Basic Biomechanical Factors and Concepts Anatomy and Physiology

Basic Biomechanical Factors and Concepts Anatomy and Physiology

Basic Biomechanical Factors and Concepts Anatomy and Physiology of Human Movement 420:050 1 Outline Levers Anatomical

Levers 2 Outline Levers Anatomical Levers

3 Introduction to Levers Lever: Simple machine that operates according to principle of torques Torque: The turning effect of a force T = Fd 4

d How can you change torque? 1. Change F 2. Change d 3. Change direction of F F 5

d Optimal direction = 90 degrees F 6 Function of Levers

Two functions: 1. Force 2. Speed/ROM 7 Function of Levers Force

Examples? Common traits? Rigid bar

Fixed point Lever movement vs. resistance movement 8 F R 9 Function of Levers

Speed/ROM Examples? Common traits?

Rigid bar Fixed point Lever movement vs. resistance movement 10 F R 11

Components of a Lever System Lever: Rigid bar Fulcrum: Axis of rotation/fixed point Force:

Applied force (F) Resistance force (R) Moment arm: d Applied force Resistance

12 More Concepts Mechanical Levers designed for force Mechanical

advantage disadvantage Levers designed for speed/ROM 13 F R

Mechanical advantage or disadvantage? How does mechanical advantage affect movement of the lever? 14 Advantage: Small effort moves big resistance Disadvantage: Big movement required to move resistance a

small distance 15 Human Application?

Lever? Bones (Not always a bar) Fulcrum? Joints Applied force? Muscles Resistance force? Weight of limb, external resistance 16

Classification of Levers Lever classification based on the relative location of: 1. Axis of rotation/fulcrum (A) 2. Resistance force (R) 3. Applied force (F) ARF 17

First Class Lever Center: (A) Axis of rotation/fulcrum Mechanical advantage Mechanical disadvantage Examples Crow bar Seesaw

18 19 Advantage or disadvantage? Second Class Lever Center: (R) Resistance force

Mechanical advantage Mechanical disadvantage Always

Never Examples Wheelbarrow Nutcracker 20 21 Third Class Lever

Center: (F) Applied force Mechanical advantage Mechanical disadvantage

Never Always Examples Rowing Shoveling Bat, tennis racket 22

Baseball, tennis? 23 Human Application First class lever

Elbow extension against a resistance 24 Mechanical advantage or disadvantage (R) Resistance force (F) Applied force (A) Axis of rotation/fulcrum

25 Human Application Second class lever Ankle plantar flexion 26

Mechanical advantage or disadvantage? Not many in the body 27 Human Application Third class lever

Elbow flexion 28 Mechanical advantage or disadvantage? Many of these in body29 In general, is the human body built for force

application or speed/ROM? 30

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