Basic Biomechanical Factors and Concepts Anatomy and Physiology
Basic Biomechanical Factors and Concepts Anatomy and Physiology of Human Movement 420:050 1 Outline Levers Anatomical
Levers 2 Outline Levers Anatomical Levers
3 Introduction to Levers Lever: Simple machine that operates according to principle of torques Torque: The turning effect of a force T = Fd 4
d How can you change torque? 1. Change F 2. Change d 3. Change direction of F F 5
d Optimal direction = 90 degrees F 6 Function of Levers
Two functions: 1. Force 2. Speed/ROM 7 Function of Levers Force
Examples? Common traits? Rigid bar
Fixed point Lever movement vs. resistance movement 8 F R 9 Function of Levers
Speed/ROM Examples? Common traits?
Rigid bar Fixed point Lever movement vs. resistance movement 10 F R 11
Components of a Lever System Lever: Rigid bar Fulcrum: Axis of rotation/fixed point Force:
Applied force (F) Resistance force (R) Moment arm: d Applied force Resistance
12 More Concepts Mechanical Levers designed for force Mechanical
advantage disadvantage Levers designed for speed/ROM 13 F R
Mechanical advantage or disadvantage? How does mechanical advantage affect movement of the lever? 14 Advantage: Small effort moves big resistance Disadvantage: Big movement required to move resistance a
small distance 15 Human Application?
Lever? Bones (Not always a bar) Fulcrum? Joints Applied force? Muscles Resistance force? Weight of limb, external resistance 16
Classification of Levers Lever classification based on the relative location of: 1. Axis of rotation/fulcrum (A) 2. Resistance force (R) 3. Applied force (F) ARF 17
First Class Lever Center: (A) Axis of rotation/fulcrum Mechanical advantage Mechanical disadvantage Examples Crow bar Seesaw
18 19 Advantage or disadvantage? Second Class Lever Center: (R) Resistance force
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