Chapter 16: Marine Ecosystems Oceanography 2014 Chapter 16

Chapter 16: Marine Ecosystems Oceanography 2014 Chapter 16

Chapter 16: Marine Ecosystems Oceanography 2014 Chapter 16 Vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Biotic Abiotic Community Population Ecology Habitat Microhabitat Niche Ecosystem 1. Biome large geographical area of

distinctive plant and animal groups, which are adapted to that particular environment 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Detritus Antarctic Divergence

Eutrophication Littoral Zone Meiofauna Levels of Ecology Biomes: A Review WORLD BIOMES Aquatic Biomes Tundra Rainforest

Savanna Taiga Temperate Forest Temperate Grassland Alpine Chaparral Desert Aquatic Freshwater Marine Community vs. Population

<<< Community: Multiple species that interact Population: >>> Group of ONE species in a given area Habitats ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism Examples: Clown Fish

Habitat = Sea Anemones in an area of a coral reef Fiddler Crab Habitat = Sandy areas of a salt marsh Finding your Niche Unique way of life specific to an organism Individual role of a species in an ecosystem No two species can occupy the same

niche in an ecosystem without one outcompeting each other EXAMPLE: Remoras are small fish that live on sharks. Their niche is their role cleaner fish for specific shark species. Food Chains & Webs Food Web: all the food chains found within an ecosystem, shows all possible paths for energy to move Food Chain: one part of a food web starting from producers ends at decomposers Trophic Levels

Producers 1st level in the trophic system Make their own food (autotrophs): Photosynthesis or Chemosynthesis Examples: Plants and phytoplankton Consumers 2nd/3rd/4th levels of the trophic systems: primary, secondary, tertiary Primary consumers are herbivores Secondary consumers eat herbivores Tertiary consumers eat the secondary consumers

Decomposers Last level of the trophic system as dead animals are broken down Examples: mushrooms and bacteria Ecosystem Types

Coral Reefs Estuaries Salt Marshes Mangroves Kelp Forests Beaches / Tidal Zones Polar Hydrothermal Vents Abyssal

Coral Reef Ecosystem Located in waters between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer Require water temperatures to be warm and stable year-round (64-86 F) Individual coral polyps build the reef's calcium carbonate structure As a single polyp dies, its soft tissue decays, but the calcium carbonate cup remains Other polyps build on top of the cup Over time, this process creates

larger and larger coral reefs Estuary Ecosystem Partially enclosed body of water where fresh water mixes with salt water areas of transition between the land and sea Examples: bays, harbors, inlets or sounds

Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuarine system in the US Salt Marsh Ecosystem Coastal wetlands that are flooded and drained along with tides Soil composed of deep mud and peat. Peat is made of decomposing plant matter that is waterlogged and very spongy

They provide food, refuge, and nursery habitat for more than 75 percent of fisheries species Found within estuarine systems Mangrove Ecosystem Tree systems with roots submerged in water Thrive in hot, muddy, salty conditions that would quickly kill most plants.

How do they do it? Through a series of adaptations a filtration system that keeps out much of the salt a complex root system that holds the mangrove upright in loose, sandy sediments Kelp Forest Ecosystem Giant kelp Species of brown macro-algae

Grow along rocky coastlines Depths from 2 m to 30 m + Nutrient-rich, cool water Temperature from 5o to 20o C Clear water conditions through which light penetrates easily Often found in regions where upwelling occurs Beach / Tidal Ecosystem Beach has habitats such as dunes, intertidal region, and tide pools Seawater trapped in depressions in the rocks

forms tide pools Shallow pools are extreme environment with changing water levels and temperatures Home to many types of plants and animals Polar Ecosystem Artic and Antarctic Cover 20% of Earth Covered by areas of thick ice

Coldest habitats in the world Plankton are an essential part of the ecosystem Hydrothermal Vent Ecosystem Deep-sea hydrothermal vents form due to volcanic activity on the ocean floor Water leaks through cracks in the Earth's crust dissolves metals and minerals and

becomes super-heated from magma. Water can be as hot as 400o C Chemosynthesis: relies on hydrogen sulfide instead of sunlight 300+ unique species live in these environment Abyssal Ecosystem Abyssal Zone: 3,000 to 6,000 meters deep Cold temperatures, and high pressure

Animals in this region relay on dead animals from above that sink to the bottom as their main food source Some animals exhibit bioluminescence Notes Quiz 1. Put the following in order from smallest to largest: Community, Individual, Ecosystem, Biosphere, Population 2. Is this a community or a population? 3. Remoras that serve as cleaner fish on sharks are an

example of what aspect of ecology? 4. What is the 1st level of the tropic system? 5. Name 3 ecosystem types. Oceanography May 13, 2014 1. What do estuaries, salt marshes, and mangroves have in common? 2. What type of animals would you expect to find in a polar ecosystem? 3. What type of marine ecosystem is the local watershed?

Oceanography May 21, 2014 1. Give an example of an animal with a specific niche. 2. What role do dead things play in ecosystems? 3. What does a coral polyp look like? Sketch a basic diagram.

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