Economic Psychology Gloria Foldvary John F. Kennedy University
Economic Psychology Gloria Foldvary John F. Kennedy University California, USA Ronnie Robot Is Here to Serve You! * Thank You for the opportunity to serve you. It is my pleasure and honor to give you information on Economics and Psychology. * First I must instruct you on how to control me. I am only a robot, so you must follow the rules.
* To make Ronnie Robot speak more slowly you MUST STAMP YOU FEET. To make Ronnie Robot speak more quickly you MUST STAND UP. We do not play games in school, but you are using controls to help Ronnie Robot help you learn. Definitions Economics = The Science of UTILITY Psychology = The Science of BEHAVIOR Psychology has an effect on UTILITY Individual consumption of goods Group consumption of goods
Mass consumption of goods There are many cognitive biases Somatic Psychology is Holistic Chinese medicine is holistic Good for the individual Good for group collectively Somatic Psychology is the 4th school of Psychology We feel the way we move through our day Be conscious of how you feel all day
Body Awareness How do we fit into our environment? Do we take up a Big or Small space? How do our bodily movements affect us? Does our stomach hurt at night? Our back? We can adjust for optimal heath once we are aware of how we can help ourselves. We can breath, meditate, avoid tension and stress, or change the environment to make us better! Somatic Psychology and Economics
People who are functioning on a high level will be more successful and productive They will be better students, family members and citizens This directly affects economics People will be better consumers People will be better producers People, Groups, Companies and Countries benefit This is a win-win situation for everyone Cognitive Biases Overconfidence effect
People tend to think that they are better than average regarding business etc. This leads to speculation and mistakes. Answers that people rate as "99% certain" turn out to be wrong 40% of the time. - Authenticity helps us make better decisions When we are aware of our somatic self, and we are being REALISTIC about our abilities, we have an advantage. ANCHORING Definition = Getting stuck in the past
Example: you buy stock at 50 per share and stock drop to 40. Instead of selling, you obsess on getting your money back. Stock then drops to 30, and you still wont sell. You buy concert tickets for 100. You are invited to the best party of your life on the same night as the concert. Do you go to the concert or the party? This is marginal analysis looking at future costs and benefits ignoring sunk costs. Recency Bias Definition: the tendency of people to place too much weight on the most recent events
Events further in the past might be more important Example: An Earthquake occurs. People base their buying needs on concern that they experienced a recent earthquake. They might buy too many earthquake supplies even thought strong earthquakes are quite rare. Cognitive biases Ambiguity effect the tendency to avoid options for which missing information makes the probability seem "unknown. ie. I can travel to Hawaii but plane
may be late so I wont go Attentional bias the tendency of emotionally dominant stimuli in one's environment to preferentially draw and hold attention and to neglect relevant data when making judgments of a correlation or association. Ie. Americans eat junk food because it tastes good and neglect healthy choices Cognitive bias Availability heuristic estimating what is more likely by what is more available in memory, which is biased toward vivid, unusual, or emotionally charged examples. If it was
that way in the past = future Availability cascade a self-reinforcing process in which a collective belief gains more and more plausibility through its increasing repetition in public discourse (or "repeat something long enough and it will become true"). Backfire effect when people react to disconfirming evidence by strengthening their beliefs. People dont want beliefs challenged. Cognitive bias Bandwagon effect the tendency to do (or believe) things because many other people do (or believe) the same. Related
to groupthink and herd behavior. Base rate neglect or Base rate fallacy the tendency to base judgments on specifics, ignoring general statistical information. Belief bias an effect where someone's evaluation of the logical strength of an argument is biased by the believability of the conclusion. Bias blind spot the tendency to see oneself as less biased than other people, or to be able to identify more cognitive biases in others than in oneself. Cognitive bias Choice-supportive bias the tendency to remember
one's choices as better than they actually were. Clustering illusion the tendency to under-expect runs, streaks or clusters in small samples of random data Confirmation bias the tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions. Congruence bias the tendency to test hypotheses exclusively through direct testing, in contrast to tests of possible alternative hypotheses. Cognitive biases Conjunction fallacy the tendency to assume that
specific conditions are more probable than general ones. Conservatism or Regressive Bias tendency to underestimate high values and high likelihoods/probabilities/frequencies and overestimate low ones. Based on the observed evidence, estimates are not extreme enough. Conservatism (Bayesian) the tendency to belief update insufficiently but predictably as a result of new evidence (estimates of conditional probabilities are conservative) Cognitive bias Contrast effect the enhancement or diminishing of a
weight or other measurement when compared with a recently observed contrasting object. Curse of knowledge when knowledge of a topic diminishes one's ability to think about it from a lessinformed perspective. Decoy effect preferences change when there is a third option that is asymmetrically dominated Denomination effect the tendency to spend more money when it is denominated in small amounts (e.g. coins) rather than large amounts (e.g. bills). Cognitive Biases
Distinction bias the tendency to view two options as more dissimilar when evaluating them simultaneously than when evaluating them separately. Duration neglect the neglect of the duration of an episode in determining its value Empathy gap the tendency to underestimate the influence or strength of feelings, in either oneself or others. Endowment effect the fact that people often demand much more to give up an object than they would be willing to pay to acquire it. Cognitive biases
Essentialism categorizing people and things according to their essential nature, in spite of variations. Exaggerated expectation based on the estimates, realworld evidence turns out to be less extreme than our expectations (conditionally inverse of the conservatism bias). Experimenter's or Expectation bias the tendency for experimenters to believe, certify, and publish data that agree with their expectations for the outcome of an experiment, and to disbelieve, discard, or downgrade the corresponding weightings for data that appear to conflict with those expectations. Cognitive biases
Functional fixedness - limits a person to using an object only in the way it is traditionally used Focusing effect the tendency to place too much importance on one aspect of an event; causes error in accurately predicting the utility of a future outcome. Framing effect drawing different conclusions from the same information, depending on how or by whom that information is presented. Frequency illusion the illusion in which a word, a name or other thing that has recently come to one's attention suddenly appears "everywhere" with improbable frequency (see also recency illusion). Sometimes called "The Baader-Meinhof phenomenon".
Cognitive biases Gambler's fallacy the tendency to think that future probabilities are altered by past events, when in reality they are unchanged. Results from an erroneous conceptualization of the Law of large numbers. For example, "I've flipped heads with this coin five times consecutively, so the chance of tails coming out on the sixth flip is much greater than heads." Hard-easy effect Based on a specific level of task difficulty, the confidence in judgments is too conservative and not extreme enough. Hindsight bias sometimes called the "I-knew-it-all-along" effect,
the tendency to see past events as being predictable at the time those events happened.(sometimes phrased as "Hindsight is 20/20") Cognitive biases Hostile media effect the tendency to see a media report as being biased due to one's own strong partisan views. Hyperbolic discounting the tendency for people to have a stronger preference for more immediate payoffs relative to later payoffs, where the tendency increases the closer to the present both payoffs are. Illusion of control the tendency to overestimate one's degree of influence over other external events.
Illusion of validity when consistent but predictively weak data leads to confident predictions. Cognitive biases Illusory correlation inaccurately perceiving a relationship between two unrelated events. Impact bias the tendency to overestimate the length or the intensity of the impact of future feeling states. Information bias the tendency to seek information even when it cannot affect action. Insensitivity to sample size the tendency to
under-expect variation in small samples Cognitive biases Irrational escalation the phenomenon where people justify increased investment in a decision, based on the cumulative prior investment, despite new evidence suggesting that the decision was probably wrong. Just-world hypothesis the tendency for people to want to believe that the world is fundamentally just, causing them to rationalize an otherwise inexplicable injustice as deserved by the victims. Knowledge bias the tendency of people to choose
the option they know best rather than the best option. Cognitive biases Less-is-better effect a preference reversal where a dominated smaller set is preferred to a larger set. Loss aversion "the disutility of giving up an object is greater than the utility associated with acquiring it". Mere exposure effect the tendency to express undue liking for things merely because of familiarity with them.
Cognitive biases Money illusion the tendency to concentrate on the nominal (face value) of money rather than its value in terms of purchasing power. Moral credential effect the tendency of a track record of non-prejudice to increase subsequent prejudice. Negativity bias the tendency to pay more attention and give more weight to negative than positive experiences or other kinds of information. Neglect of probability the tendency to completely disregard probability when making a decision under
uncertainty. Cognitive bias Normalcy bias the refusal to plan for, or react to, a disaster which has never happened before. Observer-expectancy effect when a researcher expects a given result and therefore unconsciously manipulates an experiment or misinterprets data in order to find it. Omission bias the tendency to judge harmful actions as worse, or less moral, than equally harmful omissions (inactions). Optimism bias the tendency to be over-optimistic,
overestimating favorable and pleasing outcomes. Cognitive biases Ostrich effect ignoring an obvious (negative) situation. Outcome bias the tendency to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of based on the quality of the decision at the time it was made. Pareidolia a vague and random stimulus (often an image or sound) is perceived as significant, e.g., seeing images of animals or faces in clouds, the man in the moon, and hearing non-existent hidden messages on
records played in reverse. Cognitive biases Pessimism bias the tendency for some people, especially those suffering from depression, to overestimate the likelihood of negative things happening to them. Planning fallacy the tendency to underestimate taskcompletion times. Post-purchase rationalization the tendency to persuade oneself through rational argument that a purchase was a good value. Pro-innovation bias the tendency to reflect a personal bias towards an invention/innovation, while often failing to identify
limitations and weaknesses or address the possibility of failure. Cognitive biases Pseudocertainty effect the tendency to make riskaverse choices if the expected outcome is positive, but make risk-seeking choices to avoid negative outcomes. Reactance the urge to do the opposite of what someone wants you to do out of a need to resist a perceived attempt to constrain your freedom of choice. Reactive devaluation devaluing proposals that are no longer hypothetical or purportedly originated with an adversary.
Cognitive biases Restraint bias the tendency to overestimate one's ability to show restraint in the face of temptation. Rhyme as reason effect rhyming statements are perceived as more truthful. Selective perception the tendency for expectations to affect perception. Semmelweis reflex the tendency to reject new evidence that contradicts a paradigm. Social comparison bias the tendency, when making hiring decisions, to favour potential candidates who don't compete with one's own particular strengths.
Cognitive biases Social desirability bias - the tendency to overreport socially desirable characteristics or behaviors and under-report socially undesirable characteristics or behaviors. Status quo bias the tendency to like things to stay relatively the same. Stereotyping expecting a member of a group to have certain characteristics without having actual information about that individual. Cognitive biases
Subadditivity effect the tendency to estimate that the likelihood of an event is less than the sum of its (more than two) mutually exclusive components. Subjective validation perception that something is true if a subject's belief demands it to be true. Also assigns perceived connections between coincidences. Time-saving bias underestimations of the time that could be saved (or lost) when increasing (or decreasing) from a relatively low speed and overestimations of the time that could be saved (or lost) when increasing (or decreasing) from a relatively high speed.
Cognitive biases Unit bias the tendency to want to finish a given unit of a task or an item. Strong effects on the consumption of food in particular. Well travelled road effect underestimation of the duration taken to traverse oft-traveled routes and over-estimate the duration taken to traverse less familiar routes. Zero-risk bias preference for reducing a small risk to zero over a greater reduction in a larger risk. Cognitive biases
Zero-sum heuristic Intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., that gains and losses are correlated). Derives from the zerosum game in game theory, where wins and losses sum to zero. The frequency with which this bias occurs may be related to the social dominance orientation personality factor. Plans and Motives of Consumers Consumption unpredictable because of individual Plans and Motives not like robots Understanding Psychology helps create order in consumption
Impulse, whims, suggestions and emotions The poor live in subsistence dont plan ahead The rich live well, buy what they want and dont need to plan Some Purchase of Durable Goods Is Planned and Not Planned People will Budget for Large Expenditures some dont and purchase anyway People purchase Subjectively for Small Expenditures Based on Prejudices, impulses, misinformation
Supply and Demand Based on Necessity Example : When heater breaks Buy new one Business Motivation Reason for business is to make profit Entrepreneur takes the risk and invests in a new company or product. He hires workers and pays them a wage After he pays for overhead and other expenses he takes the net gain and reinvests in business or product
He sets prices based on market demand and his production cost Subjective Values in Business Values are subjective, people want different things Entrepreneur can use this in negotiations Entrepreneur can exchange items of low subjective value to him, but of high subjective value to his trading partner For example an entrepreneur who wanted to buy a shopping center, offered to name the shopping
center after the seller Subjective Values in Business A philanthropist donates money to build hospital that carries his name Donations are made to the arts and the benefactors have their names printed in the media or on plaques Self interest or sympathy Sympathy can be generated by using psychological methods to make someone identify with a community or a cause
Diminishing Marginal Utility As people get more and more of the same thing eventually extra amounts provide less and less extra utility The all-you-can-eat buffet is an example where you start to eat and gradually stop because extra amounts of foods become less and less satisfying
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