International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 PENETRATION OF HIGH

International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 PENETRATION OF HIGH

International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 PENETRATION OF HIGH DENSITY TUNGSTEN BASE POROUS JETS MEIR MAYSELESS & DOV IPS-15-7 1 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 OUTLINE - INTRODUCTION - POWDERS - SIMULATIONS - CONCLUSIONS 2 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015

POROUS POWDERED LINERS ARE BEING USED BECAUSE 1. The need to avoid plugging in the formed hole by the slug 2. The low cost of their production 3. The deep and wide penetration they achieve in the rock formation 4. The high efficiency of their penetration depth capabilities into rocks 3 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 POROUS POWDERED LINERS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY 1. The porosity 2. The relatively high density 3. The very short standoff in which they typically operate Powder W R. Brown et. al. 1992

Cu 4 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 POROUS POWDERED LINERS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY 1. 2. 3. 3. 4. 5. 6. Shape Density Porosity Composition of the liner material

Size distribution and morphology of particles Type of powder (coated, strength, reactive) Manufacturing process ALL THESE POINTS ARE CRUCIAL FOR ACHIEVING HIGH PERFORMANCES 5 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 POROUS POWDERED JETS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The radial expansion The breakup phenomenon

The density changes during flight The slug structure Their penetration characteristics 6 750m/s 1050m/s 12 1 10 10 0.8

8 8 1 ] 12 1230m/s 6 6 4 4

2 2 0 0 100 200 300 400 P E N E T R A T I O N [mm] 500 0

600 RADIUS SCAN [m m ] 3 M A S S D E N S I T Y [g/cm International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 RADIAL EXPANSION 0.8 POROUS

0.6 0.6 SCAN 0.4 0.4 SOLID 0.2 0.2 0 0 0

100 200 TIME OF 300 FLIGHT 400 [s] 500 7 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 MODELLING POWDERED JETS PENETRATION 8

International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 MODELLING POWDERED JETS PENETRATION 9 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 MODELLING POWDERED JETS PENETRATION P SCAN 1 0 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 WHY ARE POROUS POWDERED JETS SO

EFFECTIVE? MAIN REASONS: High density jet tip to penetrate the Gun and the Case At low density > low penetration rate > wider crater No jet breakup > straight jet > enables longer jet and tail penetration 1 1 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 OPERATIONAL METHODS CONSTAINS RESULTS IN: GENERALLY SPEAKING, AS A RESULT OF THE OPERATIONAL METHOD, THE JETS NEED TO BE LONG, HENCE THEIR TIP VELOCITY NEEDS TO BE HIGH. THE EFFECTIVE TAIL VELOCITY DEPENDS ON THE TARGET PROPERTIES, STRENGTH AND PRESSURE. TO ACHIEVE THESE REQUIREMENTS WE NEED TO OPERATE IN TWO MAIN DIRECTIONS:

1. DESIGN CORRECTLY THE SHAPED CHARGE GEOMETRY 2. USE THE CORRECT MATERIAL COMPOSITION THESE TWO REQUIREMENTS SHOULD BE COMBINED ! 12 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 CHALLANGES The challenges today are greater than before since people started to recognize the importance of: 1. The internal pressure in the formation 2. The liquid or gas in the saturated rock 3. The exact morphology of the rock 4. The potential behind reactive jets 5. The very deep wells (temperature, pressure) 6. Crater channel profile 13

International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 POWDER COMRESSIBILITY PARAMETERS - Particle Shape - Particle hardness - Internal Porosity - Particle size distribution - Alloying elements - Lubricants - Pressing pressure 14 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 CONTROLLED PACKING WITH COATING TECHNOLOGY COATED 85W-15Cu (CCTP 85 S)

15 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 FRACTOGRAPH OF PRESSED CONES Filling of space Materials (2) X500 X500 50 50 Cu-W-Pb W-Cu

16 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 MICROSTRUCTURE W-Cu-Pb-C 17 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 SLUG Cu-W-Pb X500 50 X500 50

18 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 Max. Tungsten Packing By Mixture of Particle Sizes Medium W Packing Density (D) Maximum Coarse W Large Medium all m

S Small W 70% Mixing different particle size Improves Packing Density. Small particles fills voids between large particles. 70% large particles and 30% small (% Vol.) leads to optimal packing. DS Small DL

% Large Optimal packing 100% Large 19 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 POWDER COMPOSITION EFFECTS 12.24 g/cm3 10.16 g/cm3 6.60 g/cm3 4.57 g/cm3 3.76 g/cm3 Penetration depth in a steel target versus focal distance for a ZKM-38 shaped charge with a liner of a WCuSn porous composite (curve 1 for 00 =

10.16 g/cm3), WPb composite (curve 2for 00 =12.24 g/cm3), copper (curve 3 for 00 = 6.60 g/cm3 and curve 4 for 00 = 3.76 g/cm3 [7]), and nickel (curve 5 for 00 = 4.57 g/cm3 [7]). Yu. I. Voitenkoa1, S. V. Goshovskiia, A. G. Drachuka, V. P. Bugaets, Mechanical Effect of Shaped Charges with Porous Liners. Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 109116, 2013. 20 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 GRAIN SIZE EFFECTS (Cu) Penetration depth of shaped charge ZG2-42 versus grain size of the powdered liner material. Yu. I. Voitenkoa1, S. V. Goshovskiia, A. G. Drachuka, V. P. Bugaets, Mechanical Effect of Shaped Charges with Porous Liners. Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 109116, 2013. 21 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015

Influence of the grain size of Cu-W on the jet behavior and comparison with solid copper A. Lichtenberger Tungsten Refractory Metals & Alloys (4) 1998 22 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 % 100 90 80 70 W (Wt %) W (Vol %) Cu (Wt %) Cu (Vol %)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 8.90 9.41 9.98 10.62 11.35 12.18

13.15 14.29 15.64 17.28 19.30 Density g/cc W-Cu density versus Wt % & Vol. % 23 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 THE FOCUSING or CHANNELING EFFECT

POROUS JET The higher the density of the powder the lower the dispersion 24 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 AXIAL STRENGTH EFFECT Larry Behrmann Sclumberger 25 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 ROCK PRESSURE AND STRENGTH EFFECTS SMALLER CRATER DELAYED AND LARGE COLLAPSE OF THE CRATER

WALL THAT MIGHT DISTURBE THE SLOWER PARTS OF THE JET HIGHER CUTOFF VELOCITY HOW TO COPE WITH THE PROBLEM?? INNOVATION 26 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 POROUS SC LINERS NEEDS New avenues: Hybrid liners Metal layer in the liner-explosive interface, for good mismatch Metal layer in the liner free interface to reduce jet radial expansion but to increase target radial enlargement. 27

Some effects need to be evaluated by fully numerical codes Some effects can be better simulated by an engineering model, like SCAN T I M E [s] International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 SIMULATIONS NEEDED 500 500 400 400 Experiment

300 200 300 200 SCAN 100 100 0 0 100 200 300

400 500 0 600 P E N E T R A T I O N [mm] Los Alamos Laboratory -- Using PAGOSA to model shaped explosive 28 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 CONCLUSIONS High density porous jets were found to perform very well in soil materials.

The penetration of a straight jet stops only if the jet cannot overcome the soil compression strength or if it becomes much wider than the crater width, causing a choking effect. In our opinion, porous jets can be further improved by employing a theoretical approach like the one applied here using the SCAN code and by employing the correct material blend for the liner 29 International Perforating Symposium Europe 2015 THANKS 30

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