Could the "profile of visual functioning" become a
Could the "profile of visual functioning" become a carrier of information between education, medicine, and social services? Lea Hyvrinen, MD, PhD, FAAP Technical University of Dortmund University of Helsinki With Amanda Hall Lueck and Gran Cedermark 1 Ventral and dorsal streams Mirror neuron system
Insula 3 Ventral and dorsal stream/networks Mirror neuron system Insula 4 Profile of visual functioning based the learning strategy that probably will be used
N= normal (1), I= impaired but useful (2), P=profound VI or blindness (3) ? Assessment of Visual Functioning 1. OCULOMOTOR FUNCTIONS and REFRACTION 2. QUALITY OF VISUAL INFORMATION CLINICAL TESTS A. Information from the ophthalmologist, optometrist, neurologist B. Observation and measurements at KG and schools C. General and visual ergonomics
3. ASSESSMENT OF VISUAL PROCESSING Ocular Motor Functions & Refraction Fixation, Saccades, Accommodation, Following Strabismus, Nystagmus, Head and Body Control Refractive Errors Corrective Spectacles, Frames, Devises 11 Reading saccades, fixations, scanning 9
Text on clear film VA reported to be 0.63; at school 0.02 with 50% spacing 10 This student learned to talk 6 months before this video was filmed. The letter V is difficult > fixation is lost. Simple recording 11
Unusual dyslexia Letters A and V shown on an oscilloscope: Visual acuity with line test 0.5 (3/6, 10/20), but 1.6 when pointed at. Nyman G, Laurinen L, Hyvrinen L. Topographic instability of spatial vision as a cause of dyslectic disorder: a case study (1982) Neuropsychologica 20:181-186. Assessment of Visual Functioning 1. OCULOMOTOR FUNCTIONS and REFRACTION 2. QUALITY OF VISUAL INFORMATION CLINICAL TESTS A. Information from the ophthalmologist, optometrist, neurologist B. Observation and measurements at KG and schools
C. General and visual ergonomics 3. ASSESSMENT OF VISUAL PROCESSING 14 Clinical examination gives the foundation for the assessment of visual functioning Detection grating acuity Fixation to penlight, to picture, following, saccades, accommodation, convergence, visual communication
Photo: Miguel G. Alvares, MD Brazil Hiding Heidi test Clinical examination gives the foundation for the assessment of visual functioning orthoptists, therapists, nurses, optometrists, technicians, parents, rehab team OBSERVATIONS require time! Photo: Miguel G. Alvares, MD Brazil Changes in information within the eye
Visual field Visual adaptation, filters Motion perception Tests should be repeated in day care and at school. Visual Sensory Functions
Visual acuity, near (single, line, crowded), distance, Grating acuity Contrast sensitivity, optotype and grating tests Colour vision, Visual adaptation to changes in luminance level, filter lenses Figure in motion, Biological motion, Perception of motion at high speeds Visual field, size and scotomas, Goldmann, flicker, automatic, campimeter 18 (29) Several tests several VA values Distance single 3m/1.9M 1.0, 3/3 line 3m/4M 0.63, 3/5 at 40cm
Near 40cm single symbols screening test 50% spacing 25% spacing 19 0.40, 0.25, 0.20, 0.16,
3/7.5 3/12 3/15 3/16 1M 1.6M 2.0M 2.5M Single optotypes sometimes the only VA test possible
answering with head turn, looking at the choice 20 Oculomotor problems tactile keycard, looking can be kept on the test Cover above and below the line to be read. 21 LEA Grating Acuity Test Discrimination acuity test 22
Early Visual Processing Perception of length and orientation of lines and objects Figure-ground, object-background, stereovision, Vernier acuity Short time visual memory, matching colours 11 (40) //// \\\\
Children with coding problems may perceive the lines changing their orientation. Copying basic forms A. B. T
T T T T T T
T Task: to copy three parallell lines, cross, angle and rectangle with circle and square at corners. The tester draws the test figures while the student is watching. Student A has left sided hemiplegia and anopia and visual acuity 0.12 (10/80); student B has normal clinical findings in vision tests and diplegic condition (legs). Ventral Stream Inferotemporal Networks Details in pictures, Noticing errors and missing details Perception of textures and surface qualities Recognition of familiar and unfamiliar faces Facial expressions, Body language Landmarks, Concrete objects, Pictures of concrete objects
Abstract pictures of objects of different categories Abstract forms (letters, numbers) Reading words and lines of texts, Optimal reading strategy Comparison with pictures in memory, Reading series of pictures Visual problems in copying pictures from blackboard and/or at near Crowding effect, Scanning lines of text 24 (64) 26 Cognitive vision test
Hiding Heidi for communication LEA-Mailbox LEA-Rectangles Face pictures Heidi Expressions LEA Puzzle
Crowding effekt Reading tests OBSERVATIONS Neuropsychological consultation Dorsal Stream/ Parietal Networks Awareness of surrounding space, directions and distances in space Body awareness Perception of near and far space Orientation in space, map based, Memorising routes Motion perception, Depth perception, Simultaneous perception Eye-hand coordination, Grasping and throwing objects
Drawing, free hand, visual imagination Copying from near/ from blackboard, motor planning and execution Mathematics, Visual attention 12 (76) 28 Visual processing and its problems VENTRAL STREAM DORSAL STREAM Direction and length of lines and objects
Object-background Crowding increased crowding Awareness of space Map based orientation in space Orientation based on routes X RECOGNITION FUNCTIONS: Concrete objects Pictures of concrete objects Visual closure Filling in
Order of 3-4 pictures Copying basic drawings, lines, cross, angle X used for planning motor functions Perception of textures, surface qualities Y Reading as a visual task Recognition of letters and words Saccades in reading, reading without saccades Recognition of numbers and numerals Recognition of landmarks Y
Recognition of facial features Recognition of facial expressions Y Y Perception/recognition of body language Y 5 Visual imagination Mathematical abstract space Y
Y Y x Y Detection and discrimination of motion Y Perception of distances and depth Y
Simultan perception, - agnosia y Neglect X Eye-hand- co-ordination Copying from near space, from far Use of egocentric near space Use of allocentric space
Y Y Integration problems, sensory, sensomotor X Hypersensitivity to noise, visual, auditory Y Inhibitory functions, their insufficiencies Y 11 ? 30
Rectangles Mailbox Heidi Expressions- Colorama 26.2.2000; 3years 8 (corr. 5) months 31 Matching pictures of faces normal prosopagnosi, recognition of faces had not developed In communication situations she did not perceive movements of
lipps or facial expressions, listened carefully. She is therefore experienced autistic. Nov.2001, 4 yrs Other common problems
COMMON PROBLEMS A Sensory integration B Visual overload C Auditory overload D Spec. memory problems E Hearing
F Mobility G Hand functions H Executive functions I Visual ergonomics J Devices in classroom K Devices at home L Vision in participation M Attitudes of other people SUMMARY A Communication B Moving C Activities of daily living
D Sustained visual tasks Could the "profile of visual functioning" become a carrier of information between education, medicine, and social services? Lea Hyvrinen, MD, PhD, FAAP Technical University of Dortmund University of Helsinki With Amanda Hall Lueck and Gran Cedermark 34
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