The Constitution 2 Learning Objectives 2.1 2 Describe

The Constitution 2 Learning Objectives 2.1 2 Describe

The Constitution 2 Learning Objectives 2.1 2 Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role

in shaping the Constitution Video: The Basics 2 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA _1/polisci/presidency/Seg2_Constitution_v2.html Origins of the Constitution Road to Revolution

Declaring Independence English Heritage: Power of Ideas American Creed Winning Independence Conservative Revolution 2.1 Road to Revolution Life was good in the colonies

(Slaves excepted, of course) Self-governing Irritants New taxes to finance French and Indian War Enforcement of trade regulations No representation in Parliament 2.1

FIGURE 2.1: European claims in North America 2.1 Road to Revolution Irritants New taxes to finance French and Indian War Enforcement of trade regulations No representation in Parliament

Protests and boycotts First Continental Congress Sept. 1774 2.1 Declaring Independence Reconciliation or revolution?

Thomas Paines Common Sense Fanned revolutionary sentiments 2.1 Common Sense 2.1

Declaring Independence Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson Justified revolution Revolutionaries needed foreign assistance 2.1 English Heritage: Power of Ideas

John Locke Natural rights Life, liberty, property Purpose of government is to protect Consent of the governed

Limited government 2.1 Locke and the Declaration of Independence: Some parallels 2.1

American Creed, Winning Independence, and the Conservative Revolution Individualism Rule by the people New ideas incubated in a unique environment

Winning independence not easy A conservative revolution? 2.1 2.1 Who was the primary author

of the Declaration of Independence? a. John Locke b. Benjamin Franklin c. Thomas Jefferson d. John Adams 2.1 2.1 Who was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence?

a. John Locke b. Benjamin Franklin c. Thomas Jefferson d. John Adams 2.1 Learning Objectives 2.2 2

Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure Government That Failed: 1776-1787 Articles of Confederation Changes in the States Economic Turmoil Aborted Annapolis Meeting

2.2 Articles of Confederation State-dominated government

League of friendship amongst states Unicameral legislature No judiciary No executive No power to tax No power to regulate commerce Feared strong central government

2.2 Key provisions of the Articles of Confederation 2.2 Changes in the States Increases in liberty, democracy If you were a white male

New middle class Artisans Farmers Elite power threatened Legislatures held governmental power Controlled governors

2.2 FIGURE 2.2: Power shift: Economic status of state legislators before and after the Revolutionary War

Economic Turmoil and Aborted Annapolis Meeting Postwar economic depression Shays Rebellion (1786) Farmers attack courthouses to prevent foreclosures

Neither national nor state govt. could respond Elites privately put down rebellion 2.2 Shays Rebellion 2.2 Economic Turmoil and Aborted Annapolis Meeting

Annapolis meeting leads to Constitutional Convention 2.2 2.2 What was a weakness of the Articles of Confederation? a. Weak central government b. No restraints on judiciary c. Tyrannical executive

d. Legislature too large 2.2 2.2 What was a weakness of the Articles of Confederation? a. Weak central government b. No restraints on judiciary c. Tyrannical executive d. Legislature too large 2.2

Learning Objectives 2.3 Describe the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and the core ideas they shared 2 Making a Constitution:

Philadelphia Convention Gentlemen in Philadelphia Philosophy into Action 2.3 Gentlemen in Philadelphia and Philosophy in Action Who attended Constitutional Convention? 55 delegates from 12 states

Wealthy planters, lawyers, merchants High principles versus self-interest Human nature Political conflict resulting from factions

Purpose of government Nature of government 2.3 2.3 The Framers chose a limited government based on a. Checks b. Balances c. Separation of power d. All of the above

2.3 2.3 The Framers chose a limited government based on a. Checks b. Balances c. Separation of power d. All of the above 2.3 Learning Objectives

2.4 Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue 2 Critical Issues at the Convention

Equality Issues Economic Issues Individual Rights Issues 2.4 Equality Issues Equality and representation of the states New Jersey Plan Virginia Plan

Connecticut Compromise Slavery Equality in voting 2.4

How the Constitution resolved three issues of equality 2.4 Economic Issues State of the postwar economy Interstate tariffs Worthless paper money Congress could not raise revenue

Congress given economic power Limited economic interference of states New government must repay debts of $54 million 2.4

Table 2.4: Economics in the Constitution 2.4 Individual Rights Issues Preserving individual rights a priority

Personal freedoms in the Constitution: Suspension of habeas corpus prohibited Bills of attainder prohibited Ex post facto laws prohibited

Religious qualifications for office prohibited Strict rules for what constitutes treason Right to trial by jury 2.4 2.4 Which of the following is not a personal freedom protected in the original Constitution? a. Right to run for office without religious

qualifications b. Right to writ of habeas corpus c. Right to trial by jury d. Right to freedom of speech 2.4 2.4 Which of the following is not a personal freedom protected in the original Constitution?

a. Right to run for office without religious qualifications b. Right to writ of habeas corpus c. Right to trial by jury d. Right to freedom of speech 2.4 Learning Objectives 2.5

2 Analyze how the components of the Madisonian system addressed the dilemma of reconciling majority rule with the protection of minority interests Madisonian System Thwarting Tyranny of the Majority Constitutional Republic End of the Beginning

2.5 James Madison 2.5 Thwarting Tyranny of the Majority Limiting majority control

James Madisons system Separating powers Creating checks and balances

Establishing a federal system 2.5 FIGURE 2.3: The Constitution and the electoral process: Original plan

2.5 Constitutional Republic and the End of the Beginning Creating a republic Direct democracy not feasible Representative democracy

Separating powers and checks and balances make change slow Is policymaking inefficient?

10 states vote in favor, then dinner 2.5 FIGURE 2.4: Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances in the Constitution 2.5 Video: In the Real World

2. 3 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA _1/polisci/presidency/Seg5_Constitution_v2.html 2.5 How did Madison seek to avoid tyranny of the majority in the design of the new government? a. Checks and balances

b. Separation of powers c. Representative democracy d. All of the above 2.5 2.5 How did Madison seek to avoid tyranny of the majority in the design of the new government? a. Checks and balances b. Separation of powers

c. Representative democracy d. All of the above 2.5 Practice FRQ Prompt The framers of the United States Constitution created a legislative system that was bicameral. However, it is not just bicameral; the framers also established two houses of distinctly different character and authority. a. Discuss two reasons why the framers created a bicameral legislature. b. Identify one power unique to the House of Representatives and explain why

the framers gave the House that power. c. Identify one power unique to the Senate and explain why the framers gave the Senate that power. Learning Objectives 2.6 2 Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in

terms of their background and their positions regarding government Ratifying the Constitution Federalists and Anti-Federalists Ratification 2.6 Federalists and AntiFederalists

Federalists Supported Constitution Federalist Papers Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay Anti-Federalists Opposed Constitution No protection for civil liberties States power would weaken

2.6 Federalists and Anti-Federalists Compared 2.6 Bill of Rights arranged by function 2.6 Ratification

Ratification by special convention Got around state legislatures Delaware first to approve New Hampshire made it official

New York and Virginia critical North Carolina and Rhode Island hold out 2.6 2.6 What was the purpose of

the Federalist Papers? a. To argue against the Constitution b. To argue in support of the Constitution c. To express concerns about the intent of the Framers d. To provide a document about the creation of the Constitution 2.6 2.6 What was the purpose of the Federalist Papers?

a. To argue against the Constitution b. To argue in support of the Constitution c. To express concerns about the intent of the Framers d. To provide a document about the creation of the Constitution 2.6 Learning Objectives 2.7

2 Explain how the Constitution can be formally amended and how it changes informally Understanding the Constitution Changing the Constitution Formal Amending Process Informal Processes of Constitutional Change

Importance of Flexibility 2.7 Formal Amending Process Proposal Two-thirds vote in each house National convention called by Congress

Ratification Legislatures of three-fourths of states Special state conventions 2.7 FIGURE 2.5: How the Constituti on can be

amended 2.7 Informal Processes of Constitutional Change Most changes have been informal

Judicial interpretation Marbury v. Madison (1803) Changing political practice Technology

Increased demands for new policy 2.7 Importance of Flexibility Constitution meant to be flexible Many decisions left up to Congress

Flexibility key to survival Worlds oldest Constitution 2.7 2.7 2.7 What is an example of an informal way the government has changed? a. There is a two-party system.

b. Citizens vote directly for senators. c. The Electoral College chooses the president. d. Voting rights have been granted to everyone. 2.7 2.7 What is an example of an informal way the government has changed? a. There is a two-party system.

b. Citizens vote directly for senators. c. The Electoral College chooses the president. d. Voting rights have been granted to everyone. 2.7 Learning Objectives 2.8

Assess whether the Constitution establishes a majoritarian democracy and how it limits the scope of government 2 Understanding the Constitution The Constitution and Democracy Constitution and the Scope of Government

2.8 Constitution and Democracy Original Constitution created a republic, not a democracy Framers thought elites should govern Representative democracy allowed Constitution to become more democratic

From elitism to pluralism Voting qualifications left up to states 5 amendments have expanded electorate More officials chosen by popular election 2.8 Constitution and the Scope of Government

Constitution designed to limit government and protect liberties Broad participation possible Effects of separation of powers All groups can be heard Encourages stalemate Effects of checks and balances Gridlock or ineffective policy 2.8

2.8 The Framers chose a system of government called a republic because a. they feared the power of the majority. b. they believed in direct representation. c. they supported a two-party system. d. they wanted to establish the rights of the individual. 2.8

2.8 The Framers chose a system of government called a republic because a. they feared the power of the majority. b. they believed in direct representation. c. they supported a two-party system. d. they wanted to establish the rights of the individual. 2.8 Practice FRQ Prompt

In The Federalist Papers #10, James Madison expressed concern over the possibility that both majority and minority factions would have too much power over government, and he presented ways of minimizing that danger. The United States Constitution established a democratic government but also contained several provisions that limited majority rule. Throughout the next two centuries, the role of majority rule in the United States government and politics continued to change. a. Identify the part of the national government that was originally most closely tied to citizens and explain how it was tied to citizens. b. Explain two ways the United States Constitution limited majority rule. c. Choose two of the following twentieth-century developments and explain how each the United States from a less democratic system to a more democratic system.

i. Primary elections ii. The 17th Amendment iii. Expansion of suffrage moved

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