Water Bottling Facility Mechanical Option | Spring 2013

Water Bottling Facility Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Mid-Atlantic United States Justyne Neborak Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Introduction Water Bottling Facility Production Warehouse Office Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Mid Atlantic Region 30 ft Ceiling Warehouse 23 ft 6 in Draft Curtain Production 8 30 ft Ceiling Office Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Introduction Outdoor Design Conditions Indoor Design Conditions Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak OA Dry Bulb (F) OA Wet Bulb (F)

Summer Design Cooling (0.4%) 88F 72F Winter Design Heating (99.6%) 5F - Cooling Set Point Heating Set Point Relative Humidity Conditioned Process Offices, QC Lab, & Parts Office Warehouse & Packaging 85F 65F 72F 72F 95F 48F Storage, Maintenance & Mechanical 95F 60F - 45% - - Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Existing Mechanical Systems Heating Water System Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Only used for Manufacturing Purposes

Chilled Water System 3 Ammonia Chillers 4 Cooling Towers Air Side 5 Air Handing Units 17 VAV Terminal Units 8 Makeup Units Space Max Cooling Dry Bulb Cooling Dew Point/Max Relative Humidity Min Heating Temperature Warehouse 80 2F 48F/50F - 60F Shipping Office 74F - 45% 68F Main Office 74F - 45% 68F Production 80 2F 48F/50F - 60F Maintenance 104 2F - 45%

60F QC Lab 75F 59F/64F - 68F H-3 Essence 80 2F 48F/50F - 50F Mechanical 80 2F 48F/50F - 60F Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Existing Mechanical Systems Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Warehouse Shipping office Main Office Production Area Maintenance Quality Control Lab H-3 Essence Mechanical Rooms

Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Existing Mechanical System Monthly Cooling Load 5,000,000.00 Introduction 4,000,000.00 Ground Coupled Heat Pump 3,000,000.00 Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Cooling Load (kBtu) Existing Mechanical System HVAC; 26.15% 2,000,000.00 Electrical Equipment; 61.73% Lighting; 12.13% 1,000,000.00 n Ja ry rch pril a A ru Ma b Fe ry a u M ay J e un l Ju y st ber ber ber ber u g

m cto em em u e A c v O pt e o e D N S Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Existing Mechanical System Electrical Cost by Use Existing Mechanical System Function Energy (kW) Total Energy (%) Ground Coupled Heat Pump HVAC 27,354,233 28.1 Cost Analysis Lighting 12,686,111 12.1 Emissions Analysis Electrical Equipment 64,583,837 61.7 Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Cost ($) Introduction 800,000 700,000 600,000

500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 - ry ary rch pril ay ne uly ust ber ber ber ber a J u g m to m m M Ju nu bru Ma A a A te Oc ve ce J Fe p No De Se HVAC Lighting Equipment Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Ground Coupled Heat Pump Vertical Layout Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Pros Less Space Maintains Thermal Properties of Ground Less Pipe Less Pump Energy Cons Expensive Specialized equipment Pipe Sizing 6 Diameter Bores 1 Diameter U-Tube Bore Fill 15% Bentonite, 85% SiO2 Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Ground Coupled Heat Pump Short-Circuit Heat Loss Factor

Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Net Annual Average Heat Transfer to Ground Building Design Block Load , Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Part-Load Factor during Design Month + ( 3.41 ) ( + + ) = (1) + 2 h= + ( h 3.41 h ) ( + + ) + 2 Effective Thermal Resistance of Ground Thermal Resistance of Bore ( 2) Undisturbed Ground Temperature Temperature Penalty for Interference of Adjacent Bores , Liquid Temperature at Heat Pump System Power Input at Design Load Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Ground Coupled Heat Pump Short-Circuit Heat Loss Factor, Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak

Undisturbed Ground Temperature, 1 bore/loop + 3 gpm/loop = 1.04 short-circuit heat loss factor Part-Load Factor during Design Month, Unknown therefore use maximum of 1.0 Building Design Block Load, (Cooling), (Heating) Found using block load analysis, 6,125,519 Btu/hr & 0 Btu/hr Net Annual Average Heat Transfer to Ground, Difference between heating and cooling, 6,125,519 Btu/hr Average Ground Temperature 53 Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Ground Coupled Heat Pump Effective Thermal Resistance of Ground, (Annual), (Daily), (Monthly) Introduction Calculate Fourier number Use table to find G-Factor Calculate Thermal Resistance Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Rock Type Conclusion Limestone Average Value Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Dry Density (lb/ft3) 150 to 175 162.5 Conductivity (Btu/hftF) 1.4 to 2.2 1.8 Diffusivity (ft2/day) 0.9 to 1.4 1.15 Time Pulse Fourier Number

G-Factor Annual Monthly Daily Peak 67,716.6 556.6 4.6 0.94 0.56 0.22 Thermal Resistance (fthF/Btu) 0.211 0.183 0.122 Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Ground Coupled Heat Pump Thermal Resistance of Bore, Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak 15% Bentonite 85% SiO2, 0.10 Btu/hftF Temperature Penalty for Interference of Adjacent Bores, 20 ft spacing results in a penalty of 1.8F System Power Input at Design Load, (Cooling), (Heating) Based on pump selection, 112,000 W Liquid Temperature at Heat Pump, (Inlet), (Outlet) Inlet 20 to 30F higher for heating, 10 to 20F lower for cooling 68F Cooling 38F Heating Outlet 10F increase from inlet 78FCooling 48F Heating Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Ground Coupled Heat Pump Variable Cooling Value

1.04 1.0 6,125,519 Introduction Existing Mechanical System 6,125,519 Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak 0 0.211 0.183 0.122 0.10 53 1.8 Ground Coupled Heat Pump Acoustical Design Heating Value 78 88 112,000 125,020 38 48 112,000 0 Units Btu/h Btu/h fthF/Btu fthF/Btu fthF/Btu fthF/Btu F F F F W ft Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Ground Coupled Heat Pump Head Loss Calculations Fittings Equivalent Length

(ft) Head Loss (ft/100ft) Total Head Loss (ft) 1531 6 90 elbows 66 3.5 100.31 100 1505 2 Tees 14 3.5 3.99 2 100 1480 2 Tees 14 3.5 3.99 3 100 1455 2 Tees 14 3.5 3.99 4 100 1430 2 Tees 14 3.5

3.99 5 100 1405 2 Tees 14 3 3.42 6 100 1380 2 Tees 14 2.5 2.85 Acoustical Design Conclusion 60 100 25 2 Tees 14 0.7 0.798 Length (ft) Flow Rate (gpm) Header

2800 1 Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Bore Longest Branch Tee-Fittings Elbows Length (ft) 400 20 7 3.5 Multiplicity 2 60 2 4 Total Total Length (ft) 800 1200 14 14 Head Loss (ft/100 ft) 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 Total Head Loss (ft) 20 30 0.35 0.35 50.7 Total Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak 203.252 Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Ground Coupled Heat Pump Pump Heat Pump

Introduction Existing Mechanical System Manufacturer Bell & Gossett Ground Coupled Heat Pump Model Flow Rate (gpm) 4x6x10M HSC3 Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak 1531 Head (ft) 254 Impeller Diameter (in) 8.3 RPM HP 3565 150 21 Rooftop Units Twenty 25 ton One 10 ton Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Cost Analysis Month Monthly Energy Use 2,450,000 Introduction 2,250,000 Existing Mechanical System Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design

Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Energy Use (kWh) Ground Coupled Heat Pump 2,050,000 1,850,000 Original GCHP 1,650,000 1,450,000 1,250,000 ry ary rch pril ay ne a a u M Ju u A r n M b Ja Fe l Ju y st ber ber ber ber u g m to u e Oc vem cem A t p e No D Se January February March April May June July August September October November December Original Energy (kWh) 2,275,032 2,056,716 2,285,022 2,228,204 2,344,024

2,291,104 2,390,752 2,389,709 2,273,169 2,319,265 2,223,874 2,277,362 Largest Difference Average Value GCHP Energy (kWh) 1,713,184 1,547,770 1,707,854 1,654,628 1,729,509 1,690,252 1,765,344 1,764,376 1,677,335 1,715,919 1,655,288 1,712,482 Difference (kWh) 561,848 508,946 577,168 573,576 614,515 600,852 625,408 625,333 595,834 603,346 568,586 564,880 116,462 585,024 Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Cost Analysis Introduction Design Existing Mechanical System Original Ground Source Heat Pump Difference Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak

Energy Usage (kWh) 27,354,230 19,201,080 8,153,150 Electric Cost $ 2,065,428 $ 1,449,730 $ 615,698 Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Emissions Analysis Pollutant CO2e CO2 CH4 N2O NOX SOX CO TNMOC Lead Mercury PM10 Solid Waste Calculated Emissions (lb/year) Regional Grid Emission Factors 2007 (lb/kWh) Original GCHP 1.74E+00 1.64E+00 3.59E-03 3.87E-05 3.00E-03 8.57E-03 8.54E-04 7.26E-05 1.39E-07 3.36E-08 9.26E-05 2.05E-01

3.96E+06 3.37E+06 8.20E+03 8.62E+01 7.03E+03 1.96E+04 2.04E+03 1.73E+02 3.16E-01 7.79E-02 2.06E+02 4.67E+05 2.98E+06 2.54E+06 6.13E+03 6.40E+01 5.19E+03 1.45E+04 1.51E+03 1.28E+02 2.33E-01 5.77E-02 1.53E+02 3.51E+05 Reduction in Emissions 25% 25% 25% 26% 26% 26% 26% 26% 26% 26% 26% 25% Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Photovoltaic Design Global Horizontal Radiation Introduction Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Radiation (W/m2) Existing Mechanical System 200,000 180,000 160,000 140,000

120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 - ry ary rch pril ay ne uly ust ber ber ber ber a u ru a A M Ju J ug m to m m n A te Oc ve ce Ja Feb M p e No D Se Daily Radiation Monthly Radiation 33 25 Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Photovoltaic Design Sharp ND-F4Q300 Electrical Characteristics Maximum Power (Pmax) 300 W Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) 45.1 V Maximum Power Voltage (Vpm) 35.2 V Ground Coupled Heat Pump Short Circuit Current (Isc) 8.94 A Cost Analysis Maximum Power Current (Ipm) 8.52 A Emissions Analysis Module Efficiency (%) 15.3% Photovoltaic Design Maximum System (DC) Voltage 1000 V Acoustical Design

Temperature Coefficient (Pmax) -0.439%/C Conclusion Temperature Coefficient (Voc) -0.321%/C Temperature Coefficient (Isc) 0.050%/C Introduction Existing Mechanical System Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Panel Length Panel Width Array Tilt Angle Height From Ground Horizontal Length Distance Between Panels Row Spacing 39.1 in 77.6 in 33 21.3 in 32.8 in 63.9 in 96.7 in h h Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Photovoltaic Design Month

Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak January February March April May June July August September October November December Beam Incident Radiation (kWh/m2) 55.95 50.55 76.06 79.07 77.37 69.07 83.74 80.86 74.28 76.37 43.55 50.17 Total Incident Radiation (kWh/m2) 90.61 97.46 134.88 146.97 153.18 151.30 163.15 152.08 134.93 124.04 80.11 79.11 Net DC Output (kWh) 50,402 84,698 154,112 226,988 274,686 275,015 295,087 237,668

165,337 93,685 55,004 42,569 Net AC Output (kWh) 41,602 75,567 142,010 212,703 258,784 259,367 278,953 223,063 153,409 83,602 46,542 34,245 Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Photovoltaic Design # of units kW/unit kW $/W Total Module 7695 0.3 2307.76 2.05 $ 4,730,910.62 Inverter 5 500 2500 0.37 $ 925,000.00 Balancing - - -

0.43 $ 992,337.3 Installation Labor - - - 0.48 $ 1,107,725.41 Margin And Overhead - - - 0.81 $ 1,869,286.64 Permitting - - - 0.23 $ 530,785.09 Grid Interconnection - - - 0.01 $ 23,077.61 Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Total Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak $ 4.62 $ 10,660,385.73 Payback Period

Infinite Acoustical Design Duration Per Day (h) Introduction Sound Level (dBA) 8 90 6 92 Ground Coupled Heat Pump 4 95 Cost Analysis 3 97 Emissions Analysis 2 100 Photovoltaic Design 1 102 Acoustical Design 1 105 110 or less 115 Existing Mechanical System Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Extrapolation of OSHA Standard 120 115 Maximum dBA Level

Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States 110 f(x) = 7.22 ln(x) + 104.98 105 100 95 90 85 80 0 2 4 6 8 Length of Exposure (hours) 10 12 14 Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Acoustical Design 73 76 77 84 86 86 87 81 81 84 88 87 88 88 81 85 88 89 91 89 87 81 89 89 89

90 91 Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak 83 80 80 82 87 87 93 86 72 101 87 90 87 87 91 86 91 80 90 90 90 91 86 79 88 89 92 96 85 87 89 89 88 86 85 70 89 91 80 SL < 87 dBA 87dBA SL <90 dBA SL 90 dBA Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Acoustical Design Step 1: Determine Surface Area Introduction Existing Mechanical System Surface Dimensions (ft) Step 2: Determine Overall Acoustical Character

Number of Surfaces Area (ft2) Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Walls Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak 23.5 x 315 23.5 x 439 2 2 14,805 20,633 Floor 315 x 439 1 138,285 Ceiling 315 x 439 1 138,285 Total 312,008 Surface Acoustical Characteristic Walls: Hard x 5 (Concrete) Medium x 1 (Stacked Pallets) Floor: Hard (Concrete) Ceiling: Hard (Steel) Combined Characteristic: Medium Hard

Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Acoustical Design Steps 3-5: Plot Information from Previous Steps on Nomogram Introduction Quality Results Room Surface Area (ft2) 312,008 Average Room Absorption Coefficient Medium Hard dB Reduction (dBA) 10 Number of Baffles Required 6,000 Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Acoustical Design Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Conclusion Ground Coupled Heat Pump

Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak Save Money Reduce Emissions Photovoltaics Not Feasible Acoustics Able to reduce the Sound Level by 10 dBA Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Acknowledgements Thank You! Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak AE Professors, Advisors, & Staff The Water Bottling Facility Jack, Ron, & Chris My Parents & Family My Friends & Classmates Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak References "Copper Roof Vents and Steel Roof Caps for Exhaust by Luxury Metals." Copper

Roof Vents and Steel Roof Caps for Exhaust by Luxury Metals. 03 Mar. 2013 . Deru, M. and P Torcellini, Source Energy and Emission Factors for Energy Use in Buildings. Technical Report NREL/TP-550-38617 "Energy.gov." Geothermal Heat Pumps. N.p., 24 June 2012. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. "Geothermal Heating Contractor for Massachusetts and surrounding area." Geothermal Heating Contractor for Massachusetts and surrounding area. 03 Mar. 2013 . "Index of /images/Geologic." Index of /images/Geologic. 03 Mar. 2013 . McDowall, Robert, and Ross Montgomery. Fundamentals of HVAC control systems. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 2011. "Occupational Noise Exposure - 1910.95." OSHA.gov. OSHA, n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. "PA DCNR Map Viewer." PA DCNR Map Viewer. 03 Mar. 2013 . "Pump manufacturer representatives, commercial pumps, residential pumps, submersible pumps, circulators, heating pumps, chiller pumps, condenser pumps." 04 Mar. 2013 . "Rooftop WSHP." DX Unitary HVAC System. 04 Mar. 2013 . "Solar PV Tilt Angle Graph." PV System Tilt Angle Graph. 09 Apr. 2013 . Haskel Architects and Engineers Engineering Reports Water Bottling Facility Specifications and Images Water Bottling Facility Mid-Atlantic United States Introduction Existing Mechanical System Ground Coupled Heat Pump Cost Analysis Emissions Analysis Photovoltaic Design Acoustical Design Conclusion Mechanical Option | Spring 2013 Advised by Dr. William Bahnfleth Justyne Neborak QUESTIONS?

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