that in the end she committed suicide. That would be too horrible. Mother You mustnt try and build up a kind of wall between us and that girl. No hes giving us the rope so that well hang ourselves. I want to understandI wouldnt miss it for worlds Im not a child, dont forget. Ive a right to know. Thats probably the best thing youve said tonight. At least its honest. Gerald, I think youd better take this with you. (She hands him the ring) You and I arent the same people who sat down to dinner here. The point is, you dont seem to have learnt anythingIts you two who are being childish trying not to face the facts. If it didnt end tragically, then thats lucky for us. But it might have done. Eric Birling Hes been steadily drinking too much for the last two years. I wasnt in love with her or anything but I liked her she was pretty and a good sport, Gerald Croft Hear, hear, and I think my father would agree to that. I know wed have done the same thing Were respectable citizens, not criminals Just used her for the end of Its bound to be unpleasant a stupid drunken evening, as and disturbing if she was an animal, a thing, not a person. Ive suddenly realised taken it in properly that She didnt want me to shes dead marry her. Said I didnt love her and all that. In a way I became the most she treated me as if I were a important person in her life kid. you understand? I insisted on giving her money to keep her going I didnt feel about her as she felt about me Because youre not the kind There isnt any such of father a chap could go to inspector. Weve been had! when hes in trouble thats why. Dont you see? Theres no Then you killed her. She proof it was really the same came to you to protect me girl and you turned her away. Everythings all right now, You dont understand Sheila, what about this anything. You never did. ring? Youre beginning to pretend now that nothings really happened at all. I cant see it like that. The girls still dead, isnt she? I dont give a damn now whether I stay here or not. Eva Smith /Daisy Renton Shed had a lot to say far too much so she had to go. With no work, no money, no relatives, lonely, half starved, she was feeling desperate She enjoyed being among pretty clothesa fresh start She felt thered never be anything as good again for her so she had to make it last longer. Shed come to you for assistance because she didnt want to take stolen money. Blood Brothers CORE KO Vocabulary Definition Poverty Lacking in money linked to deprivation in social conditions, housing and education Wealth The abundance of money or possessions Liverpudlian A person who comes from Liverpool (often with a distinct accent) Deceit Concealing or misrepresenting the truth Death Ending of life Maternal Caring as a mother Innocence The state of being pure and lacking in corrupt behaviour Superstition Irrational belief in widely held supernatural instances Class System The concept that there is more than one social class of people: working class, middle class and upper class and the rules which govern the lives of people in can lead to societal unfairness Hierarchy Ranking of members of society due to status or authority Disillusioned Disappointment in someone or something that appears to be less good than initially thought Condescension A patronising, condescending attitude towards others Snobbery The character or quality of being a snob Underprivileged Not having access to the same standard of living as other people in society Terminology Definition Omniscient Narrator All knowing narrative voice Dialogue Speech Accent A distinctive way of pronouncing words Dramatic Irony where the audience are more aware of the action happening than the characters Foreshadowing a hint or suggestion of what might happen later in the story Pathetic Fallacy ascribing human conduct and feelings to nature, usually the weather Metaphor
Where one thing becomes another in a comparison Musical The form of the play: music plays an important part in revealing the action/events Symbolism Using symbols in literature to represent ideas or qualities SKILLS Analysis Points: Link to the question Link to the terminology (Lang/Structure evaluating choice) Short Quote(s) -or Moment Explain meaning and effect both obvious and hidden (explicit and implicit) Zoom in on words/explore connotations and effect Suggest what other readers might think/feel (offering an alternative opinion) Link to the writers intentions (step out from the close analysis to give an overview of meaning) Explore a linking quote/supporting idea KEY THEMES Wealth, Poverty, Class, Superstition, Childhood, Death, EXAM REQUIREMENTS ESSAY QUESTION 45 mins (including planning time) Brief introduction Mention where extract is from in the novel / Offer an overall link to the question covering the novel as a whole. Extract Focus 1 paragraph Link to Question. Aim for up to 6 quotes covered Whole Novel Focus -2 paragraphs Link to how question can be answered in other key moments/quotes throughout the novel Brief Conclusion Link back to the question Place the extract chronologically in your essay where it appears in the text Typical Questions Write about the theme of _______ and how it is presented at different points in the play/text In your response you should: refer to the extract and the play as a whole; show your understanding of theme and events in the play. [35+5] 5 of this questions marks are allocated for accuracy in spelling, punctuation and the use of vocabulary and sentence structures. This question assesses AO1, AO2 and AO4 (5 additional marks). Event Guide: Act 1 The narrator introduces the plot in a Greek Chorus (we realise the play is a tragedy) Meet two very different women, Mr J v poor agrees to give away one of her twins to Mrs L who is rich. Meet the twins ages 7: they are very different in many ways (nurture) but do have quite similar natures. Theyre treated differently by the police/school. Mrs L is paranoid her son will discover his adoption so moves the family to the country to get away from Mickey and Mrs J. Years later, the council rehouses the Johnstone family in the country. ACT 2 The boys meet again aged 14 and their friendship continues. The boys, again, display similar natures. They have very different qualities if education. Mickey is in love with Linda. Mrs L becomes increasingly mad at the thought of Edward finding out and tries to kills Mrs J. Aged 18, Edward goes to university and Mickey to a full-time job which he hates. The gap is widening between them. Linda is pregnant so she & Mickey marry. Mickey loses his job, helps Sammy rob a garage & is sent to prison. Nothing is the same for him and Linda again. Mickey is released from prison but is addicted to anti-depressants. Desperate, Linda asks Edward for help. He gets them a house & Mickey a job, but starts a brief affair with Linda. Mrs L tells Mickey about the affair, he confronts Edward with a gun in the council chamber. Mrs J reveals that they are twins. Mickey shoots Eddie and the police kills Mickey. MRS JOHNSTONE He told me I was sexier than Marilyn Monroe. By the time I was twenty-five, I looked like forty-two during the dance, she acquires a brush, dusters and a mop stage directions never put new shoes on a table silver trays to take meals on / a bike with both wheels on Mrs J & Mrs Mrs Lyons shows the Bible to Mrs Johnstone dont you ever come round here again / Im very sorry, but its Edwards bedtime Mrs J and Mrs L She removes a locket from around her neck bright new day, were goin away I curse you! Witch! Mrs L to Mrs J THE NARRATOR Im up to here with hard luck stories Milkman/narrator the devils got your number narrator did you never hear how the Johnstones died the mother, so cruel, theres a stone in place of her heart a debt is a debt, and must be paid Theres a mad man narrator Do we blame superstition for what came to pass? Or could it be what we, the English, have come to know as class? Did you ever hear the story of the Johnstone twins, as like each other as two new pins the music pulsates and builds stage directions MRS LYONS mam / mummy pissed give one to me imperative off / you say smashing How can you possibly avoid things some of them being put into were blood brothers care? Youll be locked up Mickey and Edward if you cross your fingers and Its just just this place if you count from one to ten has a lethal-looking kitchen Peter Pan knife in her hand Stage take a flying fuck at a rolling directions EDWARD/MICKEY donut / its borin a game of piggy-in-themiddle workin overtime / I go away to university tomorrow How come you got everything an I got nothin? I could have been him! Mickey walkin round in circles Mickey I grew up. An you didnt, because you didnt need to Mickey to Edward chronically depressed Mickey You sorted it out. You and Councillor Eddie Lyons Edward is on a platform stage directions MINOR CHARACTERS LINDA if you count from one to ten I wanna kiss y, an put me arms around y
Whod tell the girl in the middle of the pair/The price shell pay just for being there. Mr Lyons its a sign of the times, Miss Jones Police he was about to commit a serious crime / it was more of a prank, really Sammy Sammy burnt the school down Schoolteacher This is a boys school, Lyons Vocabulary Definition Democracy/ Egalitarian fairness, equality Elitist superiority/exclusive Existential philosophy: considering the existence of individuals/freedom of choice Symbiotic relationship: cooperative/mutually beneficial Sadistic tendencies: brutality, hostility, cruelty Subversion of the Garden of Eden Changing paradise to a sinister and dangerous place Psychological terrorism being terrified, psychologically Gaslighting manipulating one into doubting their own sanity/perception Marginalised characters characters were are weaker or vulnerable, either physically, socially, etc. Emotional labour doing all the emotional work/taking on the emotion burdens Terminology Definition Tri-syllabic chanting chanting in 3 syllables Dramatic Irony From Greek tragedy: the audience is aware of the importance of events but the characters are not Foreshadowing Predicting or warning of a future event in the text Pathetic Fallacy Linking of nature and weather to human emotions/moods Metaphor Where one thing becomes another in a comparison Symbolism Using symbols in literature to represent ideas or qualities Description A spoken/written account of a person, action or event Allegory/ cautionary fable: stories told in a simplistic manner to convey series ethics and morals (like fairy tales) Lord of the Flies CORE KO SKILLS Analysis Points: Link to the question Link to the terminology (Lang/Structure evaluating choice) Short Quote(s) -or Moment Explain meaning and effect both obvious and hidden (explicit and implicit) Zoom in on words/explore connotations and effect Suggest what other readers might think/feel (offering an alternative opinion) Link to the writers intentions (step out from the close analysis to give an overview of meaning) Explore a linking quote/supporting idea EVENT GUIDE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. EXAM REQUIREMENTS ESSAY QUESTION 45 mins (inc. planning time) Brief introduction Mention where extract is from in the novel / Offer an overall link to the question covering the novel as a whole. Extract Focus 1 paragraph Link to Question. Aim for up to 6 quotes covered Whole Novel Focus -2 paragraphs Link to how question can be answered in other key moments/quotes throughout the novel Brief Conclusion Link back to the question Place the extract chronologically in your essay where it appears in the text Typical Questions Write about the theme of _______ and how it is presented at different points in the play/text In your response you should: refer to the extract and the play as a whole; show your understanding of theme and events in the play. [35+5] 5 of this questions marks are allocated for accuracy in spelling, punctuation and the use of vocabulary and sentence structures. This question assesses AO1, AO2 and AO4 (5 additional marks). 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Ralph and Piggy meet, find the conch , meet the others and have a meeting. Ralph is voted as leader against Jack, the choir leader. They explore the island and catch a pig, but it gets away They call an assembly, the liluns are scared of a beast, they use Piggys glasses to light a fire that gets out of control, a liluns disappears. Piggy and jack argue. Jack is obsessed wit hunting pigs, Ralph and Simon work on the huts while everyone else plays, Jack and Ralph argue, Simon helps the liluns get food. Roger and Maurice bully the liluns, They are still, however, held back by rules they learned in civilization. Jack paints his face for hunting. His mask liberates him from the rules of civilization. He leads the boys on a hunting expedition. As Jack and the hunters are out, a ship passes by. Ralph realizes the hunters have let the fire go out. He races to the top, but is unable to light it in time. Jack and the hunters return with a pig. Ralph and Jack argue. Jack punches Piggy in the gut. One of Piggy's lenses from his glasses breaks. The boys cook the pig and have a feast. Ralph announces a meeting. The boys argue about the beast again. Jack storms away from the meeting with his hunters, who make horrific sounds in the darkness. Piggy begs Ralph to call them back with the conch. He longs for grown ups to make things right. They think they saw the beast and try to hunt for it. Ralph notices the fire has gone out, except no one seems to care. The hunt for the beast continues. The boys come across a pig run and Ralph sticks a boar in the nose with a spear. The boar escapes. The boys act out a pig hunt with Robert playing the part of the pig. Even Ralph enjoys the spectacle. The quest for the beast continues until evening. Jack, Ralph, and Roger agree to scale the mountain. The three boys see the dead parachutist who they mistake for the beast and run away as fast as they can. Jack wants to be chief but the others vote for Ralph. Embarrassed, he walks off. Roger, Bill, Maurice, and other biguns escape into the woods, following Jack. Simon has also disappeared into his secret spot. he hunters track down a pig and kill it. They chop off its head and offer it to the beast as a sacrifice. Jacks hunters raid Ralphs camp. Simon passes out. Jack and his hunters begin their chant. Simon appears from the forest. They kill him and his body washes out to sea, as does the pilot. Jack and his tribe have been transformed into savages. They plot to steal fire. They raid Ralph and Piggy's camp and steal Piggy's glasses. Ralph blows the conch at the fort entrance. Ralph and Jack spar. Ralph
demands Piggy's glasses. Jack's savages tie up Samneric. Piggy tries to talk sense into the savages. Roger wedges the giant rock loose. It smashes the conch and knocks Piggy off the cliff. Jack and the others throw spears at Ralph, who runs away. Ralph flees and returns at night to speak with Samneric who are the new guards. They warn Ralph to go away. Ralph learns the tribe will hunt him the next day like a pig. Roger is sharpening a stick at both ends. Ralph hides in a thicket. One of the twins gives away Ralph's location. They eventually fill the thicket with smoke. Ralph charges out and runs for his life. The hunters pursue. Ralph notices the island has caught fire. The hunters chase Ralph down to the beach where he finds a naval officer there to rescue Ralph Jack Roger Simon You could see he might make a boxer, as far as width and heaviness in the shoulders went, but there was a mildness about his mouth and eyes that proclaimed no devil." There was a stillness about Ralph as he sat that marked him out: there was his size and attractive appearance." "the understandable and lawful world... slipping away". "You aren't playing the game". "I'm chief. I'll go. Don't argue." But I tell you that smoke is more important than the pig, however often you kill one. Things are breaking up. I don't understand why. We began well; we were happy. And then -- ...Then people started getting frightened. The world, that understandable and lawful word, was slipping away. Once there was this and that; and now -- and the ship had gone. Ralph too was fighting to get near, to get a handful of that brown, vulnerable flesh. The desire to squeeze and hurt was overmastering. Ralph wept for for the end of innocence, the darkness of man's heart, and the fall through the air of a true, wise friend called Piggy. His face was crumpled and freckled, and ugly without silliness". "Out of this face stared two blue eyes, frustrated now, and turning, or ready to turn to anger." "See? They do what I want." "the enormity of the knife descending and cutting into living flesh; because of the unbearable blood". "All you can talk about is pig, pig, pig!" Ralph says angrily. "they had outwitted a living thing, imposed their will on it, taken away its life". "His voice was vicious". "Bollocks to the rules! We're strong - we hunt!" "We don't need the conch any more". I agree with Ralph. We've got to have rules and obey them. After all, we're not savages. We're English. He tried to convey the compulsion to track down and kill that was swallowing him up. If you're hunting sometimes... you can feel as if you're not hunting, but -- being hunted. ...the mask was a thing on its own, behind which Jack hid, liberated from shame and selfconsciousness. knowledge that they had outwitted a living thing, imposed their will upon it, taken away its life like a long satisfying drink. I'm not going to play any longer. Not with you. has to keep up with the senseless ebullience of the children "a skinny, vivid little boy, with a glance coming up from under a hut of straight hair that hung down, black and course". Like candles. Candle bushes. Candle buds". "He's queer. He's funny." Piggy says "He's cracked". He has "a secret place in a clearing full of flowers and butterflies", "He walked with an accustomed tread through the fruit trees." "it wasn't a good island" and he tells Ralph, "You'll get back to where you came from". "maybe there is a beast... What I mean is... maybe it's only us". "Fancy thinking the Beast was something you could hunt and kill!... You knew, didn't you? I'm part of you?" The waves turned the corpse gently in the water. ... Softly, surrounded by a fringe of bright inquisitive creatures, itself a silver shape beneath the steadfast constellations, Simon's dead body moved out towards the open sea". The beast was harmless and horrible; and the news must reach the others as soon as possible. "slight and "furtive". "The shock of black hair, down his nape and low on his forehead, seemed to suit his gloomy face and make what had seemed at first unsociable remoteness in to something foreboding." "kept to himself with an inner intensity of avoidance and secrecy." "carried death in his hands". ...there was a space around Henry, perhaps six yards in diameter, into which he dare not throw. Here, invisible yet strong, was the taboo of the old life. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Piggy "What intelligence had been shown was traceable to Piggy." "Piggy, for all his ludicrous body, had brains." How can you expect to be rescues if you don't put first things first and act proper". Piggy was an outsider, not only by accent, which did not matter, but by fat, and ass-mar, and specs, and a certain disinclination to manual labour." "Acting like a crowd of kids". "It was an accident... and that's that". I just take the conch to say this. I can't see no more and I got to get my glasses back". "I got the conch!" "the true, wise friend called Piggy". Then, with the martyred expression of a parent who has to keep up with the senseless ebullience of the children Kill the pig, cut her throat, spill her blood The conch exploded You can feel as if youre not hunting but being hunted What are we? Humans? Or animals? Or savages? Ralph wept for the end of innocence the darkness of mans heart, and the wise friend called Piggy 6. Maybe there is a beast maybe its us (Simon) 7. We did everything adults would do. What went wrong? (Piggy) 8. Jack hurled the spear with all his strength 9. (Jack) His laughter became a blood thirty snarling 10. Youd think we could do that (fire) Are we savages, or what? (Ralph) 11. the boys who were marching in an orderly way (Jacks choir boys) 12. Roger realised there was no real authority and no punishments on the island 13. fear can cause a person to do that makes it dangerous. 14. Im frightened. Of us (Piggy) 15. The mask was a thing of its own, behind which Jack hid 16.The thing is- fear cant hurt you any more than a dream 17.Which is better- to have laws and agree, or to hunt and kill? 18.They closed in on the struggling pig they had taken away its life like a long satisfying drink UNSEEN POETRY CORE KO SKILLS Paper Two Literature Section C 20% of Lit GCSE Analysis Points: Terminology Definition
Imagery visually descriptive language Simile comparison between two things using like or as Metaphor where one thing becomes another in a comparison Onomatopoeia words that sound like their meaning Symbolism the use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities Repetition when words or phrases are used more than once in a piece of writing Personification Giving human qualities to inanimate objects Persona The voice/ speaker of the poem. Different from the writer. Semantic field A group of words related in meaning. Sonnet A 14 line poem, with a clear rhyme scheme. Usually focuses on love. Free-verse A poem that doesnt have any clear rhyme scheme off rhythm. Link to the question Link to the terminology (Lang/Structure evaluating choice) Short Quote(s) Explain meaning and effect both obvious and hidden (explicit and implicit) Zoom in on words/explore connotations and effect Suggest what other readers might think/feel (offering an alternative opinion) Link to the writers intentions (step out from the close analysis to give an overview of meaning) Explore a linking quote/supporting idea EXAM REQUIREMENTS SINGLE POEM ESSAY 20 mins (including planning time) Intro link to question. Explain the overall meaning of the poem briefly. Throughout the essay Choose relevant quotes and analyse the language, structure and effect of these quotes. Refer to the question regularly. COMPARISON POEM ESSAY 40 mins (including planning time) Intro link to question. Explain the overall meaning of the poem briefly. Throughout the essay Start with the 2nd poem, choose relevant quotes from the poem and analyse the language, structure and effect of these quotes and then how they link to examples and analysis from poem 1. You must use connectives of comparison. Refer to the question regularly. Two previously unseen poems. 1 1 single single poem poem essay. essay. 1 1 comparison comparison essay. essay. Things to consider comparing: Ideas Themes Effect on reader Writers intentions Tone Mood and atmosphere Imagery Narrative voice Language techniques Structural techniques Shift of focus Beginning End Emotions Synonyms to describe this feeling or emotion Anger Irritated, Annoyed, Rage, Hostility, Agitation, Aggravated, Contempt When alternate lines share the same rhyme scheme (ABAB) Fear Horror, Rage, Mortification, inferiority, Hysterical, Panic, Insecurity Rhyming couplet A pair of rhyming lines which follow on from one another (AA, BB) Love Tenderness, Desire, Longing, Affection, Caring, Passion, Compassion Juxtaposition placing contrasting ideas close together in a text Joy Enjambment incomplete sentences at the end of lines in poetry, where one line runs on to the next for effect Elated, Enthusiastic, Eager, Hopeful, Enchanted, Rapturous, Delighted Surprise Confusion, Overcome, Stimulated, Astounded, Speechless, Awe-struck, Dismayed Caesura a break in the middle of a line of poem using punctuation (. , : ; ) Sadness Disappointed, Suffering, Despair, Dismayed, Hurt, Regretful, Isolated Could Maybe Might Possibly End-stopping punctuation at the end of a line of poetry Perhaps A recurring beat in the poem Tense, fraught, dramatic, nerve-wracking, anxiety, stress, strain, straining, stretching, apprehension, pressure, worry May Rhythm Appears Seems to Alternate rhyme Tension Comparison Connectives Similarly Contrastingly In the same way On the other hand
Also However In addition Whereas Tentative Phrases NARRATIVE WRITING CORE KO Vocabulary to create emotions Definition Uplifting Inspiring happiness or hope Joyful Expressing great pleasure or joy Hopeful Feeling or inspiring optimism for the future Despair Complete loss of all hope Distress Extreme anxiety, sorrow or pain Melancholy A feeling of pensive sadness with no obvious cause Optimistic Looking at the positive aspects of life Pessimistic Looking at the negative aspects of life Pensive Thoughtful mood Frustrated Feeling of annoyance Inferior Lower in rank status or quality Sentimental feelings of tenderness, sadness, or nostalgia Powerful Having great power or strength Insignificant Too small or unworthy to be considered important Nostalgia A longing for the past SKILLS Writing: SPAG Applying Spelling, punctuation and grammar effectively. Minimum expectations: capital letters, full stops, commas & apostrophes. Challenge: colons, semi-colons, parenthesis, exclamation marks, ellipsis Sentence structures applying a variety for effect simple, compound and complex. PANIC sentence openers & being able to apply these. Paragraphing TIPTOP Time, Person, Topic, Place Narrative Writing Terminology Definition Freytags narrative structure Exposition, Rising Action, Falling Action, Climax, Resolution Narrative Hook The start of a story that grabs the readers attention in some way Exposition Background information about characters, time, location Rising Action is a series of relevant incidents that create suspense, interest and tension in a narrative Dramatic Peak/Climax the most intense, exciting, or important point of the story Falling Action What occurs directly after the climax Resolution the action of solving a problem or contentious matter Cliff-hanger A tense line or moment that creates suspense or intrigue Withholding information Holding back information from the reader for effect Asides Where a character talks to the reader, often in brackets Plot the main events of a play, novel, film, or similar work, presented by the writer in a related sequence. Character the mental and moral qualities distinctive to an individual in a story Setting the place or type of surroundings where something is positioned or where an event takes place The Senses Sight, Sound, Touch, Taste, Feel embedding these elements into a story Pathetic Fallacy ascribing human conduct and feelings to nature Symbolism the use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities Exam Question Requirements Write a clear, believable and engaging short story which has a start, middle and end and which follows a clear plot line. Organisation and Communication must be well structured and clear. SPAG & vocabulary must be accurate and effective. Success Criteria for a well thought out story 1. Unusual, intriguing description 2. Brief, realistic dialogue 3. Showing not telling 4. Linking beginning to the end 5. Pathetic fallacy 6. Asides 7. Paragraph Links / cliff hangers 8. Sensory Description 9. Not rushing the dramatic section 10. Starting sentences in a variety of ways PANIC: With a preposition, adverb/adjective, noun, ing word (verbs), connectives Punctuation Rules to Apply Capital Letters: For Proper Nouns Name of place/person & at the start of a sentence Full Stops: end of a sentence that is not a question or statement Comma: separates lists/phrases/words & when using sentence adverbs (however, moreover etc.) from the rest of the sentence, & to indicate a sub-clause in a sentence Apostrophe: ~ to show that letters have been left out. & to show possession. ROMEO & JULIET CORE KO Vocabulary Definition Unrequited
love Love which is felt by one person, but not returned Patriarchy Society dominated by males who rule over females Masculinity Traits relating to being stereotypically male Impulsive Acting/doing something without thinking Loyalty Having a strong feeling of support or allegiance Audience Spectators or listeners Wisdom Quality of having good judgement/being wise Justice Fair treatment or behaviour Rebellion Armed resistance to a government or the laws Marriage Formal union of two persons in the eyes of god Aggression Anger which results in aggressive behaviour Maternal Feelings which are related to being a mother Societal expectation Social normalities relating to the time Morbid An interest in death and disease Futile Terminology Definition Tragedy Form of the play exploring tragic events & downfall of character Dramatic Irony where the audience are more aware of the action happening than the characters Soliloquy an individual character in a play speaking their thoughts out loud to the audience Protagonists The main character who propels the action forward Celestial Imagery Images relating to heaven Oxymoron using two opposing terms together, that normally contradict each other Juxtaposition Placing contrasting ideas close together in a text Foreshadowing a hint or suggestion of what might happen later in the story Emotive Language Language which creates an emotion in the reader Connotations/ Zooming in Implied or suggested meanings of a word or phrases Hyperbole use of extremely exaggerated terms for emphasis Puns Joke exploiting the possible different meanings of a word pointless SKILLS Analysis Points: Link to the question Link to the terminology (Lang/Structure evaluating choice) Short Quote(s) Explain meaning and effect both obvious and hidden (explicit and implicit) Zoom in on words/explore connotations and effect Suggest what other readers might think/feel (offering an alternative opinion) Link to the writers intentions (step out from the close analysis to give an overview of meaning) Explore a linking quote/supporting idea Act & Theme Key Moments Prologue: Love, Civil War, Fate Conflict Exposition of feud between Montagues and Capulets. Love story & deaths of Romeo & Juliet revealed . Act 1: Civil War, Conflict Law, Fate, Patriarchy Family Relationship Servants of both houses fight in the street. Prince breaks it up. Paris asks to marry Juliet. Nurse reveals this to Juliet & we see their close bond. Romeo argues against going to the ball. R&J meet & fall in love at the Capulet Ball. Tybalt recognises Romeo & wants to fight. Lord Capulet stops him. Act 2: Civil War, Conflict Law , Fate, Patriarchy, Family Relationship Chorus inform of the futile love. Romeo abandons his friends & jumps into Capulets orchard. Balcony scene they confess their love & arrange to marry. Friar Laurence agrees to marry R&J. Tybalt challenges Romeo. Nurse acts as messenger regarding the wedding. They marry in secret. Act 3: Civil war, Cnflict, Death, Love,
Religion, Law, Fate, Patriarchy, Family Relationship Mercutio & Tybalt fight. Tybalt kills Mercutio. In anger Romeo kills Tybalt. Prince banishes Romeo to Mantua. First the lovers spend the night together. Juliet is distraught about Romeo being banished. Capulet agrees to Paris & Juliet marrying. Juliet refuses to marry him. The nurse says she should. Act 4: Fate, Love, Death, Patriarchy, Family Relationship Friar plans to give Juliet sleeping drug. Juliet agrees to marry Paris. Takes the drug. Everyone thinks she is dead (Nurse finds her). Act 5: Death, Fate, Conflict, Family Relationship s, Love, Law, Religion, Patriarchy, Romeo doesnt receive a letter about the Friars plan. He hears she is dead. Buys poison. Friar Laurence sends another letter. Romeo arrives at the tomb. Kills Paris. Drinks poison. Juliet awakes to find Romeo dead. Juliet stabs herself. The families are brought together in grief. EXAM REQUIREMENTS EXTRACT ONLY: Intro link to the question with overview of meaning in the extract. Explain where the extract happens in the play, Start of extract choose 2 3 quotes to explore, Middle of extract choose 2 3 quotes to explore, End of the extract choose 2 3 quotes to explore, Conclude Short summary of points ESSAY ON ROMEO & JULIET: Intro link to the question with overview of meaning. Explain which 3 to 4 events in the play you will focus on. Idea 1 choose a moment from the play to explore (quotes if remembered) Idea 2 - choose a 2nd moment from the play to explore (quotes if remembered) - Idea 3 - choose a moment from the play to explore (quotes if remembered) - Idea 4 choose a moment to explore (quotes if remembered) Conclude Short summary of points Character Quotes & Technique & Brief Analysis ROMEO Main Protagonist In sadness, cousin, I do love a women Act1:1 juxtaposition Romeo swooning and pining for Rosaline. Arise fair sun and kill the envious moon, Act 2 Metaphor to show his rejection of Rosaline in favour of Juliet. With loves light wings did I oerperch these walls, Act 2:2 Celestial Imagery to show he is linked to God and the heavens. O I am Fortunes fool Act 3:1 Metaphor/ Alliteration. Cursing fate after he has killed Tybalt. Death hath had no power yet upon thy beauty. Act 5:3 Imagery to show that death hasnt changed Juliets appearance yet Shakespeare is playing with the audience here. Thus with a kiss I die Act 5:3 statement first person he dies JULIET Main Protagonist You kiss by the book Act 1:5 metaphor falling in love with Romeo. My only love sprung from my only hate Act 1:5 juxtaposition/Oxymoron Realising Romeos family. Whats in a name? That which we call any rose would smell as sweet. Act 2:2 metaphor Juliet questioning Romeos family names importance. Methinks I see thee now, thou art so low, as are dead in the bottom of the tomb Act 3:5 Juliet has a vision of Romeo lying dead. Proud I can never be of what I hate Act 3:5 Juliet saying to her father that she cannot be proud of being paired with Paris. O happy dagger let me die!Act 5:3Personification Juliet before she kills herself. TYBALT Cousin to Juliet - Antagonist What, drawn, and talk of peace! I hate the word, as I hate hell, all Montagues, and thee Act 1:1 Repetition Tybalt showing his primary character trait of loving fighting.This, by his voice, should be a Montague. Fetch me my rapier, boy. Act 1:5 Tybalt recognises Romeo who has gatecrashed the party and wants to attack him. Boy, this shall not excuse the injuries that thou hast done me. Therefore turn and draw. Act 3:5 Metaphor Tybalt emphasising how he feels damaged by Romeos behaviour, and is determined to fight. LORD CAPULET Juliets father What noise is this? Give me my long sword, ho! Act 1:1 Capulet keen to join in the fighting And, to say truth, Verona brags of him to be a virtuous and well-governed youth. Act 1:5 Adjectives - At Capulets party, he admits that Romeo is an honourable, young man. hang thee, young baggage. Act 3:5 adjectives - Capulet insulting Juliet. NURSE Capulet household What lamb? What Ladybird! God forbid, wheres this girl? What Juliet? Act 1: 3 Rhetorical questions - nurse calling Juliet to speak to her mother. I am so vexed that every part about me quivers. Act 2:4 adjectives hyperbole the nurse is angry about the way Romeo and his friends are speaking to her. Shes dead deceased, shes dead, shes dead! Act 4:5 Repetition alerts Lady Capulet to Juliets pretend death FRIAR LAURENCE unaffiliated For this alliance may so happy prove/To turn your households rancour to pure love. A2:3 poetic/hopeful tone FL agrees to marry R&J hoping it stops the fighting . O Juliet, I already know thy grief, Act 4:1 compassionate tone, connotations, showing FL is aware of how Juliet feels about marrying Paris and that he is complicit in her possible bigamy if she does marry Paris. Come, Ill dispose of thee among a sisterhood of Nuns. Act 5:3 Friar Laurence plotting even at the end to try and help Juliet escape the marriage to Paris, even when the sleeping drug plan goes wrong. LADY CAPULET Juliets mum Wll think of marriage now; younger than you, Act 1:3 cajoling tone questioning LC is trying to persuade Juliet to marry Paris. You are too hot. Act 3:5 short sentence - telling her husband not to be so angry with Juliet. O woeful time! Act 4:5 exclamation mark, adjective, despairing tone LC just learnt of her daughters death. LORD MONTAGUE With tears augmenting the fresh morning dew Act 1: 1 metaphor to show he is worried about Romeo. Who set this new quarrel abroach? Act 1:1 Rhetorical question to find out how the fight started. For I will raise her statue in pure gold, Act 5:3 hyperbole, persuasion Montague assures Capulet hell erect a gold statue in her memory MERCUTIO Romeos friend Antagonist Nay, gentle Romeo, we must have you dance Act 1:4 Imperative must persuading Romeo to go to the ball. O calm, vile dishonourable submission Act 3:1 Adjectives Mercutio not understanding why Romeo is cowardly and backing down from a fight with Tybalt. A plague aboth your houses! Act 3: 1 -Metaphor blaming both the Montagues and the Capulets and wishing them the most unpleasant death. Related to the Prince BENVOLIO Romeos ousin I do but keep the peace. Put up thy sword, Appeasing tone. Short sentence to show he doesnt want to fight. Ill pay that doctrine, or else die in debt. hyperbole/exaggeration, alliteration to show he is loyal to Romeo. Go then, for tis in vain/To seek him here A2:2 Imperative leaving Romeo after ball in Juliets orchard PARIS unaffiliated Love interest Younger than she are happy mothers made Act 1:2 Paris trying to persuade Capulet to allow him to take Juliet as his wife. That may be must be, love, on Thursday next. Act 4:1 Modal into an Imperative. Paris speaking to Juliet about marrying her on Thursday. O, I am slain! If thou be merciful, open the tomb, lay me with Juliet Act 5:3 Paris dying & hoping to be buried alongside Juliet. He isnt. PRINCE unaffiliated Peacemaker If ever you disturb our streets again, your lives shall pay the forfeit of the peace Act 1:1 The Prince saying that execution will result for future fighting. Let Romeo hence in haste, else when he is found, that hour is his last Act 3:1 Prince banishes Romeo. If he returns he will be executed. Capulet, Montague! See what a scourge is laid upon your hateAll are punished. Act 5:3 Prince blaming the heads of both families for the deaths of their children. A Christmas Carol CORE KO Vocabulary Definition Hardship Severe suffering or going without things Transformation A marked change Welfare The health, happiness and fortunes of a person or group Redemption The action of saving or being saved from sin, error or evil Mankind The human race Festive Relating to a festival, usually Christmas. Also cheerful. Miser A person who hoards wealth and spends as little as possible Ignorance A lack of knowledge or education on a topic Free Will The ability to choose between different courses of action in your life Capitalism An economic system built around market forces and aimed at profit and wealth creation. Government intervention is minimal. Private companies largely in charge. Epiphany A moment of sudden and great revelation or realisation Solitude The state of being alone Humility Having a modest or low view of your own importance Nostalgia
A sentimental longing for the past Apparition/Spectre A ghost Deference Polite submission and respect Parable A simple story used to illustrate a moral or spiritual lesson Philanthropy A desire to promote the welfare of others, especially by generous donations to good causes Terminology Definition Pathetic Fallacy Linking of nature and weather to human emotions/moods Metaphor Where one thing becomes another in a comparison Simile A comparison using like or as Allegory A story that holds a deeper, moral or political meaning Description A spoken/written account of a person, action or event Foreshadowing a hint or suggestion of what might happen later in the story Symbolism the use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities SKILLS Context Features Dickens Dickens used used conventions conventions from from the the Gothic Gothic genre genre death, spirits, supernatural, Huge population increase in London London in in Victorian Victorian Britain. Britain. Overcrowding. Large supply of labour labour meant meant employers employers could pay low wages. of of population population living living in in poverty. No poverty. No welfare welfare state state to to provide benefits for poor. Charity Charity was was vital. vital. Many children died in childbirth/infancy childbirth/infancy No printers or copiers in 19thth century. century. Clerks Clerks wrote wrote everything everything out out by by hand. hand. Family, Christmas, Poverty and Wealth, The Past, Change, Food, Love, Death, Compassion Dickens Dickens father father ran ran up up huge huge debts, debts, and and got got sent sent to to aa debtors prison. EXAM REQUIREMENTS Dickens Dickens then then taken taken out out of of school and sent to a Blacking factory factory at at age age 12.Terrible 12.Terrible conditions. conditions. Cruel Cruel employers. employers. Low pay. Poor Poor Children Children sent sent to to terrible terrible evening ragged schools where where they they were were neglected, neglected, and and not not educated educated well well which which meant meant they they would would stay stay poor. poor. Education wasnt compulsory. Only Only rich rich children children enjoyed enjoyed good schools. Dickens visited ragged schools ones ones for for the the poor poor Religious Religious society society most most went went to church, and believed in after life and knew Christian message message of of forgiveness. forgiveness. Dickens was inspired to write the the book book by by insomnia insomnia filled
filled night night walks walks in in London London Analysis Points: Link to the question Link to the terminology (Lang/Structure evaluating choice) Short Quote(s) -or Moment Explain meaning and effect both obvious and hidden (explicit and implicit) Zoom in on words/explore connotations and effect Suggest what other readers might think/feel (offering an alternative opinion) Link to the writers intentions (step out from the close analysis to give an overview of meaning) Explore a linking quote/supporting idea ***DONT FORGET CONTEXT FOR THIS MODULE!*** KEY THEMES ESSAY QUESTION 45 mins (including planning time) Brief introduction Mention where extract is from in the novel / Offer an overall link to the question covering the novel as a whole. Extract Focus 1 paragraph Link to Question. Aim for up to 6 quotes covered Whole Novel Focus -2 paragraphs Link to how question can be answered in other key moments/quotes throughout the novel Brief Conclusion Link back to the question EMBED CONTEXT THROUGHOUT THE ESSAY Typical Questions Write about Scrooge and the way he changes through the novel. OR Write about the theme of self-interest and how this is presented in the novel. Refer to the extract and the novel as a whole Show your understanding of characters and events in the novel Refer to the context of the novel Key Quotes Scrooge Bob Cratchit. Cratchit Family Jacob Marley The Ghost of Christmas Past The Ghost of Christmas Present The Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come Belle Fred Minor Characters Protagonist An old miser who discovers the message of Christmas Scrooges long suffering clerk. His family survive on very little but are close and happy. Scrooges former business partner, now deceased. He appears as a ghost. The ghost that arrives in great light The ghost that resembles a jolly giant The ghost that resembles the grim reaper Scrooges one time fiancee who left him due to his obsession with money Scrooges nephew. Fans son. Fezziwig Scrooges old boss Fan Scrooges sister Mrs Dilber, The Laundress and Joe Hard and sharp as flint The clerks fire was so One the very day of Would you so soon A jolly giant who bore It was shrouded in a Another idol has I have always thought Solitary as an oyster very much smaller that it looked like only one coal the funeral, Scrooge solemnised it with an undoubted bargain put out the light I give? a glowing torch with a cheery voice and a joyful air deep black garment left nothing visible except one outstretched hand. displaced mea golden one of Christmas as a good time, a kind, forgiving, charitable, pleasant time. FEZZIWIG He has the power to render us happy or unhappy; to make our service light or burdensome. The happiness he gives is as if it cost a fortune. Are there no prisons? Are there no workhouses? Every idiot who goes around with Merry Xmas on his lips should be buried with a stake of holly through his heart If they would rather die, they had better do it, and decrease the surplus population I will honour Christmas in my heart. I will live in the Past, the Present and the Future. I will not shut out the lessons that they teach Theres another fellow, my clerk with fifteen shillings a week, a wife and family, talking about a merry Christmas. Ill retire to Bedlam. Tiny Tim hoped the people saw him in the church because he was a cripple, and remember upon Christmas day, who made lame beggars walk and blind men see Mrs Cratchit made the gravy hissing hotMiss Belinda sweetened up the apple sauceThere never was such a goose cooked Eked out by apple-sauce and mashed potatoes God bless us every one I am as happy as an angel Ill send it to Bob Cratchit Mr Scrooge. Id give him a piece of my mind. An odious, stingy, hard , unfeeling man I wear the chain I forged in lifeThe chain was made up of cash boxesledgers heavy purses My spirit never roved beyond the narrow limits of our money changing hole Mankind was my business
Scrooge was conscious of a thousand odours floating in the air, each one connected with a thousand thoughts and hopes and joys long long forgotten A solitary child, neglected by his friends is left there still Scrooge sobbed One child: true your nephew! A small matter to make these folks so full of gratitude I should like to be able to say a word or two to my clerk just now. Thats all. I see a vacant seat. The child will die Scrooge was the ogre of the family and the mention of his name cast a dark shadow. Even heretwo men wished other Merry Christmas in their can of grog Yes/No gamea disagreeable, savage animal. Its Uncle Scroo-o-oge! They are Mans. This boy is ignorance. This girl is Want. Beware for I see that written which is Doom. Ghost of the Future. As I know your purpose it to do me good, I am prepared to bear you company with a thankful heart. If there is any person in the town who feels emotion caused by this mans death, show that person to me, Spirit, I beseech you! I am sure we shall none of us forget Tiny Tim. I have seen your nobler aspirations fall off, until the master passion, Gain, engrosses you. May you be happy in the life you have chosen Now a comely matron sitting opposite her daughter. Dont be angry Uncle. Merry Christmas! Scrooges offences carry their own punishment. Who suffers? Himself! FAN I have come to bring you home dear brother, home, home, home! LAUNDRESS Hed have had somebody to look after him when he was struck by death, instead of lying gasping out his last there, along by himself He read upon the stone of the neglected grave his own name, Ebenezer Scrooge. The Plot Stave 1 Scrooge sits in his counting house on a cold Christmas Eve, miserable and cursing everything to do with Xmas. His clerk, Bob shivers in the side room. Scrooge rejects his nephew Freds annual offer to come to their house for Christmas, and gives nothing but a lecture to two charity collectors. He is visited by Jacob Marley who warns him to take note of his condition and the 3 spirits which will visit him. Stave 2 Scrooge is taken by the Ghost of Xmas Past, a childlike ghost with a brightly glowing head, back in time to revisit his sad lonely boarding school days left on his own at Xmas, then a time when his sister Fan came to collect him and he was overjoyed. He is also shown a Christmas Eve when he was the apprentice of Fezziwig, a happy, caring boss. He is also shown the scene where his fiancee, Belle left him, and Belle has a new husband and daughter of her own. Stave 3 Scrooge is next taken by the Ghost of Xmas Present, a majestic giant wearing a green fur robe, through London to see Christmas as it will happen that year. He watches the Cratchit family prepare a miniature feast in their meager home. He discovers the courage and kindness of Tiny Tim, Bob Cratchits crippled son. He sees Freds Xmas party, and also countless people around the globe all celebrating Xmas with someone else, unlike Scrooge who appears doomed to spend it alone. The Ghost ages towards the end of the day, and reveals two starved children, Ignorance and Want, a warning to mankind of not caring for others in society. Stave 4 The Ghost of Xmas Yet to Come leads Scrooge through a series of mysterious scenes relating to an unnamed mans recent death. Scrooge sees businessmen discussing the food at the funeral, some uncaring tramp like characters trading his belongings, and a poor couple expressing relief because their debt may be transferred to someone more merciful. Finally, the Ghost guides Scrooge to an abandoned old gravestone bearing the name of Ebenezer Scrooge. He begs and pleads with the silent spirit to change his fate, promising to change his ways. Stave 5 Overwhelmed with the chance to redeem himself, Scrooge rushes out on to the street to share his newfound Christmas spirit with bemused passers-by. He sends a giant Christmas turkey to the Cratchits, and raises Bobs salary. He attends Freds Xmas party, and gives a generous sum to the charity collectors. As the years go by, he holds true to his promise and honours Christmas with all his heart, treating Tiny Tim as if he were his own child, providing for the poor, and treating fellow human beings with kindness, generosity and warmth. Y11 NON-FICTION READING C2 CORE KO Example of question type NON FICTION = Factual / Real life Exam Question Requirements A1 Three Selecting Evidence questions (3 marks 4 minutes) Selecting evidence or own words. Short one line or quote answer. No analysis A2 One Language/Structure/Writers effects Analysis question (10 marks -15 minutes) Link to question, Link to Terminology language/structure/tone, Quotations 7-8, Explore hidden & obvious meaning & Effect Examine how the writers style is constructed its normally persuasive. A3 Two Selecting Evidence/ Comprehension questions (3 marks 4 minutes) Selecting evidence or own words. Show basic understanding of quotes used. A4 A5 A6 One Persuasive Evaluation question (10 marks 15 minutes) Link to question. Give opinions (what the writer suggests/impressions created) based on evaluation of quotes and writers viewpoint. Quotations -7-8. Could use persuasive phrases in response like Significantly, Importantly, Ultimately One Synthesis / Linking question (4 marks- 7 minutes) Link to question for both sources, provide a quote and explain quotes briefly. Must produce two links (4 quotes in total). NO need to compare/contrast. One comparison question (10 marks 15 minutes) Link to the question. Explore similarities/differences. Use comparison connectives. Aim for 3-4 comparisons/contrasts using quotes from each text each time. Reference the extract/writer you are referring to by name each time you compare. SKILLS For A1 & A3: Short sentences answers that select information or offer short inference For A2 What you should/could cover in developed concise analysis: Link to the question Link to the terminology (Lang/Structure evaluating choice) Short Quote(s) Explain meaning and effect both obvious and hidden (explicit and implicit) A1 - Give one example of how What is the amount of money spent on ______? A2 - How does the writer show/present_______? You should comment on: What they say Their use of language/tone/structure. A3 - What did the writer describe as ___________? OR (COMPREHENSION ONES) Why did the writer describe the conditions as ____________? What did the writer mean by ______? A4 - What do you think and feel about the writers views on_____________________? You should comment on: What they say How they say it A5 - According to these two writers, how do they both create a sense of ______and______? A6 - Both of these texts are about _________.
Compare the following: The writers attitudes to __________ How they get across their arguments SKILLS For A4: Link to the question Give a quote which links to your idea Explain briefly what the quote means Explain your opinion in relation to the question For A5: Refer to both texts, quote and short analysis of how they link and repeat (4 quotes in total) For A6: Say how both texts link Quote & mini analysis connective to compare Quote source 2 and mini analysis Repeat x 4 Comparison Connectives for QN A6 Tentative Phrases Similarly In contrast /Contrastingly Could Maybe In the same way On the other hand Might Possibly Also However May Perhaps Vocabulary for question types Definition Selecting Choosing something Comprehension Understanding Language & Structure Terminology Used to Persuade/ Influence Definition Simile comparison between two things using like or as Metaphor a comparison as if a thing is something else Personification giving human qualities to inanimate objects, animals, nature Juxtaposition placing contrasting ideas close together in a text Explicit information something that is explicit, obvious or easy to select Anecdote A short story using examples from ones own experience to support ideas Implicit information inferred - it is suggested, but not actually said, the reader reads between the lines Facts / Statistics Information words/numbers that can be proven Evaluating To assess, weigh up, and make a judgement on an issue Tone the way a piece of text sounds e.g. sarcastic etc. The mood or atmosphere in the writing. Writer The person who wrote the extract Synthesis To combine points to create a whole Hyperbole use of exaggerated terms for emphasis Persuasion An attempt to influence a persons views Opinion information that you cant prove Repetition When words and phrases are used more than once in the text for effect Writing styles Synonyms to describe this style Look them up! Emotive Language language which creates an emotion in the reader Persuasive coercive, convincing, cajoling, urging Flattery Complimenting the reader in some way Ironic sardonic, sarcastic, Guilt Trip Making the reader feel guilty Humorous comical, witty, wry, playful Advisory assisting, recommending, consultative Humour Using phrases / making points for comedic effect Instructional educational, guiding, didactic Formal reserved, detached, conventional, scholarly Rhetorical Question Asking a question as a way of asserting a point. The question does not need an answer. Informal colloquial, casual, idiomatic Directives Using you, we or us to directly address and involve the reader.