The Big Three: Who were they and did

The Big Three: Who were they and did

The Big Three: Who were they and did they achieve their aims? Britain (David Lloyd George) France (Georges Clemenceau) USA (Woodrow Wilson) German people resented being made to be fully to blame for the war. They felt this was highly unfair. The fighting had not took place in Germany, the public did not feel they were losing and felt stabbed in the back by the government. Who were they? Prime Minister since 1916, he was an able politician, a brilliant lawyer and willing to compromise. Elected in 1917, he was critical of former French war leaders. Hard & tough politician, uncompromising. President since 1912, had focused on keeping USA out of war. Wilson was an idealist and reformer. What was their attitude towards Germany? Thought Germany should be punished but not too severely, as wanted to maintain trade links. Hated Germany and strongly wanted revenge and for Germany to be severely punished. Entered the war late so not majorly impacted. Wants to rebuild Germany as barrier against Communism. What did they aim to achieve? Aimed to gain Germanys colonies to strengthen own empire as well as dominance over the seas. Aimed to cripple Germany, remove its army and break it up into smaller states. Rebuild France. Aimed to attain his Fourteen Points, bringing peace and reform, along with ideas such as selfdetermination. Felt that Germany was punished too severely and were worried about long term impact of this. Pleased that Germany was punished harshly by the Treaty and that their army was reduced. Very concerned that Germany was punished too harshly. Worried about impact and spread of Communism. Happy to expand its own empire and weaken Germanys navy to gain dominance over the seas. Felt that Germany should have been punished even more severely, losing more land and reparations. Pleased League of Nations is set up, however USA do not join. Happy about self-determination in East. What did they think about the Treaty of Versailles? An Introduction & Overview The Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28 June 1919 to seal the fate of Germany following their defeat in WW1. The Treaty severely punished Germany, leading to widespread resentment and hostility in Germany, ultimately acting as a long term cause of WW2. th The Treaty of Versailles The Terms of the Treaty of Versailles - WALTER War Guilt Why did Germany hate the Treaty? Territory The reparations payments crippled Germanys economy, which was already struggling with many people living in poverty. The restrictions on the armed forces and the loss of its empire greatly damaged Germanys national pride and hindered its recovery. The lack of an army also made Germany vulnerable to future invasion and caused unemployment due to loss of military jobs. The loss of territory left people without an identity as they now lived outside of Germany. They also lost some of their most valuable resources, damaging the economy.on Germany Impact of Treaty of Versailles 1) Kapp Putsch Eberts new government was very fragile and Germans hated the Treaty of Versailles. Right wing opponents launched the Kapp Putsch in an attempt to seize power. This was defeated when Berlin workers called a general strike, but added to the chaos in Germany and hatred of the Treaty. 2) Invasion of the Ruhr In 1922 Germany fell behind on reparations payments, so in 1923 French and Belgian troops invaded the industrial Ruhr. They seized goods and raw materials and in response the German government told the workers to go on strike. The French reacted by killing 100 workers and expelling 100,000 protesters from the region. The government continued to pay the workers, leading to hyperinflation as they had to print more money to do this. Article 231 states that Germany and her allies were 100% to blame for causing WW1. Germany lost roughly 10% of it territory, including Posen, Upper Silesia, the Saar & Northern Schleswig. The Treaty was a Diktat, forced peace, meaning that Germany had no say and was made fully responsible. It also lost 12.5% of its population, 16% of its coalfields and nearly half of its iron and steel industries. 3) Hyperinflation Armed Forces Germanys army was reduced to 100,000 men., no tanks or airforce, only 6 battleships and no submarines. Conscription was banned and the Rhineland demilitarised. All of this damaged German pride and left them vulnerable to attack. Empire League of Nations Germany lost all of her overseas empire. Many of the colonies were put under the control of the League of Nations. This further damaged national pride and led to the loss of valuable resources from Germanys colonies. Reparations The League of Nations was set up as part of the Treaty of Versailles, but Germany was not allowed to join. Germany was fully responsible for the war, so had to pay 6.6 billion in reparations, mainly to France and Belgium. This therefore prevented Germany from re-building relationships with other major powers and left them isolated. This crippled Germanys economy and caused a range of economic problems including hyperinflation. Germans hated it. The consequence of the crisis in the Ruhr was hyperinflation in 1923, which was where the prices of goods increased dramatically. Basics such as bread and eggs became worth millions or even billions or marks, and money quickly became worthless. The hyperinflation crisis caused people to lose all of their savings, caused the German economy to almost collapse and greatly impacted peoples lives. The problems of this were blamed on the Treaty of Versailles. Other Peace Treaties Austria Treaty of St Germain - Sept 1919 Bulgaria Treaty of Neuilly - Nov 1919 Hungary Treaty of Triannon June 1920 Turkey Treaty of Sevres August 1920 Treaty of Lausanne June 1923 LoN Key Facts Why did USA not join? The League of Nations in the 1930s What?: Collection of most powerful countries working together Despite being the idea of Woodrow Wilson, USA did not join the League and this was a major blow before it had even got underway.

Why? Crisis 1: Wall Street Crash & Great Depression Aims of the League Stop War Improve living and working conditions When?: Founded in 1920. Disarmament (all countries) Enforce the Treaty of Versailles 1) Military Reasons Americans did not want to see their soldiers die in foreign conflicts. Disliked disarmament. Where?: Geneva, Switzerland Powers of the League In October 1929, the American stock market crashed, plunging America into an economic depression. The impact though was global with countries across the world, who were reliant on America, severely impacted by the Great Depression. Crisis 2: Manchuria Crisis Who?: 42 founding members 1) Moral Condemnation (telling off) Big 4: Britain, France, Italy & Japan 2) Economic Sanctions Who not?: Germany, Russia & USA 3) Military Force (had no army) Why?: Keep peace & prevent war Structure of the League The structure of the League was very confusing and time consuming. How?: force Mitigation, sanctions & Consequently everything took a long time and the structure was ineffective. An Introduction 2) Economic Reasons Many Americans feared the League would cripple America with debt and damage economy. 3) American Independence Republicans wanted an isolationist approach, for America to be independent from Europes affairs. 4) Political Reasons Wilson needed Congress approval and did not get it. Republicans strongly opposed the League. There were various committees, each dealing with something different. 5) Problems with LoN in Principle America hated the Treaty of Versailles and the League was associated with that. & Overview The League of Nations was set up as part of the Treaty of Versailles, with the aim of maintaining peace. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the League faced a number of challenges which impacted its authority. Ultimately it failed to achieve long-term peace with the outbreak of WW2 in 1939. The League of Nations Which do you think was the main reason? Why? Upper Silesia 1921-1925 Dispute between Germany and Poland over rich lands of Upper Silesia. League orders a plebiscite to be held, war avoided. SUCCESS Dawes Plan 1924 America gives loans to rebuild German industry and economy. Successful but means Germany reliant on America. SUCCESS When: 1931-1933 China Aggressor: Japan Where: Manchuria, North-East Defendant: China 1) Japan was severely impacted by Great Depression, wanted more land and resources to expand its empire. Targeted Manchuria. 2) September 1931: Explosion on South-Manchurian Railway, China blamed for this by Japan, known as Mukden Incident. 3) October 1931: Japanese troops moved into and took control of South Manchuria. China appealed to the League for help. League enforced economic sanctions and commissioned the Lytton Report. 4) January 1932: Chinese resistance in Manchuria ended as Japan take control, killing thousands in Shanghai. 5) September 1932: Puppet government set up in Manchuria, controlled by the Japanese (Manchukuo). 6) October 1932: Lytton Report condemns Japan as the aggressors. Backed by League of Nations in 1933. Japan unhappy about this. Crisis 2: Abyssinian Crisis 7) March 1933: Japan leaves the League of Nations. Remains in When: 1934-1936 Where: Ethiopia (Africa) control of Manchuria, later ends up Abyssinia, in full-scale war with China Aggressor: Italy Defendant: Abyssinia in 1937. The League of Nations in the 1920s Vilna 1920 League does nothing to stop dispute between Poland & Lithuania FAILURE Locarno Treaty - 1925 Germany and France improve relations and agree to peacefully solve disputes. Takes place outside of the League, undermining it. PARTIAL SUCCESS 1) 1896: Italian troops had been defeated by the Abyssinians at the Battle of Adowa. This was a national humiliation. 2) 1922: Mussolini came to power and wanted to expand Italys empire. 3) Dec 1934: Italian forces clashed with the Abyssinians at Wal Wal. This was an excuse to enter war. 4) 1935: Britain and France signed Stresa Agreement with Italy. LoN decided no one was to blame. Italy to keep part of Abyssinia. 5) Oct 1935: Mussolini invades rest of Abyssinia. League imposes economic sanctions but keeps open Suez Canal. League was weak. Aaland Islands 1921 League sides with Finland in dispute with Sweden. Avoids war. SUCCESS Corfu 1923 Italians invade Corfu after a general is murdered. League forces Italy to leave and Greece to pay compensation. SUCCESS 6) Dec 1935: Britain and France devise Hoare-Laval Pact in secret giving Italy two thirds of Abyssinia. LoN undermined further. Bulgaria - 1925 Greece invades Bulgaria. League blames Greece and forces them to leave. Idea of double standards. Greece angry. FAILURE Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 65 countries meet to agree that war will not be used to solve disputes. League not involved at all and therefore further undermined. Why did League Nations fail?Ababa. Italy 7) May 1936: Mussolini capturesofcapital of Addis leaves the League of Nations and instead sides with Hitler. epression (caused instability) eak (had no army) nsuccessful (failures) merica (did not join) embers (let it down) tructure (too disorganised) ig Bullies (Italy & Japan) W A S D U

M B Appeasement An Introduction & Overview Why did World War Two break out in 1939? Appeasement was where Britain, France and the League of Nations allowed Hitler to do what he wanted to and break the terms of the Treaty of Versailles without stopping him. Throughout the 1930s tension rose in Europe, ultimately culminating in the outbreak of WW2 in September 1939. There are various different causes of the Second World War. Think about which was the most important, how they link together and how you could answer a 16-mark essay question. Why? Hitlers actions throughout the 1930s significantly contributed to the outbreak of this war, whilst other causes included The Treaty of Versailles, Failure of the League of Nations and Appeasement. War (not ready for war) Empire (would not support war) Repeat (did not want repeat of WW1) Communism (Hitler opposed After 21 years war returned. Communism) USA (will not support another war) Treaty of Versailles (seen as unfair) Economy (economic issues more The Outbreak of World War Two important) 1) Mein Kampf (1920s) 8) Anti-Comintern Pact (1936) An anti-Communism Pact was Whilst in prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf setting out his aims. formed between Germany and Japan in 1936, making them allies. In 1937, both Italy and Spain joined this alliance. The Axis powers had been formed, opposing Communism and further threatening world peace. By this time both Japan and Italy had left the League of Nations. 1. Get rid of the Treaty of Versailles 2. Conquer Lebensraum (living space) 3. Destroy Communism 2) Rearmament & LoN (1933) In 1933, Hitler was made Chancellor of Germany, One of Hitlers first moves was to take Germany out of the League of Nations. He stormed out of the Disarmament Conference and instead started to rearm Germany. 7) Re-militarisation of Rhineland (1936) Hitler broke the terms of the Treaty of 3) Dollfuss Affair (1934)to reunite Hitler wanted Austria and Germany. The Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss banned the Nazis in Austria. Hitler ordered them to cause havoc and Dollfuss was murdered. The loyal Austrian army supported the government and Mussolini persuaded Versailles by remilitarising the Rhineland, the border between Germany and France. Allied powers did nothing to stop this. Symbolised shift of power towards Germany and showed their military strength. Allowed Germany to then follow an aggressive policy in Eastern Europe. Conscription reintroduced in Germany. 1) Hitlers Actions: Hitlers actions throughout the 1930s broke the Treaty of Versailles and raised tensions across Europe, ultimately leading to the outbreak of war. 2) Nazi-Soviet Pact & Invasion of Poland: This acted as the final spark and trigger of the war, which by August and September 1939 was looking increasingly inevitable. 3) Appeasement: Britain, France and the other nations had plenty of chances to stop Hitler and the Nazis. They did not want another war, followed appeasement and Hitler grew stronger. 4) Treaty of Versailles: The Treaty of Versailles was too harsh on Germany, caused long term resentment and caused so many problems that Hitler came to power and Germany sought war. 5) Failure of the League of Nations: The League of Nations was set up to achieve peace and prevent wars, but it was increasingly weak by the 1930s, failing to stop WW2. 6) Great Depression: The economic crash10) led Anschluss to many of (1938) these problems including the rise of Hitler and the undermining of the League of Nations. Banned by the WW1 peace treaties, many in Germany and Austria wanted the two countries to be reunited. 9) Spanish Civil War In March 1938 this happened. Hitler marched into Austria and a plebiscite was held. In 1937, Hitler showed his 99.7% of Austrians voted to join Germany. They had no choice. military strength in Spain. He supported right wing dictator Franco against the Republicans. 11) Sudeten Crisis (1938 -1939) He supplied military aid, mainly through his air Following Anschluss, Hitlers next target was the German speaking force (Luftwaffe). Sudetenland, a rich industrial area of Czechoslovakia. The Luftwaffe bombed His military threatened to invade and war looked likely. and destroyed Spanish In September 1938, the leaders met at the Munich Conference. towns, most famously Hitler was given the Sudetenland without firing a bullet and Guernica. promised he wanted no more. This was appeasement in action. In March 1939, Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia. War loomed. 6) Saar Plebiscite (1935) The Saar was a rich industrial land between France and Germany that had been controlled by LoN for 15 years. A plebiscite was held to decide its future. 90% of its people voted to re-join Germany. Hitler regained land. Soviet leader Stalin had lost faith with Britain and France and instead sided with Hitler and the Nazis. They signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact, agreeing to both invade and split Poland. 13) Invasion of Poland (September 1939) 4) Stresa Front Agreement (1935) Britain, France & Italy signed the Stresa Front Agreement. They promised to follow the Locarno Treaty and avoid war. They also promised to protect Austrian independence. By 1936 Mussolini had fallen out with his allies and sided with Hitler. 12) Nazi-Soviet Pact (23rd August 1939) 5) Rearmament Rally (1935) Hitler held a massive rearmament rally to show the new found military strength of Germany. League of Nations did nothing to stop them, appeasement had begun. After the events in Czechoslovakia, Britain and France promised they would declare war if Hitler invaded Poland. Hitler believed Appeasement would go on. On 1st September 1939, the Nazis and Soviets both invaded Poland. Two days later, Britain and France declared war. This was the final straw. World War Two had begun.

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