203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Child

203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Child

203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Child Sexual Abuse Certification Series 203: Overview of Child Sexual Abuse 203: Sexuality of Children: Healthy Sexual Behaviors and Behaviors Which Cause Concern 203: Working with Juveniles Who Sexually Offend 203: Family Reunification and Case Closure The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 2 Learning Objectives Define the purpose and goals of an investigation into child sexual abuse Assess safety threats and risk factors in child sexual abuse investigations Know how to plan the logistics of an investigation, including issues of timing, location,

sequencing, and teaming with other professionals in the form of multi-disciplinary teams Know the stages of the interview and the methods to be used in interviewing alleged victims, non-offending parents, alleged perpetrators, and collateral contact The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases Understand the dynamics involved in child sexual 3 Agenda on Day One Introductions and Agenda Overview of Investigative Interviewing Investigative Logistics and Teaming Beginning and Introductions Stage Questioning and Clarification (Work) Stage The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 4

How I Learned to Drive LIL BIT: Sometimes to tell a secret, you first have to teach a lesson -Quote from How I Learned to Drive by Paula Vogel The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 5 Complexity of Child Sexual Abuse The young age of a child and their difficulty expressing what occurred/how they are feeling Family taboos on teaching formal names of sexual /private body parts The fact that there is usually little physical evidence and no witnesses Denial by the victim, perpetrator, or family members, especially in cases of incest, that sexual abuse could happen in their family

Intimidation or manipulation of the child and/or non-offending parent by the perpetrator The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 6 Complexity of Child Sexual Abuse (continued) The defendants right to face their accuser Family pressures and issues, including drug and alcohol use, lack of supervision, etc. Discomfort with the topic of sex and sexual abuse Often has no physical evidence Generally progressively more intrusive over time Prior negative experiences during investigations or anticipation of such Sense of intruding into family space Multi-generational/extended family patterns of sexual abuse The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center

203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 7 Complexity of Child Sexual Abuse (continued) Difficulty believing that an adult could obtain sexual gratification from a child, especially in the judicial system Inability to cope with what happened to the child The loss of trust they feel toward the perpetrator and questioning if anyone can be trusted Blaming of the child for the incident Dealing with multiple people/entities The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases This information is adapted from Child Abuse and Exploitation: Improving Investigations and Protecting Victims, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, January 1995.

8 Amended CPSL Definition of Perpetrator A person who has committed child abuse as defined in this section. The following shall apply: 1. The term includes only the following: i. ii. iii. iv. A parent of the child A spouse or former spouse of the childs parent A paramour or former paramour of the childs parent A person 14 years of age or older and responsible for the childs welfare v. An individual 14 years of age or older who resides in the same home as the child vi. An individual 18 years of age or older who does not reside in the same home as the child but is related within the third degree of consanguinity or affinity by birth or adoption to the child The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center

203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 9 Amended CPSL Definition of Perpetrator (continued) 2. Only the following may be considered a perpetrator for failing to act, as provided in this section: i. A parent of the child ii. A spouse or former spouse of the childs parent iii. A paramour or former paramour of the childs parent iv. A person 18 years of age or older and responsible for the childs welfare v. A person 18 years of age or older who resides in the same home as the child The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 10

Amended CPSL Definition of Sexual Abuse or Exploitation 1. The employment, use, persuasion, inducement, enticement or coercion of a child to engage in or assist another individual to engage in sexually explicit conduct, which includes, but is not limited to, the following: i. Looking at the sexual or other intimate parts of a child or another individual for the purpose of arousing or gratifying sexual desire in any individual ii. Participating in sexually explicit conversation either in person, by telephone, by computer or by a computer-aided device for the purpose of sexual stimulation or gratification of any individual iii. Actual or simulated sexual activity or nudity for the purpose of sexual stimulation or gratification of any individual iv. Actual or simulated sexual activity for the purpose of producing visual depiction, including photography, videotaping, computer depicting or filming.

This paragraph does not include consensual activities between a child whoResource is 14Center years of age or older another person whoAbuse Cases The Pennsylvania Child Welfare 203: and Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual 11 is 14 years of age or older and whose age is within four years Amended CPSL Definition of Sexual Abuse or Exploitation (continued) 2. Any of the following offenses committed against a child, as defined in 18 Pa. C.S.:

i. Rape ( 3121) ii. Statutory sexual assault ( 3122.1) iii. Involuntary deviate sexual intercourse ( 3123) iv. Sexual assault ( 3124) v. Institutional sexual assault ( 3124.1) vi. Aggravated indecent assault ( 3125) vii. Indecent assault ( 3126) viii. Indecent exposure ( 3127) ix. Incest ( 4302) x. Prostitution ( 5902) xi. Sexual abuse ( 6312) xii. Unlawful contact with a minor ( 6318) xiii. Sexual exploitation ( 6320) 23 Pa. C.S. 6303. Definitions The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 12 Scope of Investigation

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 13 Investigative Goals The investigation is a detailed fact-finding process with primary goals of: 1. Assessing immediate safety threats and ongoing risk to the child 2. Maximizing information obtained about the alleged incident 3. Gathering evidence to support the findings 4. Minimizing trauma to the child 5. Maintaining the integrity of the investigative process 6. Determining whether the allegation of child sexual abuse is substantiated 7. Developing and implementing a plan to protect the child The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

14 Activity Record three important skills or qualities an investigative interview must possess. What skills do they need to have related to those roles? The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 15 A Successful Interviewer 1. Possesses a sense of professionalism and takes responsibility for conducting an effective and fair interview/investigation 2. Uses effective listening skills, including active listening

3. Employs detailed observation skills 4. Is able to rapidly establish rapport with any individual with whom they come in contact, regardless of cultural differences or the interviewers personal feelings 5. Maintains self-control while establishing empathy with interviewees 6. Has intricate knowledge of the laws and regulations affecting child abuse 7. Confronts inconsistencies while gaining cooperation The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases with the safety plan 16 Definitions of Interview Types Investigative Interview A directed conversation between an investigator and a subject in order to gather information about an incident, identifying individuals and resources necessary to assure child safety Forensic Interview

Narrowly-defined interview process between a specially-trained law enforcement official or interviewer which uses a specific order to the interview process, concentrating on obtaining information relating to evidence and prosecution The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 17 Definitions of Interview Types (continued) Therapeutic Interview Clinical interview concerned with a childs perceptions of events and how the events affected the child. Typically conducted by mental health professionals or counselors, focusing on helping the child navigate the healing process The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

18 Additional Resources Article for accidental v. sexual abuse-related hymenal injury photographs Child Abuse & Neglect: Sexual Abuse (June 16, 2006) by Angelo P. Giardino MD, PhD http:// www.emedicine.com/ped/topic2649.htm Forensic interviewing and certification: National Associate of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers http://www.naccfi.com The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 19 Mary Referral Script Participants will be playing the role of a screener who takes referrals or screens them out for referral to other agencies or

organizations. You receive a call at approximately 10:30 AM. What questions would you ask to determine if this is a valid referral? Refer to Handout #4 (The Mary Referral) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 20 Reporting to ChildLine Mandated reporters are required to report directly and immediately to ChildLine when they have reasonable cause to suspect a child is victim of abuse. The CPSL was amended to require staff members of institutions to report directly to ChildLine rather than to a person in charge of the institution. Mandated reporters can file an electronic report of suspected child abuse online. These reports can be made through the Child Welfare Portal. Do you want to learn more? Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse: Mandated and

Permissive Reporting in Pennsylvania (PACWRC) 23 Pa. C.S. 6311. Persons required to report suspected child abuse The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 21 Receipt of Reports by a CCYA When a report is made directly to a CCYA and not ChildLine, after ensuring the safety of the child and any other child in the childs home, the CCYA must immediately notify the department of the report. If the report was given over the phone, the CCYA must attempt to collect as much of the information listed in the contents of report as possible and submit information to the department within 48 hours by written report or by electronic technologies. The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

23 Pa, C.S. 6334. Disposition of complaints & 23 Pa. C.S. 6313. Reporting procedure 22 When a Health Care Provider Makes a Report Involving an Infant Ensure the safety of the child immediately See the child within 48 hours of receipt of the report Contact the parents of the child within 24 hours of receipt of the report Provide necessary services for the child 23 Pa. C.S. 6386. Mandatory reporting of children under one year of age The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

23 Reporting Scenario #1 Andrea is a volunteer at a music program sponsored through the YMCA where she regularly provides piano lessons. One of the children, Jessy, tells Andrea that her mother regularly touches her brother, Bryan, down there. In this instance is Andrea required to report? Why? The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 24 Reporting Scenario #2 Glenn, from a local CCYA,

interviewed Mr. Kelley, a school teacher. Mr. Kelley told Glenn that yesterday he reported an incident of suspected child sexual abuse to his principal. He did not identify the child to Glenn. This conversation occurred after December 31, 2014. How should Glenn respond? Why? The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 25 Definitions of Safety and Risk Safety a condition of being free from immediate harm (See OCYF Bulletin #3490-06-01, effective 3/15/06, Safety Assessment and Planning Process.)

Risk danger of future harm to the child (See OCYF Bulletin #3490-97-01, effective July 1, 1997, Risk Assessment Policies and Procedures.) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 26 Stages of the Interview Process 1. Preparation Stage 2. Beginning and Introductions Stage 3. Questioning and Clarification Stage 4. Ending and Transitions Stage The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center

203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 27 Exclusions to Child Abuse Environmental factors Practice of religious beliefs Use of force for supervisions, control or safety purposes Rights of parents Participation in events that involve physical contact with a child Child-on-child contact Defensive force 23 Pa. C.S. 6304. Exclusions from child abuse The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 28 Definition of Culture

Culture represents the vast structure of behavior, ideas, attitudes, values, habits, beliefs, customs, language, rituals, ceremonies, and practices peculiar to a particular group of people. It provides them with: 1. A general design for living 2. Patterns for interpreting reality Culture determines how we see the world and the way we see the world is reflected in our behavior. The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 29 Sequencing of Interviews Best practice indicates that, after obtaining information from the referral source, interviews should occur in the following order: 1. The identified child 2. The siblings and/or other children 3. The non-offending parent

4. The alleged perpetrator 5. Collateral witnesses: other family members/others to whom the child may have disclosed (e.g., a friend or school teacher) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 30 Location of Interviews Find a room/area where distractions can be minimized Place observers behind the child/interviewee Interview a child before the medical examination (while child is fully clothed) Have law enforcement officers in plain clothes with weapons concealed Faller, K., Child Sexual Abuse: Intervention and Treatment Issues. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, National The Pennsylvania Center Center onChild

ChildWelfare Abuse Resource and Neglect. The Circle Inc., McLean, VA,203: Subcontract S105-89-1730 Investigative Interviewing (1993). in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 31 Electronic Recording Interviews of alleged child abuse victims and witnesses are often the primary source of evidence It is critical that investigative interviews with children are completely and accurately documented Documentation of interview includes:

Childs exact verbal statements Emotions/behaviors exhibited by the child Questions posed by the interviewer Behavioral interactions of the interviewer This avoid future challenges that the interviewer The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases manipulated the childs verbal reports 32 Advantages of Electronic Recording A means to decrease the number of interviews Reduce the number of court appearances Reduces the trauma that multiple interviews may cause children due to their experience of abuse

American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) Advocates for electronic recordings as the most comprehensive and accurate method of documentation The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases Russel, 2011 33 Tender Years Act Scramble Instructions (42 Pa. C.S.A. 5985.1, Admissibility of certain statements) Allows for an out-of-court statement by the child, age 12 or younger, admissible in any criminal proceeding relating to sexual offenses if the evidence is relevant and the child testifies or is unavailable as a witness Unscramble the cards from your envelope to

complete a sentence The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 34 Interviewing Tools Crayons and paper Puppets Dolls Play Dough Toy Telephones Body Parts Drawing

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 35 Family Tree for the Doe-Davis Family Married 13 Years Grandpa Doe Separated 8 Years Paternal Grandfather Age 62 Whereabouts Unknown Regina

(Doe) Smeltz Melvin Doe, Sr. Paternal Aunt Age 37 Father Age 35 Grandma (Finch) Doe Paternal Grandmother Deceased 14 years ago Married 8 Years Divorced

Melvin Doe, Jr. Key = Male = Female = Child = Married Brother Age 15 = Separated 9th Grade Placed at YDC = Divorced The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center Katherine (McCauley) Doe Davis

Married 7 Years Mary Doe Mike Doe Child Age 8 3rd Grade Lives with Katherine & John Half-Brother Age 6 1st Grade Lives with Katherine & John John Mack Davis

203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 36 Activity: Rules of the Interview Its okay for you to ask questions Tell me if you don't know the answer to a question Ask if you don't know what something means I may ask you something more than one time Tell me if you dont like something I say or do I want to help you and your family Tell me if I get something wrong Written and Revised by The Institute for Human Services for the Pennsylvania Child Welfare Competency-Based Training and Certification Program. 203 Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 37

Childrens Communication Sequencing #1 My mom said if I put my dolls in the closet and my toys in the box, she'll buy me a present. So I did, and she took me to Wal-Mart, and we looked at kid's stuff, and I picked ribbons. #2 See my ribbons. I just got them. They're new. My mom said they make me look pretty. All of us kids have to clean up our room. It's called our chores. Mom says kids need to do chores because everybody has to do their part and when you do your part your mom is happy with you. The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 38 Activity Label a lined sheet of paper with the following, leaving spaced between each label: Containment Focused listening Reaching into silences

Individually record at least one example of each on your paper and one way you can improve your use of the skill when you return to work. The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 39 Stages of the Interview Process 1. Preparation Stage 2. Beginning and Introductions Stage 3. Questioning and Clarification Stage 4. Ending and Transitions Stage The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center

203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 40 Incorporating The Six Domains Identification of Safety Threats D O C U M E N T A T I O N Protective

Capacities Analysis Safety Decision I N F O R M A T I O N G A T H E R I N

G Safety Plan The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 41 Incorporating the Six Domains Who are the caretakers in the home? Have we seen all the children? Wo else (family or community) can be of help? What action is required right now? How does this affect my plan for the next 60 days? The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 42

Agenda on Day 2 Interviewing the Non-Offending Parent Interviewing the Alleged Perpetrator Interviewing Collaborative Witnesses Making Decisions in Case Planning Closing and Evualuation The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 43 Reasons a Child May Purposefully Disclose Threat to safety removed or lessened Threat to safety is heightened Household/Relationship changes Maturation/Ability to fight back Direct conversation The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center

203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 44 Critical Thinking Skills Comprehension: Gather Information Whats the situation? Whats the challenge? What facts and information are relevant? What is the relevant law, policy? Analysis: Compare/Contrast What is the context? What has changed? What remains the same?

Are there any cause/effect relationships affecting this? How does this issue relate to other cases or past history? What differentiates this case? Synthesis: Plan and Implement What are you options? Which option do you propose? What are your prioritized alternatives? What actions will you take?

What results do you expect? Predictions: the What If? The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center Evaluation: Revisit and Readjust What result(s) did the action(s) produce? What happened as predicted? What was unexpected? What needs to change/continue? What is the next step? 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 45 Critical Thinking Skills (continued)

Comprehension: Gather Information Whats the situation? Whats the challenge? What facts and information are relevant? What is the relevant law, policy? Analysis: Compare/Contrast What is the context? What has changed? What remains the same? Are there any cause/effect relationships affecting this? How does this issue relate to other cases or past history? What differentiates this case?

Synthesis: Plan and Implement What are you options? Which option do you propose? What are your prioritized alternatives? What actions will you take? What results do you expect? Predictions: the What If? The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center Evaluation: Revisit and

Readjust What result(s) did the action(s) produce? What happened as predicted? What was unexpected? What needs to change/continue? What is the next step? 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 46 Critical Thinking Skills Activity Think of a case that you are currently working on or that you have worked on recently. Apply the Comprehension: Gathering Information and Analysis: Compare/Contrast steps involved in critical thinking to your case Use the questions as a guide

Turn to a partner and share your experience with the application of the two components of critical thinking skills. The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 47 Thinking Errors I am the mother in this household. I may do what I want with my child. I am responsible for educating my son. I am teaching him about sexuality. I am a man with strong sexual desires. She is available for me to use in this way. I asked her if it felt good to her; I was careful not to hurt her. He never said he didnt want to do it. I never

did anything he didnt want me to. The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 48 Thinking Errors (continued) I told her we are all sinners; we all have problems and I asked her if she wanted to see what my problem was. Oral sex doesnt count; it isnt cheating. My wife doesnt mind. She doesnt want to give me head so I had her little girl do it. At least I wasnt committing adultery by going outside the marriage. A stiff dick has no conscience. The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

49 Activity Each table will be assigned one of the following topics: Preparation Stage Beginning and Introductions Stage Questioning and Clarification Stage Ending and Transitions Stage Alleged Perpetrator is Non-Family Member Discuss and record how interviewing the alleged perpetrator differs from interviewing the other subjects of the report (child, parents, etc. The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center

203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 50 Common Sex Offender Assessment Areas: Sexual history Offense specific information (criminal history, type of child preferred) Sexual fantasy activity Levels of anger or hostility The sexual knowledge of the alleged

perpetrator Levels of empathy Levels of social skills Cognitive distortions Department of Public Welfare, 2013 The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 51 Delay of Notification According to the amended CPSL (2014):

6368 (l) Notice of Investigation 1. Prior to interviewing a subject of a report, the county agency shall orally notify the subject, except for the alleged victim, who is about to be interviewed of the following information: i. The existence of the report ii. The subjects rights under 42. Pa. C.S. (relating to right to counsel) and 6338 (relating to other basic rights) iii. The subjects rights pursuant to this chapter in regard to amendment or expungement iv. The subjects right to have an attorney present during the interview 2. Written notice shall be given to the subject within 72 hours following oral notification, unless delayed as provided in subjection (m). 6368 (m) Delay of notification The notice may be reasonably delayed, subject to the following: 3. If the notification is likely to: i. Threaten the safety of a victim, a subject of the report who is not a perpetrator or the investigating county agency worker

ii. Cause the perpetrator to abscond iii. Significantly interfere with the conduct of a criminal investigation 4. The written notice shall be provided to all subjects of the report prior to the county agency reaching a finding on the validity of the report. The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 52 Interviewing Alleged Perpetrators Interview: A meeting at which information is obtained from a person Should be conducted in a location that affords privacy and no interruption or distractions Non-accusatory in design and nature The interviewee may or may not be formally charged with any crime If not in custody, is free to leave at will Miranda Warnings are required if suspect is in custody Are not limited in time (within reason); they take as much

time as needed to discuss the information needed Any written statements given by the person being interviewed are done on an Affidavit in Fact form if interview is conducted by or in conjunction with law enforcement At this time, the alleged perpetrator may give an alibi that can be verified or disproved through the investigation The Pennsylvania ChildBill Welfare Center Adapted from Lieutenant Walsh,Resource Dallas Police Department 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases Walters, S.M. (2002). Working with the non-offending caregiver. APRI Update, 15(11). Alexandria, VA: American Prosecutors Research Institute, 53 National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse. Assuring the Childs Safety 1. A safety plan should be developed which will

address appropriate visitation between the child and the alleged perpetrator. 2. If the alleged perpetrator will not voluntarily leave the home, the child welfare professional will need to remove the child (and probably the siblings). This would be traumatic for the child 3. The perpetrator is encouraged to think of the child's needs, not his or her own The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 54 Act 55 Family finding shall be conducted when the child is accepted for services and at least annually thereafter, until the child's involvement with the county agency is terminated or one of the following criteria about the child is met: Dependent and the court determines that

continued family finding threatens childs safety or is not in childs best interest. Not dependent and the agency determines that continued family finding threatens childs safety. In pre-adoptive placement with court proceedings. The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 55 Collaboration with Other Agencies Pertinent statutes and regulatory guidelines include: Chapter 6, Title 63 Domestic Relations, CPSL 6368 Investigation of reports. CPS regulations 55 Pa. Code, Chapter 3130.44 (c) Confidentiality of family case records Juvenile Act 6311 (b)(2)(Powers and duties)

Juvenile Act 6336 (f) (Discretion of the Court) The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Resource Center 203: Investigative Interviewing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases 56

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