ESCAPE Chapter 3 Biologically vs. Psychologically Aversive Conditions

ESCAPE Chapter 3 Biologically vs. Psychologically Aversive Conditions

ESCAPE Chapter 3 Biologically vs. Psychologically Aversive Conditions Biologically Aversive High & low temp Painful stimuli that can cut or bruise Spoiled food that

smells bad Psychologically Aversive Tendency to minimize contact with biologically aversive stimuli Escape

A response is immediately followed by escape from something What are the somethings that a person would want to escape from? What do these have in common?

Electric shock Smelling a skunk (unpleasant odor) Jack hammers constant drilling Hot pepper sauce (painful stimuli) Minimize Contact We minimize contact with those stimuli or events These conditions are aversive

Escaping these conditions can strengthen the behavior that resulted in escape Examples Before Ed receives painful shock Behavior Ed moves leg

After Ed receives no painful shock Jo smells skunk Jo turns & walks Jo smells no away skunk Ed hears loud jack hammer

Ed puts on Ed hears no loud protective plugs jack hammer BEFORE BEHAVIOR AFTER

John is hot John stands in front of fan John is not hot BEFORE BEHAVIOR AFTER John is cold John stands in front of heater John is not cold

Aversive Condition Aversive Condition = Negative Reinforcer Aversive Condition Any stimulus, event, or condition whose termination immediately following a

response increases that response Harmful vs. Aversive Are all biologically harmful conditions psychologically aversive? Is plaque on teeth aversive Are all aversive conditions harmful? Is a hypodermic needle full of penicillin

We cant rely on our animal nature to steer us away from harmful substances Adversive vs. Aversive Adversive is not a word Aversive comes from aversion (intense dislike) Dislike is not a reliable criterion for aversive conditions. Defined as aversive only if its termination

reinforces an escape response. Escape Principle A response becomes more likely if it has immediately removed or reduced an aversive condition in the past. Escape Contingency The immediate, response-contingent removal of an aversive condition resulting

in an increased frequency of that response. Tree Diagram B a s ic R e in fo r c e m e n t C o n tin g e n c ie s R e in fo rc e m e n t E sca pe Contingency Table

Stimulus, event, or condition Reinforcer Aversive Condition Present

Remove Reinforcement Escape Inappropriate natural contingency Before:

Behavior: After: Task demands John spits No task

demands Intervention Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) The replacement of an inappropriate response with a specific appropriate response that produces the same reinforcing outcome

Inappropriate Natural Contingency Before: Task demands Behavior: John spits After: No task

demands DRA Inappropriate Natural Contingency Behavior: John spits Before: After:

Task demands No task demands Behavior: John asks for break

Performance-Management Contingency Spitting Graph Frequency Count 30 25 20 15 10

5 0 Baseline DRA Functional Assessment An analysis of the contingencies responsible for behavioral problems

Functional-Assessment Strategies Interview. Talk to the person with the behavior problem and those who interact with and have direct contact with that person. Observe. Observe the person in his daily routine for an extended period of time. Intervene. Change contingencies that may be reinforcing the problem behavior.

Sick Social Cycle Often aversive behavior occurs because such behavior is reinforced by the attention, approval, or compliance of another person. In turn, the temporary relief from that aversive behavior reinforces the giving of that attention, approval, or compliance by the other person.

Page 53 DRA ___33._____________ Natural Contingency Behavior: John spits Before: After:

34. No task demands Behavior: 35. _36.________________ Contingency

Enrichment Before: Behavior: After: Shock on

Press Lever Shock off Psychoanalysis vs. Behavior Analysis Which is which? 1. The consequences of past behavior cause current behavior

2. Past experience causes current behavior by channeling unconscious mental forces What does the toothpaste view of abnormal behavior?

How does it distract us? Fundamental Terms Traditional vs. Malott

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Sense Organs Copyright  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission

    Sense Organs Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission

    tunica fibrosa - outer fibrous layer. sclera - dense, collagenous white of the eye. cornea - transparent area of sclera that admits light into eye. tunica vasculosa (uvea) - middle vascular layer. choroid - highly vascular, deeply pigmented layer behind...
  • Challenges for ONS Modernisation Dayantha Joshua IM Vision

    Challenges for ONS Modernisation Dayantha Joshua IM Vision

    Challenges for ONS Modernisation Dayantha Joshua IM Vision (2001-2006) ONS - what do we do ? ONS is actually 2 businesses Responsible for a large amount of statistical outputs in England & Wales Responsible for managing the registration of births,...
  • Epidemic Pneumococcal Serotypes in Nigeria

    Epidemic Pneumococcal Serotypes in Nigeria

    Systematic evaluation and serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease among children under five: The Pneumococcal Global Serotype Project. PLoS. Medicine 2010. 7(10). E1000348. 12. Black S, Shinefield. HR, Ling S et al. effectiveness of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children younger...
  • Prezentace aplikace PowerPoint

    Prezentace aplikace PowerPoint

    Porovnávanie údajov RIS a Eduzber (September 2017 - SFaR) *
  • Key Concepts and Skills - KSU Faculty

    Key Concepts and Skills - KSU Faculty

    More Bankruptcy Costs. Indirect bankruptcy costs. Larger than direct costs, but more difficult to measure and estimate. Stockholders want to avoid a formal bankruptcy filing. Bondholders want to keep existing assets intact so they can at least receive that money....
  • Bellringer - Loudoun County Public Schools

    Bellringer - Loudoun County Public Schools

    Bellringer: 11/30 and 12/1. 1. Pick up papers by the door. 2. Take out Greek Culture reading from the AP book. ... Homeric Epics. Epic = long poem about a hero, important to a culture. ... Continuously question. Formulate your...
  • MicroStation и проектирование промышленных предприятий

    MicroStation и проектирование промышленных предприятий

    automatic calculation of values such as weight, length, reinforcing ring properties (in both cylindrical shells and saddle supports), circumference chord length, etc.after input of element dimensions and material properties;. calculation of fluid volume, fill height, filling ratio and hydrostatic pressure...
  • Programmable PID Temperature Control of Multi-Zone Multi-Tube ...

    Programmable PID Temperature Control of Multi-Zone Multi-Tube ...

    Bulk Micromachining of Silicon for MEMS Three-Layer Poly-Silicon Surface Micromachining Process Surface Micromachined Micromachining of Projection Camera M (CMOS-IC Technology) + E (CMOS-IC Technology) + M (Silicon and Sacrificial Layers) + O (Aluminum) + S (IC Packaging Technology) M.G.Guvench Surface...