CHAPTER 15 THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR Names for the Civil War The Civil War not used during the war Official name: War of the _____________________ (North) War Between the States War of Rebellion War against Slavery War for Abolition War for the Union War for Southern

Independence War for Southern Rights War of Secession War Against Northern Aggression The Lost Cause FORMATION OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA Held a Constitutional Convention in Montgomery, Alabama Declared that ______________, Virginia was the Capitol of the Confederacy Elected ___________________of Mississippi as the President

Alexander Stephens of Georgia as the VicePresident WHY WAS JEFFERSON DAVIS ELECTED PRESIDENT? 1. Military Background: Graduate of West Point Veteran of Mexican War Secretary of War under President Pierce 2. Reluctant Secessionist: Not for secession, left Senate when Ms. Seceded 3. Leader of the South during the Bad Times 4. Administrative Experience: House of Representatives, Senate, Secretary of War

WHY DID LINCOLN HESITATE TO SEND REINFORCEMENTS TO FORT SUMTER? 1. He was afraid the _________________states would secede: Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina left the Union Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky, and Delaware did not 2. He did not want to start a ______________. ___________________________ APRIL 12-14, 1861

Date(s): April 12-14, 1861 Principal Commanders: Maj. Robert Anderson [US]; Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS] Forces Engaged: Regiments: 580 total (US 80; CS est. 500) Description: On April 10, 1861, Brig. Gen. Beauregard, demanded the surrender of the Union garrison of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Garrison commander Anderson refused. On April 12, Confederate batteries opened fire on the fort April 13, Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter, evacuating the garrison on the following day.

Importance of the Battle: The bombardment of Fort Sumter was the first shots of the American Civil War. Result(s): Confederate victory Casualties: Although there were no casualties during the bombardment, one Union artillerist was killed and three wounded (one mortally) when a cannon exploded prematurely while firing a salute during the evacuation on April 14. ______________________________ After Fort Sumter there were 8 border states that had not seceded: Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky, and Delaware Lincoln forced them to decide by issuing a call to all state governors to send 75,000 men to fight in the war. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina

seceded Soldiers Life at camp ____% of time at camp (bivouacking) ___% marching ___% fighting Chapter 15 The States at War Raising _____________Forces state militias: formed at the request of Congress __________: a large bonus to

those who joined ___________: draft (both sides) Some paid immigrants to serve instead. pp. 284-288 Chapter 15 The States at War Raising ___________Forces Conscription (draft): enacted in 1862 _________________ Law: anyone owning 20 or more slaves was exempted from the draft

pp. 284-288 Chapter 15 The States at War The Civil War is considered the first ______________war. due to the use of: -industry/technology of weapons -change in ___________________. pp. 284-288 Chapter 15 The States at War

Innovations ______________ Aerial reconnaissance with manned ________ ________________ improved weaponry (____________) pp. 284-288 Innovations Mines, trench warfare, wire barricades ____________warships (Monitor, Merrimac [Virginia] fight at Hampton roads, ended in a tie) Confederate ______________ photography (Matthew Brady)

Advantages of the _____________________ Population: North 22 million South 9 million Money- Capital deposits in banks: North $189 million South $ 47 million Materials- 100,000 factories & 90% of manufactured goods, esp. munitions Railroad system- 20,000 miles of rails Navy- which could be used to blockade southern ports and shut down the souths economy. Superior leaders -Robert E. Lee and Thomas Jackson Reason for fighting- Independence Fighting a Defensive War- Defending is always easier than attacking - (familiar w/climate and territory, possible psychological advantages) Soldiers more experienced- Farmers fight better than factory workers

Chapter 15 The States at War Strategies of War South: fighting a ________ war pp. 284-288 North: the _________________ impose naval blockade gain control of the

Mississippi River divide the Upper and Lower South capture Richmond Battles With Dual Names Date of Battle Confederate Name Federal Name July 21, 1861 First Manassas Bull Run

Aug. 10, 1861 Oak Hills Wilson's Creek Oct. 21, 1861 Leesburg Ball's Bluff Jan. 19, 1862 Mill Springs

Logan's Cross Roads Mar. 7-8, 1862 Elkhorn Tavern Pea Ridge Apr. 6-7, 1862 Shiloh Pittsburg Landing June 27, 1862 Gaines's Mill

Chickahominy Aug. 29-30,1862 Second Manassas Second Bull Run Sept. 1, 1862 Ox Hill Chantilly Sept. 14, 1862

Boonsboro South Mountain Sept. 17, 1862 Sharpsburg Antietam Oct. 8, 1862 Perryville Chaplin Hills Dec. 31, 1862Jan 2, 1863

Murfreesboro Stones River Apr. 8, 1864 Mansfield Sabine Cross Roads Sept. 19, 1864 Winchester Opequon Creek

Why two names for some battles? ______________soldiers - most came from cities or urbanized areas - named many of their battles after natural features (mountains, valleys and abundant rivers and streams) ______________soldiers - familiar with the rural, natural terrain, towns and buildings - named many of their battles after man-made structures. Chapter 15 The States at War The First Battle of Bull Run (__________________)

Commanders - North: Irvin McDowell - South: Joseph Johnston and P.G.T. Beauregard Union army overconfident and unprepared Spectators that thought it would be a picnic pp. 288-291 FIRST MANASSAS

______________________ Other Names: First Bull Run Location: Fairfax County and Prince William County, Va. Forces Engaged: 60,680 total (US 28,450; CS 32,230) Estimated Casualties: 4,700 total (US 2,950; CS 1,750) Confederate Gen. Bee and Col. Bartow were killed. Description: On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate arm On the 21st, McDowell crossed at Sudley Ford and attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthews Hill. Fighting raged throughout the day as Confederate forces were driven back to Henry Hill. Late in the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements extended and broke the Union right flank. The Federal retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout. Although victorious, Confederate forces were too disorganized to pursue. Thomas J. Jackson earned the nickname, "Stonewall. Result(s): Confederate victory Importance of the Battle: This battle convinced the Lincoln administration that the war would be a long and

costly affair. McDowell was relieved of command of the Union army and replaced by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, who set about reorganizing and training the troops. Engagement Eastern State Victory Theater Peninsula Campaign VA Confederate

Seven Days VA Confederate Second Manassas VA Confederate Antietam MD Tactical Draw

Union Strategic Fredericksburg VA Confederate Robert E. Lee took command of Confederate forces in Virginia in 1862. PENINSULA CAMPAIGN: GEORGE MCCLELLAN (U.S.) the Young ________________ Excellent organizer and administrator

The right man to rebuild the Federal Army after the defeat at First Manassas Extremely cautious; always wants more troops and more time to prepare Prone to believe enemy is stronger than he really is Mutual distrust with _____________ McClellans Objective: - Capture _______________ PENINSULA CAMPAIGN: JOE JOHNSTON (CSA) Reinforced Beauregard at First Manassas ___________ranking officer to leave the US Army for the Confederacy However the letter Davis sent to the Senate requesting confirmation of

his full generals listed Johnston fourth This infuriated Johnston and from that day on he had a difficult and quarrelsome relationship with Davis _________________________ Joe Johnston spent his life backing up. If hed been kept in command while Atlanta was under siege, hed have wound up in Key West - Shelby Foote PENINSULA CAMPAIGN: FAULTY INTELLIGENCE McClellan near Washington with 100,000 men Johnston near Centreville with

40,000 _______________, McClellans intelligence officer, estimated Johnston had 150,000 Pinkertons exaggerated estimate reinforced McClellans natural tendency toward caution Pinkertons (left) skill in running a railroad detective agency did not translate to being a good military intelligence officer _______________CAMPAIGN: SECURITY Lincoln was not overly enthusiastic about the Peninsula Campaign but he was happy that McClellan was at least doing something

Among Lincolns concerns was the safety of Washington after McClellans army departed He asked McClellan to explain his plan for safeguarding the capital and McClellan never really gave Lincoln a straight answer McClellan was very condescending to Lincoln He seemed to think that as a professional soldier he did not need to bother sharing his plans with an amateur PENINSULA CAMPAIGN: ___________________DEFENSES Amphibious movement began March 17 121,500 men, 14,492 animals, 1,224 wagons, 200 cannon One British observer described it as the stride of a giant

McClellan began his advance inland on April 4 Facing him was a 13,000 man force commanded by John Magruder While Magruder was executing a masterful deception of McClellan, Lee, as President Daviss military advisor, was able to begin a reconcentration of forces which would ultimately bring 53,000 Confederates into position to oppose McClellan PENINSULA CAMPAIGN: _____________________ Magruders deception, poor maps, difficult terrain, uninspired actions by subordinates, Pinkertons exaggerated reports, and McClellans natural

caution led him to stop his advance within 24 hours and begin siege operations against Yorktown Joe Johnston said, Nobody but McClellan would have hesitated to attack. ________________________________ While all this is going on on the Peninsula, Stonewall Jackson was having a big effect in the Shenandoah Valley The Valley represented a potential Confederate avenue of approach to Washington, which concerned Lincoln While still in his capacity as Daviss military advisor, Lee began coordinating with Jackson to help relieve pressure on the Peninsula JACKSONS VALLEY CAMPAIGN

Fought _____battles between March 23 and June 9: Kernstown, McDowell, Front Royal, Winchester, Cross Keys, and Port Republic Jacksons ______cavalry 676 miles in 48 marching days; an average of 14 miles a day PENINSULA CAMPAIGN: ______________ Johnston tried to crush the isolated southern wing of the Federal army in the Battle of Seven Pines May 31 Johnston mismanaged

the battle, issued vague orders, and was wounded Robert E. Lee replaced him _______________________________ Dates: June 25th-July1st, 1862 Location: Virginia Commanders Union: George McClellan, Irwin McDowell Confederate: General Joe Johnston, Robert E. Lee, Thomas Jackson, J.E.B. Stuart

Casualties: The Confederates lost 20,614 Federal losses of 15,849. Overview of the Battle : McClellan attempted to move his troops by ships to the Yorktown Peninsula and attack Richmond, the Confederate capitol, from the south. Stonewall Jackson moved toward Washington D.C. to draw Union support back to the capitol. Lee forced McClellan to divide his army pinned them between the Confederate troops and the sea. The Union troops were forced to go back to Washington. Importance: The series of battles Lee had delivered during the Seven Days had achieved its objective of relieving Richmond from McClellan's forces. However, this had been accomplished at a very high cost. Chapter 15 The States at War pp. 288-291 The Peninsula Campaign ____________orders McClellan to withdraw

from the Peninsula McClellans caution and hesitation leads to a _______for the North Lincoln replaces McClellan with ______ POPES ________________________ When Pope assumed command he issued a series of General Orders that certainly enraged the Confederacy and showed he had an aggressive and hostile policy toward civilians and private property General Order Number 5 stated that the army should live off the land. General Order Number 7 outlined how Pope planned to deal with the local citizenry. General Order Number 11 called for the immediate arrest of all disloyal male citizens and compelled them to either take an

oath of allegiance to the United States or be deported further south. ___________________________ When Lee realized McClellan was withdrawing, he ordered Jackson to break things open by leading his 24,000 men on a wide swing around Popes right to strike his supply lines and cut his communications with Washington. Jackson marched 51 miles in two days, struck Manassas Junction, and then withdrew to a defensive position and waited for Lee to arrive with the rest of the army In the meantime, Longstreet arrived

with 28,000 men and took positions on Jacksons right _______________________ On Aug 30, Pope attacked with 7,000 men he expected to use to finish off Jackson (who he thought was beaten and withdrawing) In reality, Pope was advancing into the jaws of a trap Jackson had not retreated at all but was standing fast with 18,000 men Concealed at a right angle was Longstreet with 28,000 fresh soldiers

SECOND MANASSAS Jackson not only held but forced the Federals to fall back Lee unleashed Longstreet and the jaws of the Confederate trap closed on Pope The Federals suffered 14,462 casualties (the Confederates 9,474) Pope was transferred to Minnesota Lincoln places _________________back in charge ______________ September, 1862

In order to gain the initiative and re-supply his army, Lee invaded Maryland. A __________________victory on northern soil would bolster the cause of Southern independence. Chapter 15 The States at War Antietam Lee hoped to arouse ________sympathizers hoped to gain ________support pp. 294-297

BATTLE OF ANTIETAM-SHARPSBURG 1st invasion of the ________by the Confederate Army Lee tries to end war quickly by invading the North- Maryland ________________messenger drops the battle plans and the Union finds them North forces the South to retreat, but does not defeat them Chapter 15 The States at War _____________discovered Lees location and sought to force Lee into battle before Lee could be reinforced. A cigar wrapper

McClellan failed to take advantage of his superior numbers and never pursued Lee when Lee was weakened. pp. 294-297 Lee and McClellan fought to a tactical draw in the bloodiest single day of the war. Afterwards, Lee retreated to VA. ______________VICTORY for the Union


7,752 1,018 10,316 ANTIETAM- SHARPSBURG Location: Washington County, Maryland Date(s): September 16-18, 1862 Estimated Casualties: 23,100 total Description: On September 16, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan confronted Lees Army of Northern Virginia at Sharpsburg, Maryland. At dawn September 17, Hookers corps mounted a

powerful assault on Lees left flank that began the. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Millers cornfield and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road eventually pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up. Late in the day, Burnsides corps finally got into action, crossing the stone bridge over Antietam Creek and rolling up the Confederate right. At a crucial moment, A.P. Hills division arrived from Harpers Ferry and counterattacked, driving back Burnside and saving the day. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, enabling Lee to fight the Federals to a standstill. During the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout the 18th, while removing his wounded south of the river. McClellan did not renew the assaults. After dark, Lee ordered the battered Army of Northern Virginia to withdraw across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley. Result(s): Bloodiest single day in American military history; Inconclusive (Union strategic victory.) Chapter 15 The States at War

Antietam results _________: failure to win prevented the British from recognizing the Confederacy _________: issued the Emancipation Proclamation single ___________day in the history of American wars McClellan was replaced by ______________________. pp. 294-297 WHAT DID THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION DO?. It freed the slaves only in states that have ____________from the Union.

It did not free slaves in _____________states And what did Lincoln hope to achieve by passing it? He thought it would force slave owners to make their states surrender to save slavery. Chapter 15 The States at War pp. 297-301 results caused Southern slaves to desert their masters ended the possibility of ____________support for the South paved the way for public acceptance of the end of slavery

_____________ joined the Union Army for the first time. Gen. Ambrose Burnside, the new Union commander, marched his army toward Richmond. Lee moved to intercept him at Fredericksburg. Chapter 15 The States at War Fredericksburg Union encountered entrenched Confederate forces

Burnside issues ___ frontal assaults. massive Union casualties Burnside was replaced by ____________ Hooker. pp. 294-297 FREDERICKSBURG - MARYES HEIGHTS Location: Spotsylvania County and Fredericksburg

Date(s): December 11-15, 1862 Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS] Forces Engaged: 172,504 total (US 100,007; CS 72,497) Estimated Casualties: 17,929 total (US 13,353; CS 4,576) Description: On November 14, Burnside, now in command of the Army of the Potomac, sent a corps to occupy the vicinity of Falmouth near Fredericksburg. The rest of the army soon followed. Lee reacted by entrenching his army on the heights behind the town. On December 11, Union engineers laid five pontoon bridges across the Rappahannock under fire. On the 12th, the Federal army crossed over, and on December 13, Burnside mounted a series of futile frontal assaults on Prospect Hill and Maryes Heights that resulted in staggering casualties. Meades division, on the Union left flank, briefly penetrated Jacksons line but was driven back by a counterattack. Union generals C. Feger Jackson and George Bayard, and Confederate generals Thomas R.R. Cobb and Maxey Gregg were killed. On December 15, Burnside called off the offensive and re-crossed the river, ending the campaign. Burnside initiated a new offensive in January 1863, which quickly bogged down in the winter mud. On the afternoon of the 14th, Burnside asked Lee for a truce to tend to his wounded which was granted. FREDERICKSBURG

December, 1862 Lee ended 1862 with a lopsided victory over Burnsides army. CASUALTIES KILLED WOUNDED CAPT/MISS TOTAL USA CSA

1,284 9,600 1,769 608 4,116 653 12,653 5,377 Western Engagement Theater State Victory Forts Henry and

Donelson TN Union Shiloh TN Union Capture of New Orleans LA

Union Ulysses S. Grant (USA) Army of the Tennessee Chapter 15 The States at War The Union _________ purpose: to prevent entry or exit of passengers or commerce part of the strategy to gain control of the ____________River pp. 291-293

Chapter 15 The States at War pp. 291-293 _________________: ships designed to slip through blockades The British assisted the Confederacy in blockade running. results: major impacts on the southern _________________ Union General William Sherman called the Mississippi River the _______________

______________ of America. Chapter 15 The States at War Gaining the Upper Mississippi Ulysses S. Grant (Union General) __________________________ - ensured that Kentucky would stay in the Union and opened up Tennessee for a Northern advance along the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. - Unconditional Surrender Grant Shiloh Corinth pp. 291-293

__________ April, 1862 Grant caught off guard by a Confederate attack. Still standing at nightfall Reinforced during the night, Grant counter-attacked and forced a Confederate retreat. SHILOH

APRIL 6-7, 1862 Other Names: Pittsburg Landing Location: Hardin County Campaign: Federal Penetration up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers (1862) Date(s): April 6-7, 1862 Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell [US]; Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston and Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS] Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee and Army of the Ohio (65,085) [US]; Army of the Mississippi (44,968) [CS] Estimated Casualties: 23,746 total (US 13,047; CS 10,699) ________________ APRIL 6-7, 1862 As a result of the fall of Forts Henry and Donelson, Confederate

Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston was forced to fall back, giving up Kentucky and much of Tennessee. Johnston chose Corinth, Mississippi, a major transportation center, as the staging area for an offensive against Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee before the Army of the Ohio, under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, could join it. The Confederates attacked the Union troops on the morning of the 6th and were driving them back _____________ APRIL 6-7, 1862

Some Federals established a battle line at the sunken road, known as the Hornets Nest. Repeated Rebel attacks failed to carry the Hornets Nest, but massed artillery helped to turn the tide as Confederates surrounded the Union troops and captured, killed, or wounded most. Johnston had been mortally wounded earlier and his second in command, Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, took over. The Union troops established another line covering Pittsburg Landing by Buells men who began to arrive and take up positions. Fighting continued until after dark, but the Federals held. By the next morning, the combined Federal forces numbered about 40,000, outnumbering Beauregards army of less than 30,000. SHILOH APRIL 6-7, 1862 At this point, Beauregard realized that he

could not win and, having suffered too many casualties, he retired from the field and headed back to Corinth. Result(s): _____________victory Importance of the Battle: Largest battle in North American History. Gave the Union the entire Mississippi River except for __________________. WHY WAS THE UNION VICTORY AT SHILOH IMPORTANT? 1) It was an important victory early in the war, when _________victories were very scarce. It was incredibly costly in terms of human lives. 2) It brought ____________________-- a minor general at the time -- to the attention of Lincoln. Shiloh showed Grant's willingness to stand and

fight, despite high Union losses, unlike Gen. George McClellan, who was Grant's superior at that early stage of the war. It was this tenacity that allowed him to use his superior numbers to wage and win a war of attrition. CAPTURE OF NEW ORLEANS May, 1862 The Union Navy overcame Confederate defenses on the Mississippi to capture the Confederacys _____________city.

BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS Dates: April 25May 1, 1862 Location: New Orleans, Louisiana Key Individuals Involved in the Battle of New Orleans: Union: Flag-Officer David G. Farragut and Major General Benjamin Franklin Butler Confederate: Major General Mansfield Lovell Outcome: Union Victory. Casualties None.

Overview of the Battle : Following the passage of forts Jackson and St. Philip, near the mouth of the Mississippi River, on April 24, 1862, the Union occupation of New Orleans was inevitable. Union Flag-Officer David G. Farragut, with his squadron, continued up the Mississippi River and demanded the surrender of the City of New Orleans the next day. The city surrendered on April 28. On May 1, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Franklin Butlers army began landing at New Orleans and occupying the city. New Orleans, considered an international city and the largest city in the Confederacy, had fallen. The Union occupation of New Orleans was an event that had major international significance. Importance: Union got a major port and controlled the mouth of the Mississippi. Decisive Engagements Engagement State Victory

Chancellorsville VA Confederate Gettysburg PA Union Vicksburg MS Union

In 1863, Lee won his greatest victory and suffered his greatest defeat. __________________________ April 30-May 6, 1863 Chancellorsville, Virginia Union: Major General Joseph Hooker Confederate: General Robert E. Lee, Major General Thomas J. Jackson Outcome: Confederate Victory. 24,000 casualties of which 14,000 were Union soldiers. CHANCELLORSVILLE Overview of the Battle

On April 27, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker led the Union campaign to turn the Confederate left flank by crossing the Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers above Fredericksburg. The Federals concentrated near Chancellorsville on April 30 and May 1. In the meantime, Lee left a covering force under Maj. Gen. Jubal Early in Fredericksburg and marched with the rest of the army to confront the Federals. As Hookers army moved toward Fredericksburg on the Orange Turnpike, they encountered increasing Confederate resistance. Hearing reports of overwhelming Confederate force, Hooker ordered his army to suspend the advance and to concentrate again at Chancellorsville. Hooker adopted a defensive posture, thus giving Lee the initiative.

On the morning of May 2, Lt. Gen. Jackson directed his corps on a march against the Federal left flank, which was reported to be hanging in the air. At 5:20 pm, Jacksons line surged forward in an overwhelming attack that crushed the Union XI Corps. Federal troops rallied, resisted the advance, and counterattacked. Disorganization on both sides and darkness ended the fighting. While making a night reconnaissance, Jackson was mortally wounded by his own men and carried from the field. J.E.B. Stuart took temporary command of Jacksons Corps. On May 3, the Confederates attacked with both wings of the army and massed their artillery at Hazel Grove. This finally broke the Federal line at Chancellorsville. On the night of May 5-6, Hooker crossed to the north bank of the Rappahannock. Chapter 15 The States at War pp. 294-297 Chancellorsville major victory for the ___________ Importance of the Battle of Chancellorsville: This battle was considered by many historians to be Lees

greatest victory. At the same time, the South lost one of its greatest strategic minds with the death of Stonewall Jackson. Chapter 15 The States at War pp. 294-297 Hooker was replaced by _______________ just a few days before the Battle of ________________. THE C.S.S. VIRGINIA

Statistics Of The C.S.S. Virginia Acquisition.--Seized by the Confederates in 1861 at Gosport Navy Yard and converted into an ironclad. Description.--Screw ironclad ram. Tonnage.--3,200 tons. Dimensions.--Length 275'; beam, 38' 6"; depth, 27'. Draft.--Loaded, 22'; without coal or ballast, 19'. Speed.--About 9 knots Engines.--Horizontal, back acting; two cylinders, 72" in diameter, 3' stroke. Boilers.--4 Martin type boilers; average steam pressure, 18 lbs. Battery.--March 11, 1862, 10 guns; May, 1862, 2 7-inch rifle pivots, 2 6-inch rifles and 6 9-inch Dahlgrens in broadside, 2 12-pounder howitzers on deck.

Crew Size: According to the personnel roster of the Virginia, she was manned by 160 Navy, and 28 Marines. Disposition.--Run on shore near Craney Island and set on fire after being abandoned; she blew up at 4.58 a.m., May 11, 1862. Remarks.--Formerly she was the U. S. S. Merrimack. March 8, 1862, she engaged and sunk the U. S. S. Cumberland by ramming and destroyed the Congress by fire. March 9, 1862, engaged the U. S. vessels Monitor, Minnesota, and St. Lawrence. U.S.S. MONITOR

Statistics Of The U.S.S. Monitor Acquisition:--Built by contract with John Ericsson at Green Point, L. I. Launched January 30, 1862. Cost:--$275,000 or $280,000. Description.-Class: Monitor; screw steamer; iron and wood; single turret. Rate, rig, etc.: Original type of turreted vessel. Tonnage.--776 (987). Dimensions.--Length, 172'; beam, 41' 6"; depth, 11' 4". Draft.--Just after being launched; forward, 7' 8"; aft, 8' 1" (10' 6"). Engines.--Double trunk, cylinders (2 in 1 casting); 36" diameter, 27" stroke. Boilers.--Two; return tube "box" boilers. Battery.--2 XI-inch guns in turret. Disposition.--Foundered off Hatteras, December 31, 1862, Commander J.P. Bankhead in command. Remarks.--Cost of articles furnished to her was $560.35. Had famous engagement with C. S. S. Merrimack in Hampton Roads, March 9, 1862. First engagement of ironclads.

MONITOR VS MERRIMAC (VIRGINIA) Virginia sank 2 Union ships in Virginia Monitor arrived and saved the other 2 ships Fought for almost 2 hours Monitor commander died; Virginia ran aground Ended in draw Virginia scuttled Monitor sank by hurricane

Importance of the battle: 1st battle in history between 2 ironclad ships. CONSCRIPTION aka, The Draft Confederate Union (1862) (1863) Draftees could hire Draftees could hire

Planters* exempt $300 to exempt substitutes *20 or more slaves substitutes Rich mans war, poor mans fight. - Anti-draft slogan NYC DRAFT RIOTS Over 100 dead Racially motivated

Many rioters were Irish immigrants who feared competition from freedmen for jobs. 186 3 Chapter 15 The States at War ___________________ Southern reasons: turn the Northern population against the war force Lincoln to pull troops from the ________________region resupply troops

pp. 294-297 BATTLE OF ____________________ Date: July 1-3, 1863 Location: Pennsylvania Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee Union Commander: George G. Meade Confederate Forces Engaged: 75,000 Union Forces Engaged: 82,289

Casualties: 51,112 (23,049 Union and 28,063 Confederate) Battle overview: Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee concentrated his army around Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, upon the approach of Union Gen. George G. Meades forces. On July 1, Confederates drove Union defenders through Gettysburg to Cemetery Hill. The next day Lee struck the flanks of the Union line resulting in severe fighting at Devil's Den, Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Peach Orchard, Culps Hill and East Cemetery Hill. Southerners gained ground but failed to dislodge the Union host. On the morning of July 3rd, fighting raged at Culps Hill with the Union regaining its lost ground. That afternoon, after a massive artillery bombardment, Lee attacked the Union center on Cemetery Ridge and was repulsed with heavy losses in what is known as Picketts Charge. Lee's second invasion of the North had failed. Importance: But more than a physical victory, the Battle of Gettysburg was important because it held a psychological victory for the North. The Southern troops were decimated, demoralized and defeated. While it did not decide the war, the Battle of Gettysburg is important because it turned the tide of war. Chapter 15 The States at War

pp. 294-297 Gettysburg- three-day battle first day: Union pushed back but not broken second day: Union attacked but held firm third day: ___________________ ended disastrously with several thousands of deaths High-water mark of the Confederacy GETTYSBURG July 1-3, 1863 After his victory at Chancellorsville, Lee invaded Pennsylvania in hopes of gaining a

decisive victory on Northern soil. BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG July 3, General Pickett led 15,000 Confederate troops across open fields Union mowed them down Picketts Charge- The last attack by the Confederates at Gettysburg. Lee was defeated and retreated to Virginia Over ____________casualties in 3 days It was the last time the South invaded the North. GETTYSBURG

July 1-3, 1863 three days of After fighting, Lee failed to defeat the Union Army. LEES FIRST KILLED TACTICAL WOUNDED CAPT/MISS DEFEAT TOTAL CASUALTIES UNION

CONFEDERATE 3,155 4,708 14,531 5,369 23,055 12,693 5,830 23,231 Chapter 15 The States at War pp. 294-297

Results _____________for the Confederacy Meade allowed ________to retreat to Virginia proved to be one of the turning points in the war Chapter 15 The States at War pp. 294-297 Meade would soon be replaced by __________________. ________________replaced Grant in the West. Chapter 15 The States at War

pp. 294-297 The Battle of Gettysburg was the _____________battle of the Civil War. Lincoln presented the __________________at the dedication of the Gettysburg Cemetery. GETTYSBURG ADDRESS "Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation: conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the

proposition that all men are created equal. Chapter 15 The States at War Gaining the Lower Mississippi Admiral David Farragut captured New Orleans Battle of Vicksburg North: Ulysses S. Grant South: John Pemberton city fell to Grant after a ___________, starved them pp. 291-293

WHY WAS THE FALL OF VICKSBURG IMPORTANT? 1. Vicksburg was one of the major forts of the South & the ________on the Mississippi River Psychological factor- same time as Gettysburg 2. Mississippi River became a Federal ________________Could be used to move their supplies. 3. Cut off the Confederate states _________of the Mississippi River. 4. Because of Grants success in the West, Lincoln appoints him the Union Commander in the East. GRANTS PLAN TO DEFEAT THE SOUTH 1. ________________ would take the Shenandoah Valley: defeat the army and destroy their ability to grow crops. 2. General _______________ would march from Chattanooga to Atlanta, and continue to the sea; destroying everything.

3. General _____________would march to Richmond and take the Confederate Capitol. Chapter 15 The States at War Waging ___________War both sides growing weary of war Confederate money lost its value severe inflation pp. 297-301 AFRICAN-AMERICANS in the About _______________ African-Americans enlisted in the Union Army in the later years of the war.

10% of Union Army / 1% of Northern Population Civil War Chapter 15 The States at War pp. 297-301 The Destruction of the South Grant implemented a war of __________ against the South Sheridan was successful in carrying out his orders. Chapter 15 The States at War

Rosecrans in Tennessee Battle of _____________ George Thomas (the Rock of Chickamauga) held his line, allowing the Union army to retreat to Chattanooga. The battle was one of the bloodiest in the West. pp. 297-301 Chapter 15 The States at War pp. 297-301 Battle of Chickamauga General Longstreet and the Confederates were

defeated at Knoxville and General Bragg was defeated at Chattanooga, giving the Union control of ____________. Chapter 15 The States at War Shermans ____________________ Atlanta: captured and burned _____________: given to Lincoln as a Christmas gift pp. 297-301 ATLANTA

JULY 22, 1864 Location: Fulton County Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864) Date(s): July 22, 1864 Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. John Bell Hood [CS] Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 12,140 total (US 3,641; CS 8,499) Description: Following the Battle of Peachtree Creek, Hood determined to attack Maj. Gen. James B. McPhersons Army of the Tennessee. He withdrew his main army at night from Atlanta s outer line to the inner line, enticing Sherman to follow. In the meantime, he sent William J. Hardee with his corps on a fifteen-mile march to hit the unprotected Union left and rear, east of the city. Wheelers cavalry was to operate farther out on Shermans supply line, and Gen. Frank Cheathams corps were to attack the Union front. Hood, however, miscalculated the time necessary to make the march, and Hardee was unable to attack until afternoon. Although Hood had outmaneuvered Sherman for the time being, McPherson was concerned about his left flank and sent his reservesGrenville Dodges XVI Army Corpsto that location. Two of Hoods divisions ran into this reserve force and were repulsed. The Rebel attack stalled on the Union rear but began to roll up the left flank. Around the same time, a Confederate soldier shot and killed McPherson when he rode out to observe the fighting. Determined attacks continued, but the Union forces held. About 4:00 pm, Cheathams corps broke through the Union front at the Hurt House, but Sherman massed twenty artillery pieces on a knoll near his headquarters to shell these Confederates and halt their drive. Maj. Gen. John A. Logan s XV Army Corps then led a counterattack that restored the Union line. The Union troops held, and Hood suffered high casualties. Importance: Atlanta, one of the most important cities in the South, was destroyed. Destroyed the morale of the South and opened up the rest of Georgia.

WHAT ALLOWED LINCOLN TO WIN THE ELECTION OF 1864? 1. Sherman took Atlanta September 1864 2. Sheridan took the Shenandoah Valley October 1864 TOTAL WAR Lincoln Grant Sherman

After defeating McClellan, Lincoln was no longer bound by political considerations. SHERMAN'S MARCH TO THE SEA Armies & Commanders: Union General William T. Sherman; Confederates Lieutenant General William J. Hardee Forces engaged: US 62,000 men; CSA 13,000 men March to the Sea - Dates:The March to the Sea commenced on November 15, 1864, and ended with the capture of Savannah on December 22. In the wake of his successful campaign to capture Atlanta, Major General William T. Sherman began making plans for a march against Savannah. Seeking to destroy the South's economic and psychological will to resist, he intended to conduct a campaign designed to

eliminate any resources that could be used by Confederate forces. During the march, Sherman's army would cut loose from its supply lines and would live off the land. To ensure that adequate supplies were gathered, Sherman issued strict orders regarding foraging and the seizure of material from the local population. Known as "bummers," foragers from the army became a common sight along its route of march. Dividing his forces in two, Sherman advanced along two major routes. As Sherman's men pushed southeast, they systematically destroyed all manufacturing plants, agricultural infrastructure, and railroads they encountered. A common technique for wrecking the latter was heating railroad rails over fires and twisting them around trees. Known as "Sherman's Neckties," they became a common sight along the route of march. Arriving outside Savannah on December 10, Sherman found that Hardee had flooded the fields outside the city which limited access to a few causeways. Entrenched in a strong position, Hardee refused to surrender and remained determined to defend the city. With his supply lines reopened, Sherman began making plans to lay siege to Savannah. On December 17, he contacted Hardee with a warning that he would begin shelling the city if it were not surrendered. Unwilling to give in, Hardee escaped with his command over the Savannah River on December 20 using an improvised pontoon bridge. The following morning, the mayor of Savannah formally surrendered the city to Sherman. Importance: the campaign through Georgia effectively eliminated the region's economic usefulness to the Confederate cause.

Hampton Roads Conference February 3, 1865 PROPOSED CONDITIONS: 1.The South MUST re-join the

Union. 2.Lincoln would advocate for compensation for slaveholders. Chapter 15 The States at War pp. 301-304 The Road to Richmond The _________________Campaign heavily wooded area west of Fredericksburg _____________________: Grant kept throwing men at Lee, knowing he could replace them more easily BATTLE OF THE WILDERNESS

Other Names: Combats at Parkers Store, Craigs Meeting House, Todds Tavern, Brock Road, the Furnaces Location: Spotsylvania and Orange Counties Date(s): May 5-7, 1864 Commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS] Forces Engaged: 162,920 total (US 101,895; CS 61,025) Estimated Casualties: 29,800 total (US 18,400; CS 11,400) Description: The opening battle of Grants sustained offensive against the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia,

known as the Overland Campaign, was fought at the Wilderness, May 5-7. On the morning of May 5, 1864, the Union V Corps attacked Ewells Corps on the Orange Turnpike, while A.P. Hills corps during the afternoon encountered Gettys Division (VI Corps) and Hancocks II Corps on the Plank Road. Fighting was fierce but inconclusive as both sides attempted to maneuver in the dense woods. Darkness halted the fighting, and both sides rushed forward reinforcements. At dawn on May 6, Hancock attacked along the Plank Road, driving Hills Corps back in confusion. Longstreets Corps arrived in time to prevent the collapse of the Confederate right flank. At noon, a devastating Confederate flank attack in Hamiltons Thicket sputtered out when Lt. Gen. James Longstreet was wounded by his own men. The IX Corps (Burnside) moved against the Confederate center, but was repulsed. Union generals James S. Wadsworth and Alexander Hays were killed. Confederate generals John M. Jones, Micah Jenkins, and Leroy A. Stafford were killed. The battle was a tactical draw. Grant, however, did not retreat as had the other Union generals before him. On May 7, the Federals advanced by the left flank toward the crossroads of Spotsylvania Courthouse. Importance: : Grant demonstrated his army would be willing to fight every day & suffer casualties to win. BATTLE OF SPOTSYLVANIA COURT HOUSE

Dates: May 8-21, 1864 Other Names: Bloody Angle (May 10); Salient or Bloody Angle (May 12-13) Location: Spotsylvania County, Virginia Key Individuals Involved in the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House: Union: Lt. General Ulysses S. Grant, Major General George G. Meade Confederate: General Robert E. Lee Outcome: Inconclusive. 30,000 casualties of which 18,000 were Union soldiers. Overview of the Battle: After the Wilderness, Grants and Meades advance on Richmond by the left flank was stalled at Spotsylvania Court House on May 8. This two-week battle was a series of combats along the Spotsylvania front. The Union attack against the Bloody Angle at dawn, May 12-13, captured nearly a division of Lees army and came near to cutting the Confederate army in half. Confederate counterattacks plugged the

gap, and fighting continued unabated for nearly 20 hours in what may well have been the most ferociously sustained combat of the Civil War. On May 19, a Confederate attempt to turn the Union right flank at Harris Farm was beaten back with severe casualties. Union generals Sedgwick (VI Corps commander) and Rice were killed. Confederate generals Johnson and Steuart were captured, Daniel and Perrin mortally wounded. On May 21, Grant disengaged and continued his advance on Richmond. Significance of the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House: Grant decided to disengage and continue his overland campaign towards Richmond. However, each of the successive battles that Grant met on this advance resulted in huge casualties. BATTLE OF COLD HARBOR

Dates: May 31-June 12, 1864 Location: Cold Harbor, Virginia Key Individuals Involved in the Battle of Cold Harbor: Union: Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade Confederate: General Robert E. Lee Outcome: Confederate Victory. 15,000 casualties of which 13,000 were Union soldiers. Overview of the Battle : On May 31, Sheridans cavalry seized the vital crossroads of Old Cold Harbor. Early on June 1, relying heavily on their new repeating carbines and shallow entrenchments, Sheridans troopers threw back an attack by Confederate infantry. Confederate reinforcements arrived from Richmond and from the Totopotomoy Creek lines. Late on June 1, the Union VI and XVIII Corps reached Cold Harbor and assaulted the Confederate works with some success. By June 2, both armies were on the field, forming on a seven-mile front that extended from Bethesda Church to the Chickahominy River. At dawn June 3, the II and XVIII Corps, followed later by the IX Corps, assaulted along the Bethesda ChurchCold Harbor line and were slaughtered at all points. Grant commented in his memoirs that this was the only attack he

wished he had never ordered. The armies confronted each other on these lines until the night of June 12, when Grant again advanced by his left flank, marching to James River. On June 14, the II Corps was ferried across the river at Wilcoxs Landing by transports. On June 15, the rest of the army began crossing on a 2,200-foot long pontoon bridge at Weyanoke. Abandoning the well-defended approaches to Richmond, Grant sought to shift his army quickly south of the river to threaten Petersburg Importance: Cold Harbor was Grants worst defeat of the war. Confederates called Cold Harbor the easiest victory of the war, though it would be Lees last great victory. _____________________________ In Richmond, Virginia, those who couldn't

afford the increasingly pricey food blamed the Confederate government. Hungry protesters, most of whom were women, led a march "to see the governor" in April 1863 that quickly turned violent. They overturned carts, smashed windows, and drew out Governor John Letcher and President Jefferson Davis. Davis threw money at the protesters, trying to get them to clear out, but the violence continued. Davis threatened to order the militia to open fire, which settled things down pretty quickly. Chapter 15 The States at War pp. 301-304

Grant the Butcher Lincoln said, I cannot spare this man. He wins, about Ulysses S. Grant Petersburg: besieged by Grant to cut off supplies to Richmond One of the Norths goals- to capture Richmond THE FALL OF __________________ Inside the Richmond fortifications, Lee's army had slowly been starving. Morale began to take a nose dive and between mid-February and mid-March about 8% of the men deserted. Grant meanwhile, took little offensive action but continued to extend his line southward which served to stretch Lee's already over-extended defenses almost to the breaking point.

Lee had no choice. He ordered the immediate evacuation of Richmond. The Confederate government and the remaining gold in its treasury were put on a special train and headed south. Richmond fell on April 2. THE FALL OF RICHMOND By the end of 1864 the Civil War was drawing to a close. The larger cities of the South such as Savannah, Charleston and Atlanta, were now taken over by General Sherman's troops in his fateful March to the Sea. There was only one major city left in the Southern empire and that was Richmond, which was the Confederate Capital. If Richmond was to fall, it would be with a fight as the South was not ready to relinquish their jewel of the Confederacy. This was what the rebels wanted the Union to believe when in actuality the Confederates already had set up a new capital just 100 miles up the road. Robert E. Lee positioned his Army of Virginia in the city of Richmond awaiting the Union troops in an anticipated attack. Richmond, Virginia and Washington, D.C. were less than 100 miles apart yet the four years of the Civil War neither side came even close to capturing each

others cities. In March of 1865, the Army of Northern Virginia, under General Lee, was dug-in at Petersburg less than 50 miles away from the city of Richmond awaiting the Union advances. Two weeks later Union troops began to break through the Confederate defenses. General Lee sent a message to President Jefferson Davis in Richmond, that he would be better off abandoning the city, as it could no longer be defended. Taking action right away Jefferson Davis went back to his executive mansion and burned all Confederate documents about the war. Packing up his family he sent them all to Charlotte, North Carolina. Later that evening, Jefferson Davis and his entire cabinet evacuated the City of Richmond, never to return. The Confederacy would not be without a Capital though, as immediately the City of Danville, Virginia was named as the acting Capital of the Confederate States. General Robert E. Lee decided that he would withdrawal more south to hook up with General Joseph Johnson and this would have worked if not for Union General Meade blocking his way. Running out of food and supplies, Lee surrendered his army at Appomattox Station on April 9th a few days after Richmond had fallen to Union troops. The Confederates set the city on fire before they left to deny Union troops anything that they could use against the remaining Confederates. Union troops quickly put out all of the fires after the city formally surrendered. The capture of Richmond represented the long and last final scene in a terrible war. The fighting was over and now it was time for reconstruction. APPOMATTOX COURT HOUSE APRIL 9, 1865

Location: Appomattox County, Va. Date(s): April 9, 1865 Principal Commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS] Estimated Casualties: 700 total (27,805 Confederate soldiers paroled) Description: Lee's last gamble was against long odds. He had to try and link his army up with the remaining forces Joe Johnston had under his command. Perhaps if they could combine forces quickly enough, they could turn on either Grant or Sherman before the other could come to his aid.

To implement his plan, Lee set off along the line of the Appomattox River, seeking a point at which he could turn south. Grant however, kept moving his own army in a parallel course and prevented Lee from changing direction. Finally, by the time Lee reached Appomattox Court House, and not finding rations that were supposed to be waiting for him, saw that Grant had succeeded in cutting off any further retreat. Lees army was now surrounded on three sides. On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Grant. Importance: Ended the American Civil War Chapter 15 The States at War Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse Grant allowed Confederate soldiers to keep their ____________________. Other Confederate units surrendered soon

thereafter. pp. 301-304 Problems in the South during the Civil War 1._____________of currency 2.Decreased need for __________ 3.Shortage of many items RESULTS OF CIVIL WAR 1. ______________________- creation of a single unified country 2. _____________________Slavery 3. Made the Federal Government Supreme - increased power of the federal government killed the issue of states rights 4. Industrial growth of the North - U.S. now an industrial nation

5.Destroyed the Souths _______________- South was economically and physically devastated, with the plantation system crippled 6. Legacy of hate - Deep hatred of the North THE TEN COSTLIEST BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR BASED ON TOTAL CASUALTIES (KILLED, WOUNDED, MISSING, AND CAPTURED) #10 Battle of Fort Donnellson Casualties: 19,455 (2,832 Union and 16,623 Confederate) #9 Battle of Shiloh Casualties: 23,741 (13,047 Union and 10,694 Confederate) #8 Battle of Stones River Casualties: 24,645 (12,906 Union and 11,739 Confederate) #7 Battle of Second Manassas Casualties: 25,251 (16,054 Union and 9,197 Confederate) #6 Battle of the Wilderness Casualties: 25,416 (17,666 Union and 7,750 Confederate)

#5 Battle of Antietam Casualties: 26,134 (12,410 Union and 13,724 Confederate) #4 Battle of Spotsylvania Casualties: 27,399 (18,399 Union and 9000 Confederate) #3 Battle of Chancellorsville Casualties: 30,099 (17,278 Union and 12,821 Confederate) #2 Battle of Chickamauga Casualties: 34,624 (16,170 Union and 18,454 Confederate) #1 Battle of Gettysburg Casualties: 51,112 (23,049 Union and 28,063 Confederate) Chapter 15 The States at War pp. 301-304 President Lincoln was assassinated by ______________________less than a

week after the war ended. President Lincoln and his wife were at ______________________to see a play.

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