ESCAPE Chapter 3 Biologically vs. Psychologically Aversive Conditions
ESCAPE Chapter 3 Biologically vs. Psychologically Aversive Conditions Biologically Aversive High & low temp Painful stimuli that can cut or bruise Spoiled food that
smells bad Psychologically Aversive Tendency to minimize contact with biologically aversive stimuli Escape
A response is immediately followed by escape from something What are the somethings that a person would want to escape from? What do these have in common?
Electric shock Smelling a skunk (unpleasant odor) Jack hammers constant drilling Hot pepper sauce (painful stimuli) Minimize Contact We minimize contact with those stimuli or events These conditions are aversive
Escaping these conditions can strengthen the behavior that resulted in escape Examples Before Ed receives painful shock Behavior Ed moves leg
After Ed receives no painful shock Jo smells skunk Jo turns & walks Jo smells no away skunk Ed hears loud jack hammer
Ed puts on Ed hears no loud protective plugs jack hammer BEFORE BEHAVIOR AFTER
John is hot John stands in front of fan John is not hot BEFORE BEHAVIOR AFTER John is cold John stands in front of heater John is not cold
Aversive Condition Aversive Condition = Negative Reinforcer Aversive Condition Any stimulus, event, or condition whose termination immediately following a
response increases that response Harmful vs. Aversive Are all biologically harmful conditions psychologically aversive? Is plaque on teeth aversive Are all aversive conditions harmful? Is a hypodermic needle full of penicillin
We cant rely on our animal nature to steer us away from harmful substances Adversive vs. Aversive Adversive is not a word Aversive comes from aversion (intense dislike) Dislike is not a reliable criterion for aversive conditions. Defined as aversive only if its termination
reinforces an escape response. Escape Principle A response becomes more likely if it has immediately removed or reduced an aversive condition in the past. Escape Contingency The immediate, response-contingent removal of an aversive condition resulting
in an increased frequency of that response. Tree Diagram B a s ic R e in fo r c e m e n t C o n tin g e n c ie s R e in fo rc e m e n t E sca pe Contingency Table
Stimulus, event, or condition Reinforcer Aversive Condition Present
demands Intervention Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) The replacement of an inappropriate response with a specific appropriate response that produces the same reinforcing outcome
Inappropriate Natural Contingency Before: Task demands Behavior: John spits After: No task
demands DRA Inappropriate Natural Contingency Behavior: John spits Before: After:
Task demands No task demands Behavior: John asks for break
5 0 Baseline DRA Functional Assessment An analysis of the contingencies responsible for behavioral problems
Functional-Assessment Strategies Interview. Talk to the person with the behavior problem and those who interact with and have direct contact with that person. Observe. Observe the person in his daily routine for an extended period of time. Intervene. Change contingencies that may be reinforcing the problem behavior.
Sick Social Cycle Often aversive behavior occurs because such behavior is reinforced by the attention, approval, or compliance of another person. In turn, the temporary relief from that aversive behavior reinforces the giving of that attention, approval, or compliance by the other person.
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