Introduction to Poetry Poetic Devices & Terms A

Introduction to Poetry Poetic Devices & Terms A

Introduction to Poetry Poetic Devices & Terms A piece of writing that contains metaphors, similes, rhythm, rhyme and imagery in a stanzaic structure. The repetition of the initial letter or sound in two or more words in a To the lay-person, these line.are called tongue-twisters. Example: How much dew would a dewdrop drop if a dewdrop did drop dew? Alliteration

Alliteration She Walks in Beauty I. She walks in beauty, like the night Of cloudless climes and starry skies; And all thats best of dark and bright Meet in her aspect and her eyes: Thus mellowed to that tender light Which Heaven to gaudy day denies. These examples use the beginning sounds of words only twice in a line, but by definition, thats all you need.

Alliteration Lets see what this looks like in a poem. Words that spell out sounds; words that sound like what they mean. Examples: growl, hiss, pop, boom, crack, ptthhhbbb. Lets see what this looks like in a poem.

Noise Day by Shel Silverstein Lets have one day for girls and boyses When you can make the grandest noises. Screech, scream, holler, and yell Onomatopoeia Buzz a buzzer, clang a bell, Sneeze hiccup whistle shout, Laugh until your lungs wear out, Several other words not highlighted could

also be considered as onomatopoeia. Can you find any? Toot a whistle, kick a can, Bang a spoon against a pan, Sing, yodel, bellow, hum, Blow a horn, beat a drum, Rattle a window, slam a door, Scrape a rake across the floor . . .. A comparison between two usually unrelated things using the word like or as. Examples:

Joe is as hungry as a bear. In the morning, Rae is like an angry lion. Similes: ?v=sPqtTy4UmoA Simile Ars Poetica By Archibald MacLeish A poem should be palpable and mute as a globed fruit, Silent as the sleeve-worn

stone Of casement ledges where the moss has grown A poem should be wordless As the flight of birds. Simile Lets see what this looks like in a poem. Simile An implied comparison between two usually unrelated things.

Examples: Lenny is a snake. Ginny is a mouse when it comes to standing up for herself. The difference between a simile and a metaphor is that a simile requires either like or as to be included in the comparison, and a metaphor requires that neither be used. Metaphors: ?v=Ds08yQWIIk4 When it comes to using a metaphor device in

poetry, a poet can either make the entire poem a metaphor for something, or put little metaphors throughout the poem. The following poem is one big metaphor. An exaggeration for the sake of emphasis. Examples: I may sweat to death. The blood bank needs a river of blood. Giving human characteristics to inanimate objects, ideas, or animals.

Example: The sun stretched its lazy fingers over the valley. The repetition of sounds End rhyme- the last word on each line rhymes. Example: hat, cat, brat, fat, mat, sat My Beard by Shel Silverstein My beard grows to my toes, I never wears no clothes, I wraps my hair

Around my bare, And down the road I goes. Internal rhyme- Words INSIDE the sentence rhyme. What is Symbolism? A symbol is something that stands for itself, but also something larger than itself. It may be a person, an animal, an inanimate object, or an action . A writer often uses a concrete object to express an abstract idea, a quality, or a belief. A symbol may appeal to a reader's emotions and can provide a way to express an idea, communicate a message, or clarify meaning

Using words to create a picture in the readers mind. Imagery Imagery is the use of words to create pictures, or images, in your mind.

Appeals to the five senses: smell, sight, hearing, taste and touch. Details about smells, sounds, colors, and taste create strong images. To create vivid images writers use figures of speech. Five Senses 15 Imagery Example His palms are sweaty, Knees weak,

Arms are heavy There's vomit on his sweater already, Mom's spaghetti. Poetry that follows no rules. Just about anything goes. This does not mean that it uses no devices, it just means that this type of poetry does not follow traditional conventions such as punctuation, capitalization, rhyme scheme, rhythm and meter, etc Fog The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches

and then, moves on. No Rhyme No Rhythm No Meter This is free verse. Free Verse A free verse poem does not use rhyme or patterns. Can vary freely in length of lines, stanzas, and subject.

Revenge When I find out who took the last cooky out of the jar and left me a bunch of stale old messy crumbs, I'm going to take me a handful and crumb up someone's bed. By Myra Cohn Livingston 18

Rhythm Rhythm is the flow of the beat in a poem. Gives poetry a musical feel. Can be fast or slow, depending on mood and subject of poem. You can measure rhythm in meter, by counting the beats in each line. Rhythm Example The Pickety Fence by David McCord The pickety fence The pickety fence

Give it a lick it's The pickety fence Give it a lick it's A clickety fence Give it a lick it's a lickety fence Give it a lick Give it a lick Give it a lick With a rickety stick pickety pickety pickety pick. The rhythm in this poem is fast to match the speed of the stick

striking the fence. 20 Rhythm Example Where Are You Now? When the night begins to fall And the sky begins to glow You look up and see the tall City of lights begin to grow In rows and little golden squares The lights come out. First here, then there Behind the windowpanes as though A million billion bees had built Their golden hives and honeycombs Above you in the air.

The rhythm in this poem is slow to match the night gently falling and the lights slowly coming on. By Mary Britton Miller 21 Lines and Stanzas Most poems are written in lines. A group of lines in a poem is called a stanza. Stanzas separate

ideas in a poem. They act like paragraphs. This poem has two stanzas. March A blue day A blue jay And a good beginning. One crow, Melting snow Springs winning! By Eleanor Farjeon

22 Stanza Example I am a sinner, who's probably gonna sin again Lord forgive me, Lord forgive me Things I don't understand Sometimes I need to be alone Rhyme Scheme Ordered pattern of rhymes at the ends of lines of a poem or verse. Ex: (ABAB Rhyme Scheme) 'The people along the sand A All turn and look one way. B

They turn their back on the land. A They look at the sea all day. B Mood Mood is the atmosphere, or emotion, in the poem created by the poet. Can be happy, angry, silly, sad, excited, fearful or thoughtful. Poet uses words and images to create mood. Authors purpose helps determine mood. (See slides 65-72 for examples.)

25 Mood - Barefoot Days Barefoot Days by Rachel Field In the morning, very early, Thats the time I love to go Barefoot where the fern grows curly And grass is cool between each toe, On a summer morning-O! On a summer morning! That is when the birds go by Up the sunny slopes of air, And each rose has a butterfly Or a golden bee to wear; And I am glad in every toe Such a summer morning-O!

Such a summer morning! The mood in this poem is happy. What clues in the poem can you use to determine the mood? 26 Mood - Mad Song Mad Song I shut my door To keep you out Wont do no good To stand and shout Wont listen to A thing you say

Just time you took Yourself away I lock my door To keep me here Until Im sure You disappear. The mood in this poem is angry. What clues in the poem can you use to determine the mood? By Myra Cohn Livingston 27 Mood - Poem

Poem I loved my friend. He went away from me. Theres nothing more to say. The poem ends, Soft as it began I loved my friend: By Langston Hughes The mood in this poem is sad. What clues in the poem can you use to determine the mood? 28 Diction

Diction refers to the language of a poem, and how each word is chosen to convey a precise meaning. Poets are very deliberate in choosing each word for its particular effect, It's important to know the denotation and connotations of the words in a poem, not to mention their literal meaning, too. 29 Diction From Huckleberry Finn--Huck: "I hain't got no money... It's a lie. Judge Thatcher's got it. You git it. I

want it... I hain't got no money, I tell you. You ask Judge Thatcher; he'll tell you the same." From To Kill a Mockingbird-Jem Finch, a child: "You can choose your friends but you sho' can't choose your family, an' they're still kin to you no matter whether you acknowledge 'em or not, and it makes you look right silly when you don't." Also from To Kill a Mockingbird-Atticus Finch, a lawyer: "They're certainly entitled to think that, and they're entitled to full respect

for their opinions... but before I can live with other folks I've got to live with myself. The one thing that doesn't abide by majority rule is a person's conscience." 30 Tone is the attitude writers take towards their subject . What is the authors attitude towards hockey? Who is the author talking to? Theres This that I like About Hockey, My Lad by John Kieran (continued) Theres this that I like about hockey, old

Theres old chap chap; this that I like about hockey I think youll agree that Im right; Although you may get an occasional rap, Theres always good fun in the fight. good So toss in the puck,fun for the players are set; enemy net Sing ho! For the dash on the enemy net;

And ho! For the smash as a challenge is met; glorious night And hey! For towards a glorious night! Authors Attitude Hockey Author is speaking to Dont Confuse Tone & Mood! *Tone and mood are two different aspects of a poem! * Tone is the author's or the poet's attitude

towards his or her subject. *Mood is how the poem makes the reader or the listener feel. Reading for Meaning To find meaning in a poem, readers ask questions as they read. There are many things to pay attention to when reading a poem: Title Provides clues about topic, mood, speaker, authors purpose? Rhythm Fast or slow? Why? Sound Devices What effects do they have? Imagery What pictures do we make in our minds? Figures of Speech What do they tell us about the subject? Voice Who is speaking - poet or character; one voice or more? Authors Purpose Sending message, sharing feelings, telling story,

being funny, being descriptive? Mood Happy, sad, angry, thoughtful, silly, excited, frightened? Plot What is happening in the poem? Remember, to make meaning, readers must make connections and tap into their background knowledge and prior experiences as they read. 34 Rhetorical Question A question asked for an effect that doesnt require an answer. Acknowledgements Books (Continued): Random House Book of Poetry: A Treasury of 572 Poems for Todays Child. Selected by Jack Prelutsky. NY: Random House, 1983. Recess, Rhyme, and Reason: A Collection of Poems About School. Compiled and

annotated by Patricia M. Stockland. Minneapolis, MS: Compass Point Books, 2004. Teaching 10 Fabulous Forms of Poetry: Great Lessons, Brainstorming Sheets, and Organizers for Writing Haiku, Limericks, Cinquains, and Other Kinds of Poetry Kids Love. Janeczko, Paul B. NY: Scholastic Professional Books, 2000. Tomie DePaolas Book of Poems. Selected by Tomie DePaola. NY: G.P. Putnams Sons, 1988. The Twentieth Century Childrens Poetry Treasury. Selected by Jack Prelutsky. NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999. Weather: Poems. Selected by Lee Bennett Hopkins. NY: HarperCollins, 1994. Writing Poetry with Children. Monterey, CA: Evan-Moor Corp., 1999. 36 Acknowledgements Clip Art and Images Resources: Bible Picture Clip Art Gallery The Bullwinkle Show; Bullwinkles Corner clip art Located at Discovery School Microsoft Office Clip Art 37

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